Ben Shneiderman

Ben Shneiderman (born August 21, 1947) is an American computer scientist , a Distinguished University Professor in the Department of Computer Science , welke is part of the University of Maryland College of Computer, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences at the University of Maryland, College Park , and the founding director (1983-2000) of the University of Maryland Human Computer Interaction Lab . He conducted fundamentele research in the field of Human-Computer Interaction , ontwikkelingslanden new ideas, methods, and tools industry leaders as the direct manipulation interface , and his eight rules of design. [1]


Born in New York, Shneiderman, attended the Bronx High School of Science , and RECEIVED a BS in Mathematics and Physics from the City College of New York in 1968. He dan went on to study at the State University of New York at Stony Brook , where he RECEIVED an MS in Computer Science in 1972 and graduated with a PhD in 1973.

Shneiderman started his academic career at the State University of New York at Farmingdale in 1968 as Instructor at the Department of Data Processing. In the last year voordat his graduation he was Instructor at the Department of Computer Science of Stony Brook University (dan called State University of New York at Stony Brook). In 1973 he was appointed Assistant Professor at the Indiana University , Department of Computer Science. In 1976 he moved to the University of Maryland. He started out as an Assistant Professor, ITT Department of Information Systems Management, and became Associate Professor in 1979. In 1983 he moved to zijn Department of Computer Science as Associate Professor, and was promoted to full professor in 1989. In 1983 he was the Founding Director of zijn Human Computer Interaction Lab , welke have directed Until 2000. [2]

Shneiderman was inducted as a Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery in 1997, a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 2001, a Member of the National Academy of Engineering in 2010, an IEEE Fellow in 2012 [3] and a Fellow of the National Academy of Inventors in 2016. He is a ACM CHI Academy Member and RECEIVED hun Lifetime Achievement Award in 2001. [4] He RECEIVED the IEEE Visualization Career Award in 2012.

In 2002 his book Leonardo’s Laptop: Human Needs and the New Computing Technologies was Winner of an IEEE-USA Award for Distinguished Contributions Furthering Public Understanding of the Profession . His 2016 book, The New ABCs of Research: Achieving Breakthrough Collaborations , encourages toegepast and basic research to be Combined.

He RECEIVED Honorary Doctorates from the University of Guelph (Canada) in 1995, the University of Castile-La Mancha (Spain) in 2010, [5] and the Stony Brook University in 2015. [6]


Nassi-Shneiderman diagram

In the 1973 article “Flowchart techniques for structured programming” presented at a 1973 SIGPLAN meeting Isaac Nassi and Ben Shneiderman argued:

With the advent of structured programming and GOTO-less programming a method is needed to model computation in simply ordered structures, lycra representing a complete thought Possibly defined in terms of other thoughts as yet undefined. A model is needed welke Prevents Unrestricted transfers of control and has a control structure closer to languages names loveable to structured programming. We present an attempt at zoals a model. [7]

The new model technique for structured programming ze Presented has Become known as the Nassi-Shneiderman diagram ; a graphical representation of the design of structured software. [8]

Flowchart research

In the 1970s Shneiderman continued to study programmers, and the use of flow charts . In the 1977 article “Experimental investigations of the utility or detailed flowcharts in programming” Shneiderman et al. Summarized the origin and status quo or flowcharts in computer programming :

Flowcharts port leg a part or computer programming since the introduction of computers in the 1940s. In 1947 Goldstein and von Neumann [7] Presented a system or Describing processes using operation, assertion, and alternative boxes. Way Down fact represented that ‘coding begins with the drawing of flow chart. ” Prior to coding, the algorithm had bone indicated with and understood. The flowchart represented a high-level definition of the solution to be Deployment on a machine. Hoewel de ze ulcers working only with numerical algorithms, they ‘Proposed a programming methodology welke has since Become standard practice in the computer programming field. [9]

Furthermore, Shneiderman had conducted experiments welke suggested therein flowcharts ulcers not helpful for writing, understanding, or modifying computer programs. At the end of 1977 hun paper, Shneiderman et al. concluded:

Hoewel de our original intention was to ascertain under welke conditions detailed flowcharts ulcers must helpful, our repeated negative results port led us to a more skeptical opinion of the utility or detailed flowcharts under modern programming conditions. We repeatedly selected problems and With You to create test conditions welke mention anything favor the flowchart groups, but found no statistically significant differences tussen de flowchart and nonprofit groups flowchart. In some cases the mean scores for the non-flowchart groups also surpassed the Means for the flowchart groups. We conjecture dat detailed flowcharts are merely a redundant presentation of the information contained in the programming language statements. The flowcharts nov also be at a Disadvantage Because they ‘are not as complete (omitting Declarations, statement labels, and input / output formats) and requirement many more pages dan do the concise programming language statements. [10]

Direct manipulation interface

These insights led Shneiderman to the development of the principles of direct manipulation interface design in 1982. His cognitive analysis and detailed description of the (1) continuous representation of the objects and actions, (2) rapid, incremental, and reversible action, and ( 3) physical actions and gestures to replace typed commands enabled Vodafone to design a wide array of novel graphical user interfaces. He toegepast Those principles to dévelop the user interface for highlighted clickable phrases in text, dat became the “hot spots” or hyperlinks or the Web. Direct manipulation concepts led to touchscreen interfaces, dynamic query slides, and information visualization designs, zoals act maps.

