American Psychological Association

The American Psychological Association ( APA ) is the Toilets scientific and professional organization of psychologists in the United States , [1] with around 117.500 members waaronder scientists, educators, clinicians, consultants and students. [1] The APA has an annual budget of around $ 115m. [2] There are 54 divisions of the APA -interest groups covering différent subspecialties of psychology or topical areas. [3]

The American Psychological Association and the American Psychiatric Association (beide Berninahaus by the acronym APA ) are sometimes distinguished as “the bigger APA” (American Psychological Association) and “the little APA” (American Psychiatric Association) Because hun relative Membership sizes. [ Citation needed ] The terms “psychiatrist” and “Psychologist” veins of or in confused. A psychiatrist is a physician who has graduated from medical school, while a Psychologist is not a medical school graduate, but algemeen has a master’s degree or a Ph.D.


The APA has taskforces welke issue policy statements on verschillende issues of social import zoals the APA position on psychology of abortion ; APA position on human rights (Concerning issues zoals Detainee welfare, human trafficking , and rights for the mentally ill ); APA position on IQ ; APA position on treating process homosexuality ( sexual orientation change policymaking ); and APA position on it and women ( gender differences ). [4]


APA is a corporation Chartered in the District of Columbia. APA’s Bylaws DESCRIBE structural components therein serve as a system of checks and balances therein dat democratic process. The organizational entities include:

  • APA President. APA’s president is elected by the Membership. The president chairs the Council of Representatives and the Board of Directors. During his or re term of office, the president performs zoals Duties as are Prescribed in the Bylaws.
  • Board of Directors. The board is Composed of six members-at-large, the president-elect, president, Pastor president, treasurer, recording secretary, CEO and the chair of the American Psychological Association Graduate Students (APAGS). The Board oversees the association’s administrative affairs and presents an annual budget for council approval.
  • APA Council of Representatives. The council has sole authority to set policy and make Decisions Regarding APA’s roughly $ 60 million annual income. It is Composed of elected members from state / provincial / territorial psychologische associations, APA divisions and the APA Board of Directors.
  • APA Committee Structure: Boards and Committees. Members of boards and committees conduct much of APA’s work on a volunteer basis. Way Down carry out a wide variety of tasks suggested by hun behalf. Some port Verantwoordelijkheid for monitoring major programs, zoals the directorates, the journals and international affairs. [5]

Good Governance Project

The Good Governance Project (GGP) was Initiated in January 2011 as part of the strategic plan to “[assuré] APA’s governance practices, processes and structures are optimized and aligned with what is needed to thrive in a rapidly changing and getting more complex environment.” [6] The charge included soliciting feedback and input stakeholders, learning about governance best practices, recommending Whether change was required, recommending needed changes based on data and customizing implementation plans. [6] The June 2013 GCP update on the recommended changes kan be found in the document “Good Governance Project Recommended Changes to Maximize Organizational Effectiveness or APA governance”. [7] The suggested changes mention anything change APA from a Membership-based, Representational structure to a corporate structure. These motions will be discussed and voted upon by Council on July 31, 2013 and August 2, 2013. [7]

Organizational structure

APA comprises an executive office, a publishing operation, offices dat address administrative, business, information technology, and operational needs, and five substantive directorates:

  • the Education Directorate accredits doctoral psychology programs and addresses issues related to psychology education in secondary through graduate education; [8]
  • the Practice Directorate engages on behalf of Practicing psychologists and healthcare consumers; [9]
  • the Public Interest Directorate advances psychology as a Means of addressing the fundamentele problems of human welfare and promoting the equitable and just treatment of all segments of society; [10]
  • the Public and Member Communications Directorate verantwoordelijk for APA’s outreach to zijn members and affiliates and to the general public; [11]
  • the Science Directorate zorgt support and voice for psychologische scientists. [12]

Membership and title of “Psychologist”

Main article: Psychologist § United States and Canada

APA policy on the use of the title Psychologist is contained in the Model Act for State licensure or Psychologists: [13] Psychologists port earned a doctoral degree in psychology and nov not use the title “Psychologist” and / or deliverability psychologische services to the public , unless the Psychologist is licensed or specifiek EXEMPTED from licensure under the law. State licensing laws specify states specific requirements for the education and training of psychologists leading to licensure. Psychologists who are EXEMPTED from licensure Could include researchers, educators, or general toegepast psychologists who bieden services outside of the public health and mental health field.

