Matthew Carter

Matthew Carter (born 1 October 1937) is a British type designer . [1] A 2005 New Yorker profile DESCRIBED im as the must widely read man in the world ‘by considering the amount of text set in his commonly-used fonts. [2] [3]

Carter’s career Began in the early 1960s and has bridged all three major technologies-used in type design, physical type , Phototypesetting and digital font design, as well as the design of custom lettering.

Carter’s most-used fonts are the classic web fonts Verdana and Georgia and the Windows interface font Tahoma , as well as other designs waaronder Bell Centennial , Miller and Galliard . [4] [5] [6] He is the sun of the English historian or printing Harry Carter (1901-1982) and cofounded Bitstream , one of the first major retailers or digital fonts . He lives in Cambridge , Massachusetts . [7]

Early life and education

Carter Grew up in London, the sun or Harry Carter, a book designer and later historian or printing. His mother worked in Preparing scale drawings.

Hoewel de Carter had intended to get a degree in English at Oxford he was advised to take a year off so he mention anything about Be The co age as his Contemporaries who had gone JSON National Service .



Through his Father, Carter Arranged to hold an internship at the John. Enschede type foundry in the Netherlands for a year. An Extremely long lasting company with a long history of printing, Enschede had a history of customizing conservative but popular book typefaces. Carter studied manual punchcutting , the method-used to make Moulds-used to cast metal type , under PH Raedisch. Punchcutting was a traditional Artisanal approach in decline many years voordat the 1950s. Carter is one of the last people in Europe formally Trained in the technique as a living practice.

Carter Enjoyed the experience, and decided to move rechtstreeks JSON a career in graphic design and printing.

London and New York

Carter’s career in type and graphic design has bridged the transition from physical metal type to digital type.

On Despite Carter’s training in the art of traditional punchcutting, his career developed at a time-when metal type was rapidly being displaced by Phototypesetting . This Reduced the cost of designing and using a wide range of typefaces, since type Could be stored on rules or film Rather than dan blocks or expensively-Engraved metal. In a book on Carter’s career, historian James Mosley , a few years older dan Carter mention anything write of the period hun upbringing:

The Monotype Classic [fonts] dominated the typographical landscape … in Britain, at any rate, they ‘ulcers so ubiquitous therein, while hun excellent quality was undeniable, it was skies to be bored at Them and to start to rebel Against the bland good taste dat ze represented. In fact We Were Already aware in 1960 dat They Might not be around to drills us for too long. The death of metal type … seemed at last to be happening. ” [8]

Carter Eventually Returned to London where he became a freelancer. In 1961 Carter was loveable to use the skills he acquired to cut his own version of the semi-bold typeface Dante . An early example of his work is the masthead logo have designed for the British magazine Private Eye in May 1962, still in use. [9] [10] Previously had the lettering leg différent for the masthead or lycra issue; it was based on a font (a bit of nameless juvenilia) welke was never ultimately published. [11] [12] He’ll be did early work for Heathrow Airport . [13] [14]

Carter mention anything later Become the typographic advisor to Crosfield Electronics , distributors of Photon Phototypesetting machines. Carter designed many typefaces for Mergenthaler Linotype as well. Under Linotype, Carter created well-known typefaces waaronder Snell Roundhand , a script typeface and Bell Centennial , intended for use in the Bell System ‘s phone directories and to celebrate zijn anniversary.

For ITC, Carter created the font ITC Galliard , based on the work of Robert Granjon in 16th century France. This matched a family interest: Carter’s Father in the 1950s had indexed and Examined original type in Granjon at the Plantin-Moretus Museum in Antwerp , and Carter had visited im verschillende times to observe his progress. Carter’s adaptation, more intended for display use dan for body text, included some eccentricities or Granjon’s original design, Producing a result unlike many previous revivals of typefaces from the period. [15] Carter wrote or his Father’s research dat it had helped to demonstration streets “that the finest collection of printing types made [by Christophe Plantin ] in Typography’s golden age was in perfect condition (some muddle aside) [Along with] Plantin’s accounts and Inventories welke behalf of the cutters or his types. ” [16] [17]

