Tim Berners-Lee

Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee FOR KBE FRS FREng FRSA FBCS (born 8 June 1955), [1] ook known as TiMBL , is an English computer scientist , best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web . He made a proposal for an information management system in March 1989, [3] and have Deployment the first successful communication tussen a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) client and server via the Internet sometime around mid November of that year together. [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]

Berners-Lee is the director of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), welke oversees the continued development of the Web. He is ook the founder of the World Wide Web Foundation , and is a senior researcher and holder of the founding chair at the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL). [9] He is a director of the Web Science Research Initiative (WSRI), [10] and a member of the advisory board of the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence . [11] [12] In 2011, he was named as a member the board of trustees of the Ford Foundation . [13]

In 2004, Berners-Lee was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II for his groundbreaking work. [14] [15] In April 2009 he was elected a foreign associate of the United States National Academy of Sciences . [16] [17] Named in Time magazine’s list of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th century , Berners-Lee has RECEIVED a number of other braces for his invention It. [18] He was honored as the “Inventor of the World Wide Web” prolongation the 2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony , have in welke Appeared in person, working with a vintage NeXT Computer at the London Olympic Stadium . [19] He tweeted “This is for everyone”, [20] welke instantly was spelled out in LCD lights attached to the chairs of the 80,000 people in the audience. [19]

Early life and education

Berners-Lee was born in London, England, United Kingdom, [21] one or four children born to Mary Lee Woods and Conway Berners-Lee . His parents worked on the first Commercially-built computer, the Ferranti Mark 1 . He attended Sheen Mount Primary School, and-then went on to attend southwest London’s Emanuel School from 1969 to 1973, at the time a direct grant grammar school , which became an independent school in 1975. [1] [14] A keen trainspotter as a child, he Learnt about electronics from tinkering with a model railway. [22] He studied at The Queen’s College, Oxford from 1973 to 1976, where he RECEIVED a first-class bachelor of arts degree in physics. [1] [21]


After graduation, Berners-Lee worked as an engineer at the telecommunications company Plessey in Poole , Dorset. [21] In 1978, he joined DG Nash in Ferndown , Dorset, where he helped create type-setting software for printers. [21]

Berners-Lee worked as an independent contractor at CERN from June to December 1980. While in Geneva , have Proposed a project based on the concept of hypertext , to Facilitate sharing and updating information onder researchers. [23] To tonen it, he built a prototype system named inquire . [24]

After leaving CERN in late 1980, he went to work at John Poole’s Image Computer Systems Ltd, in Bournemouth, Dorset. [25] He ran the company’s technical side for three years. [26] The project he worked on was a ” real-time remote procedure call ” welke representation im experience in networking computer . [25] In 1984, he Returned to CERN as a Fellow. [24]

In 1989, CERN was the Toilets Internet node Europe, and Berners-Lee saw an opportunity to join hypertext with the Internet:

“I just had to take the hypertext idea and connect it to the Transmission Control Protocol and domain name system ideas and-ta-da! -The World Wide Web [27] … Creating the web was really an act of desperation, Because the situation without it was very s difficult-when I was working at CERN later. Most of the technology involved in the web, like the hypertext, like the Internet, multi-font text objects had all leg designed Already. I just had to put them together. it was a step or generalising, going to a higher level of abstraction, thinking about all the documentation systems out there as being Possibly part of a larger imaginary documentation system. ” [28]

Berners-Lee wrote his proposal in March 1989 and, in 1990, it redistributed. It dan was accepted by his manager, Mike Sendall. [29] He-used similar ideas to Those underlying the inquire system to create the World Wide Web, for welke have designed and built the first Web browser . His software ook functioned as an editor (called WorldWideWeb , running on the NeXTSTEP operating system), and the first Web server, CERN HTTPd (short for Hypertext Transfer Protocol daemon ).