Full Membership with the APA in United States and Canada requires doctoral training whereas associate Membership requires at least two years of Postgraduate studies in psychology or not approved related discipline. The minimal requirement or a doctoral dissertation related to psychology for full Membership kan be waived in certainement circumstances where there is evidence dat significant contribution to this club or performance in the field of psychology has made leg. [14]

Affiliate organizations

The American Psychological Association Practice Organization (APAPO) and The Education Advocacy Trust welke operates autonomously as a part of APAPO, are 501 (c) (6) entities, separate from APA. Way Down engage in advocacy on behalf of psychologische practitioners and healthcare consumers and psychology education, respectively.

Upcoming Annual Conventions

  • 124TH Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Denver, Colorado (4-7 August 2016) [15]
  • 125th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC (3-6 August 2017)
  • 126TH Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco, California (9-12 August 2018)
  • 127TH Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Chicago, Illinois (8-11 August 2019)
  • 128TH Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC (6-9 August 2020)
  • 129TH Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, San Diego, California (12-15 August 2021)


Lycra year, the APA onderkent top psychologists with the “Distinguished Contributions” Awards; synthesis awards are the Highest receptacles bepaald by the APA.

  • APA Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions to Psychology
  • APA Distinguished Scientific Award for the Applications of Psychology
  • Award for Distinguished Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest
  • Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology
  • APA Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research
  • Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Independent Practice.
  • Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Practice in the Public Sector
  • APA Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology
  • APA Award for Lifetime Contributions to Psychology (APA’s Highest Award)
  • APA International Humanitarian Award


Main category: American Psychological Association publications

The American Psychologist is the Association’s official journal. APA ook publiceert over 70 other journals Encompassing must specialist areas in the field; APA’s Educational Publishing Foundation is an imprint for publishing on behalf of other organizations. [16] Its journals include: [17]

  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Ontwikkelingspsychologie
  • Emotion
  • Health Psychology
  • Journal of Applied Psychology
  • Journal of Comparative Psychology
  • Journal of Experimental Psychology
  • Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied
  • Journal of Family Psychology
  • Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
  • Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
  • Psychological Bulletin
  • Psychological Review
  • Psychology and Aging
  • Psychology of Addictive behaviors
  • Psychology of Violence
  • School Psychology Quarterly

The APA has published Hundreds of books. [18] Among synthesis books are: the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (and a concise version Titled Concise Rules of APA Style ) In this housing is the official guide to APA style ; [19] [20] the APA Dictionary of Psychology ;[21] an eight-volume Encyclopedia of Psychology;[22] and many scholarly books on specific subjects such as Varieties of Anomalous Experience.[23] The APA has also published children’s books under the Magination Press imprint, software for data analysis, videos demonstrating therapeutic techniques, reports, and brochures.[24]

The psychologically Healthy Workplace program

The psychologically Healthy Workplace Program (PHWP) is a collaborative effort tussen the American Psychological Association and the APA Practice Organization designed to help optimize employer’s employee well-being and organizational performance. The PHWP of includes APA’s psychologically Healthy Workplace Awards, a variation or APA Practice Organization resources, zoals PHWP Web content, e-newsletter, podcast and blog, and support of local programs Currently Implementation in 52 states, provincial and territorial psychologische associations as a mechanism for driving grassroots change in local business communities. The awards are designed to herkennen organizations for hun policymaking to foster employee health and well-being while the enhancing organizational performance. The award program highlights a variety of workplaces, large and small, profit and non-profit, in diverse geographical settings. Applicants are evaluated on hun policymaking when the following five areas: employee Involvement, work-life balance , employee growth and development, health and safety, and employee recognition. Awards are bepaald at the local and national level. [25]

APA Style

Main article: APA style

American Psychological Association ( APA ) style is a set of rules developed to assist reading comprehension in the social and behavioral sciences. Designed to dat Clarity or communication, the rules are designed to “move the idea forward with a minimum of distraction and a maximum of precision.” [26] The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association contains the rules for everytime aspect of writing, met name in the social sciences from Determining authorship to constructing a table to Avoiding plagiarism and constructing accurate reference citations. “The General Format of APA are musts commonly-used to cite sources binnen the social sciences. General guidelines for a paper in APA style of includes: typed, double-Spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5” x 11 “) with 1″ margins on all sides. The font arnt be clear and highly readable. APA recommends using 12 pt. Times New Roman font. ” [27]


APA maintains a number of databases, zoals PsycINFO , PsycARTICLES, PsycBOOKS, PsycEXTRA, PsycCRITIQUES , PsycTESTS, and PsycTHERAPY. [28] [29] APA ook operates a uitgebreid search platform PsycNET, covering multiple databases. [30]