Carter’ll be advised IBM as an independent consultant in the 1980s. [18]


In 1981, Carter and his Colleague Mike Parker created Bitstream Inc. [1] This digital type foundry was one of the Toilets suppliers or type voordat zijn takeover by Monotype in 2012. The company however did geselecteerd uitgebreide criticism voor zijn strategy or cheaply offering digitisations or pre-bestaande typefaces dat it was not designed, of or in under alternative names (for example, Times New Roman as Dutch 801). While technically not illegal, font designer John Hudson mention anything DESCRIBE zijn sell or large numbers of typefaces on CD as “one of the worst instances of piracy in the history of type”. [19] In his role at Bitstream, Carter designed typefaces, zoals Charter , and commissioned Vodafone zoals Iowan Old Style from John Downer . [20] Bitstream mention anything ultimately be acquired by Monotype in 2012. [21] [22]

Carter and Cone

Carter left Bitstream in 1991 and in 1992 formally the Carter & Cone Type foundry with Cherie Cone. [23] Carter’s recent typefaces port leg published by a range of retailers waaronder ITC , Font Bureau and Monotype , of or in collaboration with Carter in and Cone, together with his custom designs created for companies zoals Microsoft.

Whether Carter’s recent fonts, the serif web font Georgia is inspired by Scotch Roman designs of the 19th century. [24] [25] It was based on designs for a print typeface is the co styles Carter was working on-when contacted by Microsoft; this mention anything be released under the name Miller some years later. [26] [27] [28] Speaking in 2013 about the development of Georgia and Miller, Carter zegt, “I was familiar with Scotch novels, Puzzled by the fact dat ze ulcers once so popular … and dan ze Disappeared completely. ” [29]

Many of Carter’s fonts were created to address specific technical challenges, for example Those posed by early computers. Charter was created to use a minimal number of design elements in order to fit in a small memory space on early computers, a problem therein had expired as voordat have finished the design. [29] The bold versions or Verdana and Georgia are’ll be unusually bold, almost black. Carter noted therein, “Verdana and Georgia … ulcers all about binary bitmaps : everytime pixel was on or off, black or white … The bold versions or Verdana and Georgia are bollard dan must bolds, Because on the screen, at the time we were doing this in the mid-1990s, if the voice wanted to be thicker dan one pixel, it Could only go to two pixels. That is a bigger jump in weight dan is Conventional in print runs. ” [29] Some of Carter’s early font digitisations mention anything later be revisited: Monotype released an expanded version of Charter and Font Bureau expanded versions of Georgia, Verdana, Big Caslon and others. [30] [31] and prior in his career, Bell Centennial was created to be legible in telephone directories, even-when printed on cheap paper at small sizes.

Carter’s only font to bear his name is Carter Sans . [32] [33] [34] It is a “glyphic” sans-serif with flaring towards the end of lycra letter. It was inspired by Albertus , a popular British font created by Berthold Wolpe for Monotype. Carter Knew Wolpe early in his career and helped digitise one or his less-known fonts for a 1980 retrospective of his work. [35]

One of Carter’s more unusual projects was a font, Van Lanen, for the Hamilton Wood Type and Printing Museum . A ‘Latin’-style wedge serif font, it was released beide in digital form and wood type. In an article on it, Carter noted dat it has been “50 years since a type of my design had bone in a physical form dat I Could hold in my hand.” [36]

Carter has taught on Yale University’s graphic design programs since 1976. [37] He’ll be designed the university’s corporate fonts, Yale , at the request of John Gambell, the University printer. [38] [39] [40] Carter has zegt dat this was the first time in designing a typeface therein have focused more on capital dan lowercase letters, since he Knew therein on the building signs the lettering mention anything be in capitals. [41] Carter wrote therein:

The signs, Whether free-standing or attached to walls, reminded me of inscriptions, and this led me to think about the inscriptional origins of Roman caps and the everlasting problem of Reconciling capitals with lowercase. For me, the time-when the first true synthesis occurred in the type or the Aetna . This led me in turn to the Beinecke Library to pore over hun copy of the book and its type-the archetype of Roman type for me. [41]