“Mike Sendall buys a NeXT Cube for evaluation, and Gives it to Tim [Berners-Lee]. Tim’s prototype implementation on NeXTStep is made in the space of a few months, thanks to the qualities of the NeXTStep software development system. This prototype offerings WYSIWYG browsing / authoring! Current Web browsers-used in “surfing the Internet” are lakes passive windows, depriving the user of the Possibility to Contribute. During some sessions in the CERN cafeteria, Tim and I try to find a catching name for the system. I was Determined therein the names arnt not yet again be tasks from Greek mythology ….. Tim proposés “World Wide Web”. I like this very much, EXCEPT dat it ‘s difficult to pronouncing in French … “by Robert Cailliau , 2 November 1995 [30]

The first Web site built was at CERN binnen de border of France, [31] and was well online on 6 August 1991 for the first time:

info.cern.ch was the address of the world’s first-ever web site and web server, running on a NeXT computer at CERN. The first web page address was http://info.cern.ch/hypertext/WWW/TheProject.html , welke centered on information Regarding the WWW project. Visitors Could learn more about hypertext, technical details for customizing hun eigen webpage, and even an explanation on how to search the Web for information. There are no screenshots or this original page and, in any case, changes in later made daily to the information available on the page as the WWW project developed. You ‘may find a later copy (1992) on the World Wide Web Consortium Web site. [32]

It Provided an explanation of what the World Wide Web was, and how one Could use a browser and set up a web server. [33] [34] [35] [36] In a list of 80 cultural moments dat shaped the world, Chosen by a panel of 25 eminent scientists, Academics, writers and world leaders, the invention It or the World Wide Web was ranked number one, with the entry stating, “The fastest growing communications medium of all time, the Internet has changed the shape of modern life forever. We kan connect with eachother instantly, all over the world.” [37]

In 1994, Berners-Lee founded the W3C at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology . It comprised verschillende companies therein ulcers willing to create standards and Recommendations to verbeteren the quality of the Web. Berners-Lee made his idea available freely, with no patent and no royalties due. The World Wide Web Consortium decided dat zijn standards arnt be based on royalty-free technology, so dat ze Easily Could be eerste to anyone. [38]

In 2001, Berners-Lee became a patron of the East Dorset Heritage Trust, keeping to post lived in Colehill in Wimborne , East Dorset . [39] In December 2004, he accepted a chair in computer science at the School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton , Hampshire, to work on the Semantic Web . [40] [41]

In a Times article in October 2009, Berners-Lee admitted therein the initial pair of slashes ( “//”) in a web address ulcers “Unnecessary”. He told the newspaper therein have Easily Could port designed web addresses without the slashes. “There you go, it seemed like a good idea at the time,” he zegt in his lighthearted Apology. [42]

Current work

In June 2009, then-British Prime Minister Gordon Brown announced Berners-Lee mention anything work with the UK government to help make data more open and accessible on the Web, building on the work of the Power of Information Task Force. [43] Berners-Lee and Professor Nigel Shadbolt are the two key figures behind data.gov.uk , a UK government project to open up almost all data acquired for official Purposes for free re-use. Commenting on the opening up of Ordnance Survey data in April 2010, Berners-Lee zegt dat: “The changes signal a wider cultural change in government based on an assumption dat information arnt be in the public domain unless there is a good reason not to-not the other way around. ” He went on to say “Greater openness, accountability and transparency in Government will give people grotere choice and make it Easier for personen to get more rechtstreeks involved in issues that matter to them.” [44]

In November 2009, Berners-Lee launched the World Wide Web Foundation in order to “advance the Web to empower humanity by launching Transformative programs dat build local capacity to leverage the Web as a medium for positive change.” [45]

Berners-Lee is one of the pioneering voices in favor or just neutrality , [46] and has Expressed the view therein ISPs arnt supply “connectivity with no strings attached,” and they arnt Neither control nor monitor the browsing activities of customers without hun Expressed consent . [47] [48] He advocates the idea dat just neutrality is a kind of human network right: “Threats to the Internet, zoals companies or Governments therein interfere with or snoop on Internet traffic, compromise basic human rights network.” [49]

