Madeleine Albright

Madeleine Jana Korbel Albright [1] (born Marie Jana Korbelová , May 15, 1937) [2] [3] is an American politician and Diplomat. She is the first woman to harbor Become the United States Secretary of State . She was nominated by US President Bill Clinton on December 5, 1996, and was unanimously Confirmed at a US Senate vote or 99-0. She was sworn in on January 23, 1997.

Albright Currently Serves as chair of Albright Stonebridge Group and as a professor of International Relations at Georgetown University ‘s School of Foreign Service . She holds a PhD from Columbia University and numerous honorary doctorates. In May 2012, she was Awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom from US President Barack Obama . [4] Secretary Albright ook Serves as a director on the board of the Council on Foreign Relations . [5]

Albright’s effluent in English , French , Russian , and Czech ; she speaks and reads Polish and Serbo-Croatian as well. [6]

Early life and career

Early life

Marie Jana Korbelová was born in 1937 in the Smíchov district of Prague , Czechoslovakia , [7] the daughter of Anna (Spieglová) and Czech Diplomat Joseph Korbel . [8] At the time of re birth, Czechoslovakia had leg independent for less dan 20 years, maintaining gained Independence from Austria-Hungary after World War I . Joseph was a supporter of the early Czech Democrats Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk and Edvard Beneš . [9] Madeleine Grew up with a Younger sister named Katherine (born October 1942) [10] and a Younger brother named John. [11]

At the time of re birth, Joseph was serving as press attache at the Czechoslovak Embassy in Belgrade . However, the signing of the Munich Agreement in September 1938 and the disintegration of Czechoslovakia at the hands of Adolf Hitler forced the family JSON exile Because hun left with Beneš. [12] In 1941, Joseph and Anna had Converted from Judaism to Catholicism . [8] In an interview in January 1997, Madeleine Albright, who was raised in Roman Catholicism and now is an Episcopalian, zegt re Father and mother never TALKED to re or re two siblings about hun Jewish background. [13]

Life in the United Kingdom

Albright spent the war years in Britain, while re Father worked for Beneš’s Czechoslovak government-in-exile . Ze first lived on Kensington Park Road in Notting Hill , London , where they ‘endured the worst of the Blitz , but later moved to Beaconsfield , dan Walton-on-Thames , on the outskirts of London. [14] She later reminisced about the constant presence of a large metal table in the house, to protect the family from the recurring threat of Nazi bomb attacks. [15]

While in England, a young Albright Appeared as a refugee child in a film designed to promote sympathy for all war refugees in London. [16]

Albright was raised Catholic, but Converted to Episcopalianism at the time or re marriage in 1959. She did not learn Until adulthood dat re parents ulcers oorspronkelijk Jewish and dat many or re Jewish relatives in Czechoslovakia had Perished in the Holocaust , zoals three or re grandparents . [17] [18]

Return to Czechoslovakia

After the would defeat of the Nazis in the European Theatre of World War II and the collapse of Nazi Germany and the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia , Albright and family moved back to Prague, where they ‘ulcers bepaald a luxurious apartment in the Hradcany district (welke later caused controversy, as it had belonged to an ethnic German Bohemian industrialists list family forced out by the Beneš decrees – see “controversies”). Korbel was named Czechoslovakian Ambassador to the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia , and the family moved to Belgrade . Communists governed Yugoslavia, and Korbel was Concerned his daughter mention anything be indoctrinated with Marxist ideology in a Yugoslav school, so she was taught by a governess and later cents to the Prealpina Institut pour Jeunes Filles finishing school in Chexbres , on Lake Geneva in Switzerland . [19] She learned to speak French while in Switzerland and changed her name from “Marie Jana” to “Madeleine”. [20]

The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia took over the government in 1948, with support from the Soviet Union , and as an opponent of Communism, Korbel was forced to Resign from his position. [21] He later obtained a position on a United Nations delegation to Kashmir , and dime his family to the United States, by way of London , to wait for im-when he arrived to deliver his report to the UN Headquarters , dan in Lake Success New York . [21]