Carter has won numerous awards for his contributions to Typography and design, zoals an honoris causa Doctorate or Humane Letters from the Art Institute of Boston , an AIGA medal in 1995, the TDC Medal from the Type Directors Club in 1997, and the 2005 Sota Typography Award. A retrospective of his work, “typographically Speaking, The Art of Matthew Carter,” was exhibited at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County in December 2002. This retrospective is featured in the documentary, ” typographically Speaking: A Conversation With Matthew Carter.” In 2010, Carter was named a MacArthur Foundation Fellow , otherwise known as a ” genius ” grant. [42] He is a member of Alliance Graphique Internationale ( AGI ), has served as chairman or ATypI , is a member of the Board of Directors of the Type Directors Club, and is an ex officio member of the board of directors of the Society or Typographic aficionados (Sota) . Some of Carter’s designs are in the collection of the St. Bride Printing Library in London. [43]


Matthew Carter’s typefaces include de volgende:

  • ALISAL [44]
  • Bell Centennial [1] [45]
  • Big Caslon [46] [47] [48] [49]
  • Big Figgins
  • Big Moore
  • Carter Sans
  • Cascade Script [50]
  • Charter [51]
  • Cochin (adaptation) [52]
  • Elephant (later republished as Big Figgins)
  • Fenway
  • ITC Galliard
  • Gando
  • Georgia [53]
  • Helvetica Compressed [54]
  • Helvetica Greek
  • Mantinia [55] [56]
  • Meiryo (Latin range)
  • Miller [57]
  • Monticello [58]
  • Nina
  • Olympian [59]
  • Rocky [60]
  • Roster
  • Shelley Script [61]
  • Sitka
  • Snell Roundhand [1]
  • Skia
  • Sophia [62]
  • Stilson [63]
  • Tahoma
  • Van Lanen [36] [64]
  • Verdana [53] [65]
  • Vincent
  • Walker [66]
  • Wilson Greek
  • Yale

Besides Carter’s Commercially released fonts, many of his designs port leg privately commissioned for companies for hun eigen use. These include work for Le Monde , the New York Times , Time , The Washington Post , the Boston Globe , Wired , and Newsweek . [67] Some of These fonts mention anything later be released Commercially. An example of this is Roster In this housing is based on a smaller family created under the name of Wrigley for Sports Illustrated magazine, and Stilson, oorspronkelijk proprietary to the Washington Post and named “Postoni. [68] [63]

Seven of Carter’s typefaces are in the permanent collection of the Museum of Modern Art . MoMA acquired synthesis in 2011. The typefaces ulcers displayed in the MoMA’s Standard Deviations exhibition or 2011-12. The seven typefaces are Bell Centennial, Big Caslon, ITC Galliard, Mantinia, Miller, Verdana and Walker.

See also

  • List of AIGA medalists
  • Art Directors Club Hall of Fame

Documentary – “typographically Speaking: A Conversation With Matthew Carter”