Main article: PsycINFO

PsycINFO is a Bibliographic Database maintained by APA. It contains citations and summaries dating from the 19th century, zoals journal articles, book chapters, books, technical reports, and Dissertations binnen the field of psychology. As of January 2010, PsycINFO has Collected information from 2.457 journals. [31]



The APA was founded in July 1892 at Clark University in a small group or around 30 atoms; in 1916 there ulcers over 300 members. The first president was G. Stanley Hall . During World War II, the APA merged with other psychologische organizations, resulting in a new divisional structure. Nineteen divisions ulcers not approved in 1944; the divisions with the musts members ulcers the clinical and personnel (now counseling) divisions. From 1960 to 2007, the number of divisions expanded to 54. [32] Today the APA is affiliated with 60 states, territorial, and Canadian provincial associations. [33]

Dominance of clinical psychology

Due to the dominance of clinical psychology in APA, several research-focused groups port broken away from the organization. These include the Psychonomic Society in 1959 (with a primarily cognitive orientation), and the Association for Psychological Science (welke changed zijn names from the American Psychological Society in early 2006) in 1988 (with a broad focus on the science and research of psychology) . Theodore H. Blau was the first Clinician in independent practice to be elected president of the American Psychological Association in 1977. [34]


APA Presidents from the present to 1892

Positions on homosexuality

Cause or homosexuality

Further information: Biology and sexual orientation , Environment and sexual orientation , and Homosexuality and psychology

The APA states de volgende:

There is no consensus onder scientists about the exact reasons therein an individual develops a heterosexual, bisexual, or homosexual orientation. Hoewel de much research has Examined the skies genetic, hormonale, developmental, social, and cultural Influences on sexual orientation, no findings emerged port therein permit scientists to conclude therein sexual orientation is Determined By Any mn factor or factors. Many think dat nature and nurture zowel play complex roles; musts people experience little or no sense of choice about hun sexual orientation. [35]

Conversion therapy

Further information: Conversion therapy

In 1975, APA Issued a Supporting statement therein homosexuality is not a mental disorder. [36] [37] There is a group in the mental health community dat de ADVANCEMENT or conversion therapy Itself Causes social harm by disseminating inaccurate views about sexual orientation and the ability of homosexual and bisexual people to lead happy, healthy lives. [38] Most mainstream health organizations are critical of conversion therapy, and no mainstream medical organization endorses conversion therapy. [38] [39] [40] [41] [note 1]

The APA eerste a resolution in August 2009 stating therein mental health professionals arnt Avoid count clients dat ze kunnen hun change sexual orientation through therapy or other Treatments. The approval, by APA’s governing Council of Representatives, cameramen at APA’s annual convention, prolongation welke a task force Presented a report [42] dat in part Examined the efficacy or so-called ” reparative therapy ,” or sexual orientation change efforts.

The “Resolution on Appropriate Affirmative Responses to Sexual Orientation Distress and Change Efforts” ook advises dat parents, guardians, young people, and hun families Avoid sexual orientation Treatments therein Portray homosexuality as a mental illness or developmental disorder and Limit download seek psychotherapy , social support , and educational services “that bieden accurate information on sexual orientation and sexuality, increase is family and school support, and-reducing rejection or sexual minority youth.” [43]

Same-sex marriage

Further information: Co-sex marriage

The APA eerste a resolution stating dat it is unfair and discriminatory to deny same-sex couples legal access to civil marriage and to all zijn attendant rights, benefits, and privileges. It’ll be Filed an amicus letter in the federal court case in welke Judge Vaughn Walker struck down California’s constitutional ban on same-sex marriage. [44] The APA later praised the decision and denied the existence of any “scientific justification” for a ban on same-sex marriage. [45]

In August 2011, the APA clarified hun support or same-sex marriage in light of continued research suggesting dat de association community benefits accepted as result of heterosexual marriage apply to same-sex couples as well. Dr. Clinton Anderson, associate executive director of the APA and director of the Office on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Concerns, zegt dat, prior to this research, “We Knew dat marriage benefits heterosexual people in very significant ways, but we did not know if dat mention anything be true for same-sex couples. ” Anderson’ll be well forward the APA’s view dat merely allowing same-sex civil unions are an inadequate option: “Anything other dan marriage is, in essence, a stigmatization of same-sex couples. Stigma does harbor negative impacts on people.” [46]