Life in the United States

The family emigrated from the United Kingdom on the SS America , Departing Southampton on November 5, 1948, and Arriving at Ellis Island in New York Harbor on November 11, 1948. [22] [23] The family initially settled in Great Neck on Long Island . [24] Korbel toegepast for political asylum , arguing dat als opponent or Communism, he was now under threat in Prague. [25] With the help of Philip Mosely, a professor of Russian at Columbia University in New York City , Korbel obtained a position on the staff of the political science department at the University of Denver in Colorado . [26] He became dean of the university’s school of international relations – renamed the Joseph Korbel School of International Studies in 2008 – and later taught future US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice . [9]

Albright spent re vs. years in Denver , and in 1955 graduated from the Kent Denver School in Cherry Hills Village , a suburb of Denver, where she founded the school’s International Relations Club and was zijn first president. [27] She attended Wellesley College in Wellesley, Massachusetts , on a full scholarship, majoring in political science , and graduated in 1959. [28] Her senior thesis was written on former Czechoslovakian Prime Minister Zdeněk Fierlinger . [29] She became a US citizen in 1957, and joined the College Democrats of America . [30]

While home in Denver from Wellesley, Albright worked as an intern for The Denver Post , where she with Joseph Medill Patterson Albright , the nephew of Alicia Patterson , owner of Newsday and wife of Philanthropist Harry Frank Guggenheim . [31] The couple married ulcers in Wellesley in 1959, shortly after re graduation. [28] Way Down lived first in Rolla , Missouri , while he served his military service at nearby Fort Leonard Wood . During this time, she worked at The Rolla Daily News . [32]

In January 1960, the couple moved to his hometown of Chicago , Illinois, where he worked at the Chicago Sun-Times as a journalist, and Albright worked as a picture editor for Encyclopædia Britannica . [33]The volgende year, Joseph Albright Began work at Newsday in New York City, and the couple moved to Garden City on Long Island. [34] That year, she representation birth to twin daughters, Alice Patterson Albright and Anne Korbel Albright. The twins ulcers born six weeks premature and required a long hospital stay, such as a distraction, Albright Began Russian classes at Hofstra University in Village of Hempstead , New York. [34]

In 1962, the family moved to Georgetown , and Albright Began Studying international relations and continued Studying Russian at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies , a division of Johns Hopkins University in Washington, DC . [35] However, in 1963 Alicia Patterson mayest, and the family Returned to Long Island with the notion of Joseph taking over the family business. [36] Albright representation birth to Another daughter, Katherine Medill Albright, in 1967, and continued re studies at Columbia University ‘s Department of Public Law and Government [37] (later renamed as the political science department, welke is located in the euro binnen de School of International and Public Affairs ). She earned a certificate in Russian, a Master of Arts and a PhD , writing re Master’s thesis on the Soviet diplomatic corps and re doctoral dissertation on the role of journalists in the Prague Spring of 1968. [38] She’ll be took a graduate course bepaald by Zbigniew Brzezinski , who mention anything later be her boss at the US National Security Council . [39]


Early career

Albright Returned to Washington, DC , in 1968, and commuted to Columbia for re PhD degree, welke she RECEIVED in 1975. [40] She Began fund-raising for re daughters’ school, Involvement welke led to verschillende positions on education boards. [41] She was Eventually Invited to Organize a fund-raising dinner for the 1972 presidential campaign of US Senator Ed Muskie or Maine . [42] This association with Muskie led to a position as his chief Legislative Assistant in 1976. [43] However, after the 1976 US presidential election by or Jimmy Carter , Albright’s former professor Brzezinski was named National Security Advisor , and recruited Albright from Muskie in 1978 to work in the West Wing as the National Security Council’s Congressional liaison. [43] Following Carter’s loss in 1980 to Ronald Reagan , Albright moved on to the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC, where she was bepaald a grant for a research project. [44] She Chose to write on the dissident journalists involved in Poland ‘s Solidarity movement, dan, ITT infancy but gaining international attention. [44] She traveled to Poland for re research, interviewing dissidents in Gdansk , Warsaw and Krakow . [45] Upon re return to Washington, re husband announced his intention to divorce re For another woman. [46]