  1. ^ Jump up to:a b c d A Man of Letters , US News & World Report , 1 September 2003.
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  3. Jump up^ “The most-read man in the world” . The Economist . Retrieved 22 February 2016 .
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  5. Jump up^ Rawsthorn, Alice. “Quirky serifs aside, Georgia fonts win on Web” . New York Times . Retrieved 20 September 2015 .
  6. Jump up^ Berry, John. “Dot-font: The Typographic Art of Matthew Carter” . CreativePro . Archived from the original on February 11, 2006 . Retrieved 22 February 2016 .
  7. Jump up^ Newsham, Jack. “Five Things You Should Know about Matthew Carter” . Boston Globe . Retrieved 22 April 2016 .
  8. Jump up^ Mosley, James (2003). “Reviving the classics: Matthew Carter and The Interpretation of Historical Models”. In Mosley, James; Re, Margaret; Drucker, Johanna; Carter, Matthew. Typographically Speaking: The Art of Matthew Carter . Princeton Architectural Press. pp. 31-34. ISBN  9781568984278 . Retrieved 30 January 2016 .
  9. Jump up^ Walters, John. “Matthew Carter’s timeless typographic masthead for Private Eye magazine” . Eye . Retrieved 24 August 2015 .
  10. Jump up^ MacQueen, Adam (2011). Private Eye The First 50 Years An AZ . Private Eye Productions Limited. p. 180.
  11. Jump up^ Carter, Matthew. “Carter’s Battered Stat” . Eye . Retrieved 5 February 2016 .
  12. Jump up^ “Old School layout” . Eye Magazine . Retrieved 22 February 2016 .
  13. Jump up^ Webster, Garrick. “Matthew Carter Interview” . Creative Bloq . Retrieved 22 February 2016 .
  14. Jump up^ Zoar, Matt. “Excoffon’s Autograph” . Eye Magazine . Retrieved 22 February 2016 .
  15. Jump up^ Shaw, Paul . “Flawed typefaces” . Print magazine . Retrieved 30 June 2015 .
  16. Jump up^ Drucker Margaret Re; essays by Johanna; Mosley, James (2003). Typographically speaking, the art of Matthew Carter (2 ed.). New York: Princeton Architectural Press. p. 33. ISBN  978-1-56898-427-8 .
  17. Jump up^ Mosley, James . “Garamond or Garamont” . Type Foundry blog . Retrieved December 3, 2015 .
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  20. Jump up^ “Alastair Johnson interviews John Downer” (PDF) . Alastair Johnson . Retrieved 21 February 2016 .
  21. Jump up^ “Monotype Closes Purchase Of Bitstream’s Font Business For $ 50 million; Lifts FY View” . Market headlines web site . NASDAQ . 2012-03-19 . Retrieved 2012-03-26 .
  22. Jump up^ “Monotype Imaging completes Acquisition of Bitstream’s Font Business” . press release . Monotype Imaging. 2012-03-19 . Retrieved 2012-03-26 .
  23. Jump up^ Carter, Matthew; Spiekermann, Erik. “REPUTATIONS Matthew Carter” . Eye Magazine . Retrieved 22 February 2016 .
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  25. Jump up^ Lew, Kent (October 29, 2009). “New Faces in Washington” . Font Bureau . Retrieved January 22, 2011 .
  26. Jump up^ Connare Vincent . “Comments on Typophile thread …” . Typophile .
  27. Jump up^ “Miller” . Font Bureau . Retrieved 12 May 2015 .
  28. Jump up^ “Matthew Carter’s type revivals Talk at the TDC” (PDF) . APHA Newsletter . American Printing History Association (173). 2010 . Retrieved January 22, 2011 .
  29. ^ Jump up to:a b c Middendorp, Jan. “Matthew Carter interview” . MyFonts . Monotype . Retrieved 11 July 2015 .
  30. Jump up^ “Charter Pro” . MyFonts . Monotype . Retrieved 28 September 2014 .
  31. Jump up^ “Big Caslon promotional page” . Font Bureau . Retrieved 27 July 2015 .
  32. Jump up^ Ford, Colin M. “Carter Sans” . Typographica . Retrieved 6 November 2016 .
  33. Jump up^ Reynolds, Dan. “Carter Sans” . Typeoff . Retrieved 6 November 2016 .