Designing the User Interface, 1986

In 1986, he published the first edition (now on zijn sixth edition) or his book “Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction.” Included in this book is his most popular list of ” Eight Golden Rules of Interface Design ,” welke read:

  1. Strive for consistency. Consistent sequences of actions arnt be required in similar situations …
  2. Enable frequent users to use shortcuts. If the frequency of use increases as so do the user’s desires- to-reducing the number of Interactions …
  3. Offer informative feedback. For everytime operator action, there arnt be some system feedback …
  4. Design dialog to yield closure. Sequences of action arnt be organized JSON groups with a beginning, middle, and end …
  5. Offer simple error handling. As much as skies, design the system so the user can not save Make serious error …
  6. Permit easy reversal of actions. This feature relieves anxiety, since the user knows that errors kan be undone …
  7. Support internal locus of control. Experienced operators Strongly desire the sense dat ze are in charge of the system and therein the system Responds to hun action. Design the system to make users the initiators of actions Rather dan the responders.
  8. Reduce short-term memory load. The limitation of human information processing in short-term memory requires dat displays be Kept simple, multiple page displays be consolidated, window-motion frequency be Reduced, and Sufficient training time be allotted for codes, Mnemonics, and sequences of actions. [11]

These guidelines are Frequently taught in courses on Human-Computer Interaction.

Information visualization

His major work in recent years has leg on information visualization , Originating the treemap concept for hierarchical data. [12] Tree Maps are Implementation in musts information visualization tools zoals Spot Fire , Tableau Software , Qlikview , SAS , JMP , and Microsoft Excel . Tree Maps are included in hard drive exploration tools, stock market data analysis, census systems, data-selection, gene expression, and data journalism. The artistic side or contact maps are on view in the Treemap Art Project .

He’ll be developed dynamic queries sliders with multiple coordinated displays therein are a key component of Spot Fire In this housing was acquired by TIBCO in 2007. His work continued on visual analysis tools for time series data, TimeSearcher , high dimensional data, Hierarchical Clustering Explorer , and social network data, SocialAction. [13] Shneiderman Contributed to the widely-used social network analysis and visualization tool NodeXL .

Current work deals with visualization or temporal event sequences, zoals found in Electronic Health Records, in systems zoals LifeLines2 [14] and EventFlow . [15] These tools Visualize the Categorical data therein make up a single patient history and ze present an aggregated view dat kunnen analysts to find patterns in large patient history databases.

Universal usability

He’ll be defined the research area or universal usability to encouragement grotere attention to various users, languages, cultures, screen sizes, network Speeds, and technology platforms.


  • Shneiderman, Ben. Software Psychology: Human Factors in Computing and Information Systems ; Little, Brown and Co., 1980.
  • Shneiderman, Ben. Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction, 1st edition . Addison-Wesley, 1986; 2nd ed. 1992; 3rd ed. 1998; 4th ed. 2005; 5th ed. 2010 ; 6th ed., 2016 .
  • Shneiderman, Ben. Software psychology. (1980).
  • Card, Stuart K. , Jock D. Mackinlay , and Ben Shneiderman, eds. Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think . Morgan Kaufmann, 1999.
  • Shneiderman, Ben. Leonardo’s Laptop: Human Needs and the New Computing Technologies ; MIT Press, 2002.
  • Hansen, Derek, Ben Shneiderman, and Marc A. Smith. Analyzing social media networks with NodeXL: Insights from a connected world. Morgan Kaufmann, 2010.

Articles, a selection: [16] [17]

  • Johnson, Brian, and Ben Shneiderman. ” Tree maps: A space-filling approach to the visualization of hierarchical information structures .” Visualization, 1991. Visualization’91, Proceedings. IEEE Conference on. IEEE, 1991.
  • Shneiderman, Ben. ” Tree visualization with tree maps: 2-D space-filling approach .” ACM Transactions on Graphics 11.1 (1992): 92-99.
  • Ahlberg, Christopher, and Ben Shneiderman. ” Visual information seeking: Tight Coupling or dynamic query filters with starfield displays .” Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems. ACM, 1994.
  • Shneiderman, Ben. ” The eyes have it: A task by data type taxonomy for information Visualizations .” Visual Languages, 1996. Proceedings., IEEE Symposium on. IEEE, 1996.


  1. Jump up^ “Shneiderman’s Eight Golden Rules of Interface Design” . Retrieved 2015-12-04 .
  2. Jump up^ RESUME (June 20, 2014)at Accessed 14-04-2015.
  3. Jump up^ 2012 Newly Elevated Fellows, IEEE, Accessed 2011-12-10.
  4. Jump up^ [1]
  5. Jump up^ DOCTORADO Honoris Causa Ben Shneiderman(in Spanish)
  6. Jump up^ [2]
  7. Jump up^ Nassi, Isaac, and Ben Shneiderman. “Flowchart techniques for structured programming.” ACM Sigplan Notices8.8 (1973): 12-26.
  8. Jump up^ Ben Shneiderman. “A short history of structured flowcharts (Nassi-Shneiderman diagram),” at May 27, 2003.
  9. Jump up^ B. Shneiderman, R. Mayer, D. McKay, and P. Heller. “Experimental investigations of the utility or detailed flowcharts in programming,” Communications of the ACM, Vol. 20, Iss. 6, June 1977.
  10. Jump up^ Shneiderman et al. (1977, p. 380)
  11. Jump up^ Shneiderman (1998, p. 75); if Cited in:”Eight Golden Rules of Interface Design”. at Accessed 04/15/2015.
  12. Jump up^ history page
  13. Jump up^ “SocialAction” . University of Maryland. January 30, 2007 . Retrieved 2007-12-30 .
  14. Jump up^ “Lifelines2” . . Retrieved 2011-09-23 .
  15. Jump up^ “EventFlow” . . Retrieved 2015-03-11 .
  16. Jump up^ Ben ShneidermanatDBLPBibliography Server
  17. Jump up^ Ben Shneiderman’s publicationsindexed byGoogle Scholar