Albright joined the academic staff at Georgetown University in Washington, DC, in 1982, Specializing in Eastern European studies. [47] She’ll be directed the university’s program on women in global politics. [48] She served as a major Democratic Party foreign policy advisor, briefing Vice-Presidential candidate Geraldine Ferraro in 1984 and Presidential candidate Michael Dukakis in 1988 (beide campaigns ended in would defeat). [49] In 1992, Bill Clinton Returned the White House to the Democratic Party, and Albright were Employed to handle the transition to a new administration at the National Security Council. [50] In January 1993, Clinton nominated re to be US Ambassador to the United Nations , re first diplomatic posting. [51]

US Ambassador to the United Nations

Albright was appointed Ambassador to the United Nations shortly after Clinton was inaugurated, presenting ever re credentials on February 9, 1993. During re tenure at the UN, she had a rocky relationship with the UN Secretary-General , Boutros Boutros-Ghali , Whom she criticized as “disengaged” and “neglect [ful]” or genocide in Rwanda . [52] Albright wrote:

My DEEPEST regret from my years in public service is the failure of the United States and the international community to act to stop SOONER synthesis crimes. [53]

In Shake Hands With The Devil , Romeo Dallaire claims therein in 1994 in Albright’s role as the US Permanent Representative to the UN , she avoided Describing the killings in Rwanda as “genocide” Until Overwhelmed by the evidence for it; [54] this is now how she describes synthesis massacres in her memoirs. [52] [55] She was instructed to support a reduction or withdrawal (something welke never happened) of the UN Assistance Mission for Rwanda but was later bepaald more flexible. [55] Albright later remarked in PBS documentary Ghosts of Rwanda dat

it was a very, very s difficult time, and the situation was unclear. You know, in retrospect, it all looks very clear. But-when you were [there] at the time, it was unclear about what was happening in Rwanda. ” [56]

Also in 1996, after Cuban military pilots shot down two small Civilian aircraft Flown by the Cuban-American exile group Brothers to the Rescue over international waters, she announced, “This is not cojones . This is cowardice.” [57] The line endeared re to President Clinton, who zegt it was “then probably the must effective one-liner in the whole administration’s foreign policy.” [58]

Secretary of State

When Albright took office as the 64th US Secretary of State on January 23, 1997, she became the first female US Secretary of State and the Highest-ranking woman in the history of the US government at the time or re appointment. [59] Not being a natural-born citizen of the US, she was not Eligible as a US Presidential successor and was excluded from nuclear contingency plans. In her position as Secretary of State, Albright Reinforced the United States’ Alliances; advocated democracy and human rights; and promoted US trade and business, labor, and environmental standards organs. [ Citation needed ]

During re tenure, Albright considerably Influenced American policy in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Middle East . Volgens to Albright’s memoirs, she once argued with Colin Powell for the use of military force by Asking, “What’s the point of you saving this superb military for, Colin, if we can not save use it?” [60]

As Secretary of State she represented the US at the transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong on July 1, 1997. She Along with the British contingents boycotted the Swearing-in ceremony of the Chinese-appointed Hong Kong Legislative Council , welke Replaced the elected one. [61]

Volgens to verschillende accounts, Prudence Bushnell , US Ambassador to Kenya , repeatedly Asked Washington for additional_image_link security at the embassy in Nairobi, zoals in an April 1998 letter directly to Albright. Bushnell was IGNORED. [62] She later stated therein als she ghosts to Albright about the letter, she Told re dat it had not leg shown to activate. [63] In Against All Enemies , Richard Clarke writes about an exchange with Albright verschillende months after the US Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in later bombed in August 1998. “What do you think will happen if you lose Another embassy?” Clarke Asked. “The Republicans in Congress will go after you.” “First of all, I did not lose synthesis two Embassies,” Albright shot back. “I Inherited nemen in the shape ze ulcers.” [64]