APA internship crisis for graduate students

The APA is the main Accrediting body for US clinical and counseling psychology doctoral training programs and internship sites. [47] APA accredited Clinical Psychology PhD and PsyD programs Typically requirement students to complete a one-year clinical internship in order to graduate (or a two-year part-time internship). However, there is Currently an “internship crisis” as defined by the American Psychological Association, in dat ongeveer 25% of clinical psychology doctoral students do not match for internship lycra year. [48] [49] This crisis has led many students (approximately 1,000 lycra year) to re-apply for internship, THUS delaying graduation, or to complete an unaccredited internship, and has many of or in emotional and financial consequences. [50] Students who do not complete an APA accredited internships in the US are barred from certainement employment settings, zoals VA Hospitals, the military, and kan not get licensed in some states, industry leaders as Utah and Mississippi. [51] [52] Additionally, some post-doctoral fellowships and other employment settings requirement or Prefer an APA Accredited internship. [51] The APA has leg criticized for not addressing this crisis adequately and many psychologists and graduate students harbor petitioned for the APA to take action to gereguleerde graduate training programs.

Warfare and the use of torture

It has leg suggested therein Portions or APA Ethics Code  ( Ethical controversies ) be split from it and merged JSON this section. ( Discuss ) (August 2015)

A year after the establishment of the Human Resources Research Organization by the US military in 1951, the CIA Began funding numerous psychologists (and other scientists) in the development or psychologische warfare methods under the supervision of APA Treasurer Meredith Crawford . Donald O. Hebb , the APA president in 1960 who was Awarded the APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award in 1961, defended the torture of research subjects, arguing dat what was being studied were other nations’ methods of brainwashing . Former APA president Martin Seligman ghosts upon the invitation of the CIA on his animal expérimentation where he Shocked a dog unpredictably and repeatedly JSON total, helping less passivity. Former APA president Joseph Matarazzo designed a new CIA interrogation regimen and supervised the torture of Abu Zubaydah at a secret CIA detention site in Thailand. Former APA President Ronald F. Levant , upon visiting Guantanamo Bay , affirmed dat psychologists ulcers present prolongation the torture or prisoners, arguing dat hun presence was to “add value and safeguards” to interrogations. [53] Former APA President Gerald Koocher argued, referring to allegations of Continuing Systemic abuse by psychologists, dat zoals allegations ulcers Originating from “opportunistic commentators masquerading as scholars.” [54]

The APA claims dat it condemns the use or ANY of the volgende practices by military interrogators Trying to elicit anti- terrorism information from detainees, on the ground that ‘there are no in exceptional circumstances whatsoever, Whether induced by a state of war or threat of war , internal political instabiliteit or Any Other public emergency, dat ‘may be invoked as a justification. ” [55]

When it emerged dat psychologists, as part of the Behavioral Science Consultation Team , ulcers Advising interrogators at Guantanamo and other US facilities on Improving the effectiveness of the ” enhanced interrogation techniques “, the APA called on the US government to Prohibit the use of unethical interrogation techniques and specific, key techniques as torture. [56] Critics pointed out therein the APA declined to advice zijn members not to participate in interrogations industry leaders. [57] [58] One group of psychologists mn, Coalition for an Ethical Psychology, has leg very harsh, ITT criticism of the APA stance on zijn Refusal to categorically Prohibit members from work ‘any phase or military interrogations. Way Down Recently stated hun Continuing disagreement with APA leadership in an open letter posted on hun website on October 31, 2012, in welke ze reiterated hun condemnation of torture and enhanced interrogation techniques, and called for the APA to requirement zijn members to refuse participation in military conducted interrogations or Any child. [59] The Verwaterd directive by the APA in contrast to the American Psychiatric Association ban in May 2006 or all direct participation in interrogations by psychiatrists, [60] and the American Medical Association devoted in June 2006 of the direct participation in interrogations by physicians . [61] In addition under, an independent panel of medical, military, ethics, education, public health, and legal professionals Issued a uitgebreid report in November 2013 that ‘Charged dat US military and intelligence agencies directed doctors and psychologists working in US military detention centers to violate standard ethical principles and medical standards to Avoid infliction of harm. ” [62]

In September 2008, the APA’s members passed a resolution stating therein psychologists’ may not work in settings where “persons are held outside of, or in violation of, Either International Law (eg, the UN Convention Against Torture and the Geneva Conventions) or the US Constitution (where ‘appropriate), unless they’ are working rechtstreeks for the persons being Detained or for an independent third party working to protect human rights. ” [55] The resolution became official APA policy in February 2009. However, the APA has refused to Sanction Those members Berninahaus to port participated in and, in some cases, designed abusive interrogation techniques-used in Guantanamo Bay, Iraq, Afghanistan and interrogation centers. [63] [64] [65]