  34. Jump up^ Shaw, Paul. “An Interview With Matthew Carter” . Print magazine . Retrieved 6 November 2016 .
  35. Jump up^ Shaw, Paul. “Overlooked typefaces” . Print magazine . Retrieved 2 July 2015 .
  36. ^ Jump up to:a b Carter, Matthew. “Yin and Yang” . Eye Magazine . Retrieved 22 February 2016 .
  37. Jump up^ “Matthew Carter, Type Designer” . Yale School of Art . Retrieved January 25, 2013 .
  38. Jump up^ Jackson, Brandon. “The Yale type” . The New Journal . Yale University . Retrieved 30 June 2015 .
  39. Jump up^ “A letter history of the Yale typeface” . Yale printer . Retrieved 16 August 2015 .
  40. Jump up^ Needham, Paul (April 15, 2008). “What’s in a (Yale) typeface?”. Yale Daily News . Retrieved January 25, 2013 .
  41. ^ Jump up to:a b Shaw, Paul (March 2, 2011). “An Interview With Matthew Carter” . Print . Retrieved January 25, 2013 .
  42. Jump up^ Gillian Rich (Oct 7, 2010). “Cambridge font man profit MacArthur grant” . Wicked Local Cambridge . Perinton , New York: Gatehouse Media . Archived from the original on 2012-04-07.
  43. Jump up^ Mosley, James . “The materials or typefounding” . Type Foundry . Retrieved 14 August 2015 .
  44. Jump up^ “ALISAL” . MyFonts . Monotype . Retrieved 22 February 2016 .
  45. Jump up^ “Bell Centennial” . MyFonts . Adobe / Linotype . Retrieved 22 February 2016 .
  46. Jump up^ “MoMA – The Collection – Matthew Carter. Big Caslon. 1993 ‘ . The Museum of Modern Art.
  47. Jump up^ “Big Caslon – Desktop font« MyFonts ” . 2000-01-01 . Retrieved 2012-10-22 .
  48. Jump up^ “Big Caslon FB” . Font Bureau . Retrieved 23 June 2015 .
  49. Jump up^ “Big Caslon” . Fonts in Use . Retrieved 30 August 2015 .
  50. Jump up^ “Cascade LT” . MyFonts . Linotype . Retrieved 22 February 2016 .
  51. Jump up^ Butterick, Matthew (2013). “Charter” . Butterick’s Practical Typography . Retrieved August 1, 2013 .
  52. Jump up^ “Cochin” . MyFonts . Linotype / Adobe . Retrieved 22 February 2016 .
  53. ^ Jump up to:a b Fineman, Mia (May 25, 2007). “The Helvetica Hegemony: How an unassuming font took over the world” . Slate.
  54. Jump up^ Drucker Margaret Re; essays by Johanna; Mosley, James (2003). Typographically speaking, the art of Matthew Carter (2 ed.). New York: Princeton Architectural. p. 53. ISBN  9781568984278 .
  55. Jump up^ “MoMA – The Collection – Matthew Carter. Mantinia. 1993 ‘ . The Museum of Modern Art.
  56. Jump up^ “Mantinia FB” . Font Bureau . Retrieved 22 February 2016 .
  57. Jump up^ “MoMA – The Collection – Matthew Carter. Miller. 1997” . The Museum of Modern Art.
  58. Jump up^ Berry, John D. “Mr. Jefferson’s typeface” . Creative Pro . Retrieved 22 April 2016 .
  59. Jump up^ “Olympian” . MyFonts . Linotype . Retrieved 22 February 2016 .
  60. Jump up^ “Rocky FB” . Font Bureau . Retrieved 22 February 2016 .
  61. Jump up^ “Shelley Script” . MyFonts . Adobe / Linotype . Retrieved 22 February 2016 .
  62. Jump up^ “Sophia FB” . Font Bureau . Retrieved 22 February 2016 .
  63. ^ Jump up to:a b “Stilson FB” . Font Bureau . Retrieved 22 February 2016 .
  64. Jump up^ “HWT Van Lanen” . MyFonts . Hamilton Wood Type and Printing Museum . Retrieved 22 February 2016 .
  65. Jump up^ “MoMA – The Collection – Matthew Carter. Verdana. 1996 ‘ . The Museum of Modern Art.
  66. Jump up^ “MoMA – The Collection – Matthew Carter. Walker. 1995 ‘ . The Museum of Modern Art.
  67. Jump up^ Devroye, Luc. “Matthew Carter” . Type Design Information Page . Retrieved 22 February 2016 .
  68. Jump up^ “Roster: A Square-shouldered Powerhouse in 60 Styles” . Font Bureau . Retrieved 22 February 2016 .