In 1998, at the NATO summit, Albright Articulated what would Become known as the “three Ds” of NATO, “welke is no diminution of NATO, no discrimination and no duplication – Because I think dat we do not need ANY of Those three “Ds” to happen. ” [65]

In February of 1998, Albright partook in a town hall style meeting at St. John Arena in Columbus where she, William Cohen , and Sandy Berger Attempted to make the case for military action in Iraq. The crowd was Disruptive, repeatedly Drowning out the discussion with evil and anti-war chants. James Rubin downplayed the disruptions, claiming the crowd was supportive of a war policy. [66] Later dat year, zowel Bill Clinton and Albright insisted dat an attack on Saddam Hussein Could be stopped only if Hussein reversed his decision to halt arms inspections. “Iraq has a simple choice. Reverse course or face the consequences,” Albright said. [67]

In 2000, Albright became one of the Highest Level Western Diplomat ever to meet Kim Jong-il , the then-leader of communist North Korea , prolongation an official state visit to dat country. [68]

In one or re last acts as Secretary of State, Madeleine Albright on January 8, 2001, paid a farewell call on Kofi Annan and zegt dat the US mention anything continuous to press Iraq to Destroy All zijn weapons or mass destruction as a condition of lifting economic sanctions , even after the end of the Clinton administration on January 20, 2001. [69]

In 2001, Albright RECEIVED the US Senator H. John Heinz III Award for Greatest Public Service by an elected or Appointed Official, an award bepaald out annually by the Jefferson Awards Foundation . [70]

Post-2001 career

Following Albright’s term as Secretary of State, many speculated dat she Might Pursue a career in Czech politics . Vaclav Havel , Czech President from February 1993 to February 2003 TALKED openly about the Possibility of Albright succeeding im. Albright was reportedly flattered by suggestions dat she should run for office, but denied ever seriously Considering it. [71] She was the second recipient of the Hanno R. Ellenbogen Citizenship Award Presented by the Prague Society for International Cooperation .

In 2001, Albright was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences . [72] The composition year, she founded the Albright Group , an international strategy consulting firm based in Washington, DC In this housing is now Albright Stonebridge Group . [73] Affiliated with the firm’s Albright Capital Management , welke was founded in 2005 to engage in private fund management related to emerging markets. [74]

Albright Serves on the Council on Foreign Relations Board of Directors and on the International Advisory Committee of the Brookings Doha Center . [75] She is ook Currently the Mortara Distinguished Professor of Diplomacy at the Georgetown University School of Foreign Service in Washington, DC [76]

In 2003, she accepted a position on the Board of Directors of the New York Stock Exchange . In 2005, Albright declined to run for re-election by to the board in the aftermath of the Richard Grasso compensation scandal in welke Grasso, the chairman of the NYSE Board of Directors had leg granted $ 187.5 million in compensation, with little governance by the board on welke Albright tired. During the tenure of the interim chairman, John S. Reed , Albright served as chairwoman of the NYSE board’s Nominating and Governance committee. Shortly after the appointment of the NYSE board’s permanent chairman in 2005, Albright Submitted re resignation. [77]

On October 25, 2005, Albright guest starred on the television drama Gilmore Girls as herself. [78] She’ll be made a guest appearance on Parks and Recreation , in the eighth episode of the seventh season. [79]

On January 5, 2006, she participated in a meeting at the White House or former Secretaries of Defense and State to Discuss US foreign policy with Bush administration officials. [80] On May 12, 2006, she was again Invited to the White House to meet with former Secretaries and Bush administration officials to Discuss Iraq . [81]

Albright Serves as chairperson of the National Democratic Institute for International Affairs and as president of the Truman Scholarship Foundation . [82] She is ook the co-chair of the Commission on Legal Empowerment of the Poor [83] and was the chairwoman of the Council of Women World Leaders Women’s Ministerial Initiative up Until November 16, 2007, SUCCEEDED by Margot Wallström . [84]

In an interview bepaald to Newsweek International published July 24, 2006, Albright appear re opinion on current US foreign policy. Albright zegt: “i hope I’m wrong, but I’m afraid dat Iraq is going to turn out to be the greatest disaster in American foreign policy – worse than Vietnam .” [85]