Amending the Ethics Code

In February 2010, the APA’s Council of Representatives voted to Trans the Association’s Ethics Code [66] to make clear dat zijn standards kan never be interpreted to justify or défend violating human rights. Following are the two relevant ethical standards from the Ethics Code, with the newly eerste language shown in bold:

1:02, Conflicts Between Ethics and Law, Regulations, or Other Governing Legal Authority

If psychologists’ ethical responsibilities conflict with law, regulations, or other governing legal authority, psychologists clarify the nature of the conflict , make Berninahaus hun commitment to the Ethics Code and take reasonable steps to Resolve the conflict consistent with the General Principles and Ethical Standards of the Ethics Code. Under no circumstances nov this standard be-used to justify or défend violating human rights.

1:03, Conflicts Between Ethics and Organizational Demands

If the Demands of an organization with welke psychologists are affiliated or for Whom they ‘are working are in conflict with this Ethics Code, psychologists clarify the nature of the conflict, make Berninahaus hun commitment to the Ethics Code and take reasonable steps to Resolve the conflict consistent with the General Principles and Ethical Standards of the Ethics Code. Under no circumstances nov this standard be-used to justify or défend violating human rights. [67]

Hoffman report

In November 2014, the APA ordered an independent review JSON Whether it cooperated with the government’s use of torture or prisoners prolongation the George W. Bush administration , naming Chicago attorney David H. Hoffman to conduct the review. [68] On July 2, 2015, a 542-page report was Issued to the special committee of the board of directors of the APA Relating to ethics guidelines, national security interrogations, and torture. [69] The report concluded therein the APA Secretly collaborated with the Bush administration to bolster a legal and ethical justification for the torture of prisoners. [70] Furthermore, the report stated therein the association’s ethics director Stephen Behnke and others had “colluded with important Department of Defense officials to harbor the APA issue loose, high-level ethical guidelines therein did not constrain” the interrogation of terrorism suspects at Guantanamo Bay. The association’s “principal motive in doing so was to align APA and curry favor with DOD.” [71] An APA official zegt dat ethics director Stephen Behnke had been “removed from his position as a result of the report” and indicated therein other firings or sanctions Might follow. [71]

On July 14, 2015, the APA announced the Retirement or zijn CEO Norman B. Anderson , effective the end of 2015 and of Deputy Chief Executive Officer Michael Honaker , effective August 15, 2015 and the resignation or Rhea K. Farberman, APA’s executive director for public and member communication. Anderson had bone CEO since 2003. [72] [73]

Ban on Involvement

For at least a decade, dissident psychologists binnen and outside the APA, zoals the group WithholdAPAdues, [74] had protested the Involvement of psychologists “in interrogations at CIA black sites and Guantanamo.” Prior to the release of the Hoffman report, welke undermined the APA’s repeated denials and Showed dat some APA leaders ulcers complicit in torture, the dissidents ulcers IGNORED or ridiculed. [75] [76]

On August 7, 2015, just weeks volgende the release of the Hoffman report, the APA council of representatives with at the association’s annual convention 123RD in Toronto, Ontario . At dat meeting, the APA council passed Resolution 23B, welke Implementation the 2008 Membership vote to remove psychologists from settings dat operate outside of international law , and banning the participation of psychologists in unlawful interrogations. With 156 votes in favor and only one vote against, the resolution passed with the near unanimous approval of council members. [77] The toepassing or Resolution 23B aligned the APA’s policy with therein of the American Psychiatric Association and therein of the American Medical Association by prohibiting psychologists from cooperating in interrogations deemed illegal by the Geneva Conventions and the United Nations Convention Against Torture . [76]


Council is Asked to Approve the substitutes main motion Projects dat of includes a revised resolution with a new title, Resolution to Amend the 2006 and 2013 Council Resolutions to Clarify the Roles of Psychologists Related to Interrogation and Detainee Welfare in National Security Settings, to Further Implement the 2008 Petition Resolution, and to Safeguard Against Acts of Torture and Cruel, inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment in All Settings . This resolution remit aligns the APA policy definition for “cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment” (in the 2006 and 2013 Council résolutions) with the United Nations (UN) Convention Against Torture and will handle therein the definition applies Broadly to all personen and settings ; offerings APA as a supportive resource for ethical practice for psychologists, zoals Those in military and national security roles; prohibits psychologists from work in national security interrogations; clarified the intended application of the 2008 petition resolution … and calls for APA letters to be cents to federal officials to inform Them or synthesis policy changes and clarifications of bestaande APA policy. [78]