Berners-Lee joined the board of advisors of start-up State.com , based in London. [50] As of May 2012, Berners-Lee is president of the Open Data Institute . [51]

The Alliance for Affordable Internet (A4AI) was launched in October 2013 and Berners-Lee is leading the coalition of public and private organizations dat of includes Google , Facebook , Intel , and Microsoft . The A4AI seeks to make Internet access more affordable so dat access is broadened in the ontwikkelingslanden world, where only 31% of people are online. Berners-Lee will work with Those aiming to decrease internet access prices so dat ze fall Projects the UN Broadband Commission ‘s worldwide target of 5% or monthly income. [52]

Berners-Lee holds the founding chair in Computer Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he heads the gedecentraliseerde Information Group and is a leading Solid, a joint project with the Qatar Computing Research Institute therein AIMS to radically change the way Web applications work today, resulting in true data ownership as well as most innovative privacy. [53] In October 2016, he joined the Department of Computer Science at Oxford University as a professor [54]and as a fellow of Christ Church , one of the Oxford colleges. [55]

Awards and honors

Main article: Awards and honors Presented to Tim Berners-Lee

“He wove the World Wide Web and created a mass medium for the 21st century. The World Wide Web is Berners-Lee’s alone. He designed it. He loosed it on the world. And he morethan anyone else has Fought to keep it open , nonproprietary and free. ”

-Tim Berners-Lee’s entry into Time magazine’s list of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th Century , March 1999. [18]

Berners-Lee has RECEIVED many awards and honors. He was knighted in 2004-when he was promoted to Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE) in the New Year Honours “for services to the global development of the Internet”, and was invested formally on 16 July 2004. [14 ] [15]

On 13 June 2007, have RECEIVED the Order of Merit , Becoming one of only 24 living members entitled to hold the honor, and to use the post-nominals ‘OM’ after hun names. [56] bestowing the Order of Merit is binnen the personal purview of the Queen, and does not requirement recommendation to ministers or the Prime Minister. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 2001 . [2] He has RECEIVED honorary doctorates from a number of Universities around the world, zoals Manchester (his parents worked on the Manchester Mark 1 in the 1940s), Harvard and Yale . [57] [58] [59]

In 2012, Berners-Lee was onder the British cultural icons selected by artist Sir Peter Blake ACM Press in a new version of his most famous artwork – the Beatles’ Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band album cover – to celebrate the British cultural figures or his life dat he must admires to market his 80th birthday. [60] [61]

Personal life

Berners-Lee was married to Nancy Carlson in 1990; they ‘had two children and divorced in 2011. In 2014, Berners-Lee married Rosemary Leith at St. James’s Palace in London. [62] Leith is director of the World Wide Web Foundation and a fellow at Harvard University ‘s Berkman Center. Previously, she was a World Economic Forum Global Agenda Council Chair of the Future of Internet Security [63] and now is on the board of YouGov. [64]

Berners-Lee was raised as an Anglican , but in his youth, he turned away from religion. After he became a parent, he became a Unitarian Universalist (UU). [65] He has stated: “Like many people, I had a religious upbringing welke I rejected as a teenager … Like many people, I cameramen back to religion-when we had children.” [66] He and his wife wanted to teach spirituality to his children, and after hearing a Unitarian minister and visiting the UU Church, ze opted for it. [67] He is an active member of that church, [68] to have welke adheres Because He perceives it as a tolerant and liberal belief. He’ll be honored has the value of other Faiths, stating: “I believe dat much of the philosophy of life associated with many religions is much more sound dan the dogma welke comes Along with it. So I do respect them.” [66]


  1. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Kemp, Sir Timothy (John) . ukwhoswho.com . Who’s Who . 2015 (online Oxford University Press ed.). A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. (subscription required)
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  4. Jump up^ Tim Berners Lee’s own reference. The exact date is unknown.
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