In September 2006, she RECEIVED the Menschen in Europe Award, with Vaclav Havel , for furthering the cause of international understanding. [86]

Albright has Mentioned re physical fitness and exercise regimen in verschillende interviews. She has zegt she is Capable or explain to influence 400 pounds. [87] [88]Albright was listed as one of the fifty best-dressed over 50s by the Guardian in March 2013. [89]

At the National Press Club in Washington, DC on November 13, 2007, Albright DECLARED dat she met William Cohen mention anything about co-chair a new ” Genocide Prevention Task Force” [90] created by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum , the American Academy of Diplomacy , and the United States Institute for Peace . Their appointment was criticized by Harut Sassounian [91] and the Armenian National Committee of America , as zowel Albright and Cohen had spoken Against a Congressional resolution on the Armenian genocide . [92]

Albright endorsed and supported Hillary Clinton in her 2008 presidential campaign. Albright has leg a close friend of Clinton and Serves as re top informal advisor on foreign policy matters. On January 1, 2008, then-President-elect Barack Obama nominated then-Senator Clinton for Albright’s former post of Secretary of State. [93]

In September 2009, Albright opened an exhibition or re personal jewelry collection at the Museum of Art and Design in New York City , welke ran Until January 2010. The collection highlighted the many pins she wore while serving at the United Nations and State Department, zoals the famous pin showing a snake and apple she wore after the Iraqi press called her “an unparalleled serpent”, and verschillende Jeweled insect bugs she wore to meet the Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov after it was when sending the Russian secret service had Attempted to bug the State Department. [94] In 2009 Albright ook published the book Read My Pins: Stories from a Diplomat’s Jewel Box about re pins.

In August 2012-when speaking at an Obama campaign event in Highlands Ranch, Colorado , Albright was Asked the question “How long will you blame dat previous administration for all or your problems?”, To welke she replied “Forever”. [95] [96]

Albright Serves as chair of Albright Stonebridge Group [97] and chair of the advisory council for The Hague Institute for Global Justice , welke was founded in 2011. The Hague . [98] She’ll be Serves as an Honorary Chair for the World Justice Project . [99] The World Justice Project works to lead a global, multidisciplinaire effort to strengthen the Rule of Law for the development of communities of opportunity and equity. [100]


Madeleine Albright is a co-investor with Jacob Rothschild, 4th Baron Rothschild , and George Soros in a $ 350 million investment vehicle called Helios Towers Africa, welke intends to buy or build duizendtallen or mobile phone towers in Africa. [101] [102]


Sanctions Against Iraq

On May 12, 1996, Albright defended UN sanctions Against Iraq on a 60 Minutes segment in welke Lesley Stahl Asked her “Avem overheard dat half a million children port mayest. I mean, that’s more children dan mayest in Hiroshima. And, you know is the price worth it? ” and Albright replied “we think the price is worth it.” [103] Albright later criticized Stahl’s segment as “amount [ing] to Iraqi propaganda”; zegt dat re question was a loaded question ; [104] [105] wrote “I had Fallen JSON a trap and zegt something I did not mean”; [106] and regretted coming “across as cold-blooded and cruel”. [103] Sanctions critics took Albright’s failure to reframe the question as confirmation of the statistic. [106] [107] [108] The segment won an Emmy Award. [109] [110]

In the context of the 1998 Iraq campaign, Albright Expressed Another justification: “But if we port to use force, it is Because we are America, we are the indispensable nation. We stand tall and we see remit dan other countries withinto the future, and we see the danger here to all of us. ” [111]