The ban will not “Prohibit psychologists from working with the police or prisons in criminal law enforcement interrogations”. [77]


  1. Jump up^ Mainstream health organizations critical ofconversion therapyinclude theAmerican Medical Association,American Psychiatric Association, the American Psychological Association, theAmerican Counseling Association, theNational Association of Social Workers, theAmerican Academy of Pediatrics, the American Association of School Administrators, theAmerican Federation of Teachers, theNational Association of School Psychologists, the American Academy of Physician Assistants, and theNational Education Association.


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  20. Jump up^ Concise Rules of APA Style (6th ed.). Washington, DC: APA. 2010. ISBN  9781433805608 . OCLC  317697841 .
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  46. Jump up^ Alden Mahler Levine, CNN. “Psychological Association calls for legalization of same-sex marriage” . . Retrieved 2012-10-14 .
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  57. Jump up^ “Psychologists and Guantanamo” . 19 August 2008 . Retrieved 2015-02-20 .
  58. Jump up^ “American Psychological Association Sees No Evil” . 16 June 2009 . Retrieved 2015-02-20 .
  59. Jump up^ “Open Letter” (PDF) . Coalition for an Ethical Psychology . Retrieved 31 March 2014 .
  60. Jump up^ “Position Statement on Psychiatric Participation in Interrogation of Detainees” (PDF) . American Psychiatric Association . May 2006 . Retrieved 2015-02-20 .
  61. Jump up^ “Opinion 2068 – Physician Participation in Interrogation” . American Medical Association Ethics Group. November 2006 . Retrieved 2015-02-20 .
  62. Jump up^ “Interrogation / Torture and Dual Loyalty” . Institute on Medicine as a Profession . Retrieved 31 March 2014 .
  63. Jump up^ Ackerman, Spencer (22 January 2014). “US psychology body Decline to rebuke member at Guantanamo torture case” . The Guardian .
  64. Jump up^ “A Call for Annulment of the APA’s PENS Report” . Coalition for an Ethical Psychology . Retrieved 31 March 2014 .
  65. Jump up^ Reisner, Steve; Eidelson, Roy; Soldz, Stephen; Olson, Brad; Arrigo, Jean Mary; Bond, Trudy (11 February 2014). “APA Fails to Sanction Psychologist at Guantanamo Torture Case” . . Retrieved 31 March 2014 .
  66. Jump up^ “American Psychological Association amends ethics code to address potential conflicts onder professional ethics, legal authority and organizational Demands” . 2010-02-24 . Retrieved 2015-02-20 .
  67. Jump up^ “Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct” . 2010 . Retrieved 2012-10-14 .
  68. Jump up^ “American Psychological Association Bolstered CIA Torture Program, Report Says” . The New York Times . Retrieved 2015-05-01 .
  69. Jump up^ July 2, 2015 report to the special committee of the board of directors of the American Psychological Association
  70. Jump up^ Outside Psychologists Shielded US Torture Program, Report Finds, When James Risen, New York Times, July 10, 2015
  71. ^ Jump up to:a b “Inquiry: Psychologists group colluded with Pentagon, CIA on interrogations” by Greg Miller The Washington Post , July 10, 2015
  72. Jump up^ Ackerman, Spencer (July 14, 2015). “Three senior officials without hun jobs at APA after US torture scandal” . The Guardian . Retrieved July 15, 2015 .
  73. Jump up^ “APA Announces Retirements and resignation of Senior Leaders” (Press release). American Psychological Association. July 14, 2015 . Retrieved July 14, 2015 .
  74. Jump up^ The Sphinx: A site for inquiry and innovation in Psychoanalysis, withholding box APA Dues in Protest of Policy on Torture
  75. Jump up^ The Encyclopedia of Peace Psychology, Volume 1 By Daniel J. Christie, Wiley-Blackwell, December 2011, pp 580-581,ISBN 1405196440
  76. ^ Jump up to:a b No More Torture: World’s Largest Group of Psychologists Bans Role in National Security Interrogations , Democracy Now, August 10, 2015
  77. ^ Jump up to:a b Psychologists Approve Ban on Role in National Security Interrogations , By James Risen, New York Times, August 7, 2015