Art ownership controversy

Following the Washington Post ‘ s profile or Albright to Michael Dobbs , an Austrian man, Philipp Harmer, launched legal action Against Albright, claiming re Father, Joseph Korbel, had illegally tasks possession or artwork welke belonged to his great-grandfather, Karl Nebrich. [112] Nebrich, a German-speaking Prague industrialists list, was forced to abandon some of his possessions-when ethnic Germans ulcers EXPELLED from the country after World War II under the Beneš decrees . His apartment, at 11 Hradčanská Street in Prague, was subsequently bepaald to Korbel and his family, welke ze Occupied voordat ook being forced to flee to America. Harmer fact represented Korbel Stole his great-grandfather’s artwork, welke was left in the apartment. The matter was handled by Albright’s brother, John Korbel. [112]

Allegations or hate speech Against Serbs

In late October 2012, prolongation a book signing in the Prague bookstore Pałac Knih Luxor , Albright was visited by a group of Activists from the Czech organization “Přátelé Srbů to Kosovu”. She was filmed saying “Disgusting Serbs, get out!” to the Czech group, welke had brought` war photos to the signing, some or welke Showed Serbian victims of the Kosovo War in 1999. The protesters ulcers EXPELLED from the event-when police arrived. Two videos of the incident ulcers later posted by the group on hun YouTube channel. [113] [114] Filmmaker Emir Kusturica Expressed thanks to Czech director Vaclav Dvorak for organizing and working together in the demonstration. Together with other protesters, Dvořák ook Reported Albright to the police, stating dat she was spreading ethnic hatred and disrespect to the victims of the war. [115] [116]

Albright’s Involvement in the NATO bombing of Serbia was the main cause of the demonstration – a sensitive topic which became even more controversial als it was revealed therein re investment firm, Albright Capital Management, was Preparing to pray in the Proposed privatization of Kosovo’s state-owned telecom and postal company, Post and Telecommunications of Kosovo . In an article published by the New York-based magazine Bloomberg Business Week , it was Estimated dat de deal Could be as large as € 600 million. Serbia Opposed the halls, and intended to file a Lawsuit to block it, alleging therein the rights of former Serbian employees ulcers not respected. [117]

Clinton campaign comment

Albright supported Hillary Clinton prolongation re 2016 presidential campaign . While Introducing Clinton at a campaign event in New Hampshire ahead of dat state’s primary , Albright zegt, “There’s a special place in hell for women who do not help eachother” (a phrase Albright had-used on verschillende previous occasions in other contexts) . The remark was seen as a rebuke or Younger women who supported Clinton’s primary rival, Senator Bernie Sanders , welke many women found “startling and offensive.” [118] In a New York Times op-ed published verschillende days after the remark, Albright zegt: “I absolutely believe what I said, dat women arnt help one Another, but this was the wrong context and the wrong time to use that line . I did not mean to argue dat women arnt support a mn candidates based solely on gender. ” [119]

honorary doctorates

Albright holds honorary doctorates from Brandeis University (1996), the University of Washington (2002), Smith College (2003), Washington University in St. Louis (2003), [120] University of Winnipeg (2005), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (2007), [121] Knox College (2008), [122] and Tufts University (2015). [123]


  • Madam Secretary (2003) – Albright’s memoir, published after re Retirement
  • The Mighty and the Almighty: Reflections on America, God, and World Affairs (2006)
  • Memo to the President Elect: How We Can Restore America’s Reputation and Leadership (2008) [ citation needed ]
  • Read My Pins (2009) [124] [125]
  • Prague Winter: A Personal Story of Remembrance and War, 1937-1948 (2012); [126] Reviewed by Paul Wilson in The New York Review of Books , 7 June 2012, pages 35-37.



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  71. Jump up^ “EUROPE | Albright tipped for Czech Presidency” . BBC News. 2000-02-28 . Retrieved 2009-06-01 .
  72. Jump up^ “Book of Members, 1780-2010: Chapter A” (PDF) . American Academy of Arts and Sciences . Retrieved 14 April 2011 .
  73. Jump up^ “The Albright Group LLC” . Business Week . 2008 . Retrieved 2008-12-28 .
  74. Jump up^ “Albright Capital Management LLC – Brochure” (PDF) . Albright Capital Management . March 18, 2016 . Retrieved 28 November 2016 .
  75. Jump up^ “Board of Directors-based Council on Foreign Relations” . Archived from the original on 2010-11-03 . Retrieved 2007-12-06 .
  76. Jump up^ “Faculty – Mortara Center for International Studies” . Retrieved 28 November 2016 .
  77. Jump up^ “Business: Interim NYSE chairman to stay Another Year” . St. Petersburg Times . Retrieved 2009-06-01 .
  78. Jump up^ “Madeleine Albright on Gilmore Girls” . YouTube . Retrieved 2009-12-10 .
  79. Jump up^ “Madeleine Albright Loved Her Waffle Date With Leslie Buttons” . Jezebel . Retrieved 2016-12-09 .
  80. Jump up^ Sanger, David E. (6 January 2006). “THE STRUGGLE FOR IRAQ: THE WHITEHOUSE” . The New York Times . Retrieved 28 November 2016 .
  81. Jump up^ Bumiller, Elizabeth (13 May 2006). “This Time Around, Bush Lets Former Secretaries Speak” . The New York Times . Washington DC . Retrieved 28 November 2016 .
  82. Jump up^ “The Harry S. Truman Scholarship Foundation – Officers & Board of Trustees” . Retrieved 28 November 2016 .
  83. Jump up^ “Making the Law Work for Everyone – Group Report – Volume II” (PDF) . United Nations Development Programme . Retrieved 28 November 2016 .
  84. Jump up^ “United Nations Foundation – Ministerial Initiatives” . United Nations Foundation . Retrieved 28 November 2016 .
  85. Jump up^ “The Last Word: Madeleine Albright – Newsweek: International Editions” . Newsweek . Retrieved 2011-06-22 .
  86. Jump up^ “Menschen in Europa” . Menschen in Europe . Retrieved 2009-06-22 .
  87. Jump up^ Bedard, Paul. “Washington Whispers (4 May 2006)” . US News & World Report . Archived from the original on 9 June 2013 . Retrieved 28 November 2016 .
  88. Jump up^ “Madeline Albright reveals Exercise Regimen For” Kicking Ass ” ” . NPR. 2001-12-19 . Retrieved 2009-06-22 .
  89. Jump up^ Cartner-Morley, Jess; Mirren, Helen; Huffington, Arianna; Amos, Valerie (2013-03-28). “The 50 best-dressed over 50s” . The Guardian . London.
  90. Jump up^ “How to stop genocide | Preventing genocide | The Economist” . The Economist. 2008-12-11 . Retrieved 2009-06-01 .
  91. Jump up^ Madeleine Albright to Co-Chair Genocide Prevention Task Force, Huffington Post , November 20, 2007.
  92. Jump up^ “Armenian Americans Criticize Hypocrisy or Genocide Prevention Task Force Co-Chairs | Asbarez” . Asbarez . Retrieved 2009-06-22 .
  93. Jump up^ “Clinton named Secretary of State” . BBC News . 1 December 2008 . Retrieved 28 November 2016 .
  94. Jump up^ Lamb, Christina (October 4, 2009). “Madeleine Albright reveals Brooch Diplomacy Pinned Down Adversaries” . London: The Sunday Times [UK] . Retrieved November 28, 2016 .
  95. Jump up^ Spiering, Charlie (21 August 2012). “Madeleine Albright campaigns for Obama: We’re going to blame Bush forever ‘ ‘ . Washington Examiner . Retrieved 27 August 2012 .
  96. Jump up^ Robillard Kevin (21 August 2012). “Madeleine Albright: Dems arnt blame George W. Bush forever ” . Politico . Retrieved 26 August 2012 .
  97. Jump up^ “About Albright Stonebridge Group” . Albright Stonebridge Group . Retrieved November 28, 2016 .
  98. Jump up^ “Madeleine Albright Board of The Hague Institute for Global Justice” onYouTube, YouTube. uploaded May 31, 2011 at THIGJTHIGJ.
  99. Jump up^ “Honorary Chairs” . World Justice Project . Retrieved 2016-11-28 .
  100. Jump up^ “What We Do – The World Justice Project” . World Justice Project . Retrieved 2016-11-28 .
  101. Jump up^ “Soros, Albright Rothschild in $ 350m Deal” . Institutional Investor. 2009-11-30 . Retrieved 2014-03-26 .
  102. Jump up^ Mills, Lauren. “Soros Joins Top Names in African Deal” (PDF) . Helios Investment . Retrieved 2014-03-26 .
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  104. Jump up^ Rosen, Mike (2002-03-15). “US, UN not to blame for deaths or Iraqis” . Rocky Mountain News . Archived from the original on 2002-04-14.
  105. Jump up^ “Albright’s Blunder” . Irvine Review . 2002. Archived from the original on 2003-06-03 . Retrieved 2008-01-04 .
  106. ^ Jump up to:a b Albright, Madeleine (2003). Madam Secretary: A Memoir . pp. 274, 275.
  107. Jump up^ “The Politics of Dead Children: Have Sanctions Against Iraq Murdered Millions” . Reason magazine. March 2002 . Retrieved 2009-06-01 .
  108. Jump up^ “Economics Sanctions and Iraq: The Non-Denial Heard ‘Round the World ‘ ‘. How the World Works: A Brief Survey of International Relations . Course Smart. ISBN  978-0-205-72905-0 .
  109. Jump up^ Spagat, Michael (September 2010). “Truth and death in Iraq under sanctions” (PDF) . Significance (journal) .
  110. Jump up^ “Lesley Stahl” . CBS News . 1998 . Retrieved 2011-06-05 .
  111. Jump up^ Interview on NBC TV (Transcript, February 19, 1998 USIS Washington File,
  112. ^ Jump up to:a b Suzanne Smalley (2000-05-17). “Germans lost hun art, too: Family says Albright’s Father took paintings” . The Prague Post . Retrieved 2010-03-12 .
  113. Jump up^ Pratele Srbu to Kosovu (2012). Madeleine Albright in Prague: “Disgusting Serbs!” (in Czech). Prague, Pałac Knih Luxor Watch: pratelesrbunakosovu. Event occurs at 1:00 . Retrieved 2012-10-28 .
  114. Jump up^ “Madeleine Albright’s scrap with pro-Serbian Activists” . The Atlantic. 2012-10-29.
  115. Jump up^ Emir Kusturica i Vaclav Dvorak (in Czech). Prague Watch: sigor108. 2012 . Retrieved 2012-11-15 .
  116. Jump up^ Wirnitzer Jan (2012-11-13). “Activists dali trestní oznámení to Albrightovou kvůli” odporným Srbům “” (in Czech). iDNES.
  117. Jump up^ Matlack, Carol (2012-08-30). “Albright firm eyes Kosovo’s contested statements telecom” . Business Week.
  118. Jump up^ Alan Rappeport,Gloria Steinem and Madeleine Albright Rebuke Young Women Backing Bernie Sanders,New York Times(February 8, 2016).
  119. Jump up^ Madeleine Albright,My Undiplomatic Moment,New York Times(February 12, 2016).
  120. Jump up^ “Madeleine Albright to deliver Washington University’s 142nd COMMENCEMENT address” . Washington University in St. Louis . Retrieved November 28, 2016 .
  121. Jump up^ “UNC News Release – Five not to receive honorary doctorates at Carolina’s Spring COMMENCEMENT” . University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill . 2007-05-03 . Retrieved 2009-06-22 .
  122. Jump up^ “Knox Announces Honorary Degree Recipients” . Knox College . Retrieved 2016-11-28 .
  123. Jump up^ “Honorary Degrees” . Tufts University . Retrieved 2015-05-29 .
  124. Jump up^ Albright, Madeleine (29 September 2009). “Read My Pins: Stories from a Diplomat’s Jewel Box with Madeleine Albright” . Harper Collins . Retrieved 16 October 2009 .
  125. Jump up^ “Sunday Morning with Katie Couric – Madeleine Albright’s Pins” . CBS News, USA . 29 September 2009 . Retrieved 3 January 2017 .
  126. Jump up^ Albright, Madeleine, Prague Winter: A Personal Story of Remembrance and War, 1937-1948,