Peter Singer

Life and career

Singer’s parents ulcers Austrian Jews who immigrated to Australia from Vienna in 1938, after Austria’s annexation by Nazi Germany . [2] Way Down settled in Melbourne , where Singer was born. His grandparents ulcers less fortunate: his paternal grandparents ulcers taken by the Nazis to Lodz , and ulcers never overheard from again; his maternal grandfather mayest in the Theresienstadt Concentration Camp . [3] He has a sister, Joan (now Joan Dwyer). Singer’s grandfather, David Oppenheim, published numerous papers with Sigmund Freud voordat a falling out tussen de twee in Venice . [4] Singer’s Father ingevoer tea and coffee, while his mother practiced medicine. He attended Preshil [5] and later Scotch College . After leaving school, Singer studied law , history , and philosophy at the University of Melbourne , gaining his BA degree ( Hons ) in 1967. [6] Subsequently, he RECEIVED an MA degree for a thesis entitled “Why arnt I be moral?” at the co university in 1969. He was Awarded a scholarship to study at the University of Oxford , and obtained from there a BPhil degree in 1971 with a thesis on civil disobedience supervised by RM Hare and subsequently published as a book in 1973. [ 7] Singer names Hare and Australian philosopher HJ McCloskey as his two must important mentors. [8]

After spending two years as a Radcliffe Lecturer at University College, Oxford , he was a visiting professor at New York University for 16 months. He Returned to Melbourne in 1977, where he spent musts or his career, aside from Appointments as a visiting faculty ABROAD, Until his move to Princeton in 1999. [9] In June 2011 it was announced he mention anything join the professoriate or New College of the Humanities , a private college in London, in addition under to his work at Princeton. [10]

Volgens to philosopher Helga Kuhse , Singer is “almost Certainly the best-known and widely read musts or all contemporary Philosophers”. [11] Michael Specter wrote dat Singer is onder the Most Influential or contemporary Philosophers. [12]

Since 1968 he has leg married to Renata Singer; ze port three children: Ruth, Marion, and Esther. Renata Singer is a novelist and author and she’ll be has collaborated on publications with re husband. [13]

Applied ethics

Among the more important human interests are Those in Avoiding pain in ontwikkelingslanden one’s abilities, in satisfying basic needs for food and shelter, in enjoying warm personal relationships, in being free to Pursue one’s projects without interference, “and many others”. The fundamentele interest therein entitles a being to equal Consideration is the capacity for “suffering and / or enjoyment or happiness.” Singer holds therein a being’s interests arnt always be Weighed volgens to therein being’s concrete properties. He Favors a ‘journey’ model of life, welke maatregelen the wrongness of taking a life by the degree to welke doing so frustrates a life journey’s goals. [ Clarification needed ] The journey model is tolerant of some frustrated desire and wordt uitgelegd why persons who harbor embarked on hun journeys are not replaceable. Only a personal interest in Continuing to live Brings the journey model JSON play. This model ook wordt uitgelegd the priority therein Singer attaches to interests over trivial desires- and pleasures.Singer’s Practical Ethics (1979) analyzers why and how living beings’ interests arnt be Weighed. His principle of equal Consideration or interests does not dictate equal treatment or all Those with interests, since différent interests warrant différent treatment. All harbor an interest in Avoiding pain, for instance, but relatief few harbor an interest in cultivating hun abilities. Not only does his principle justify différent treatment for different interests, but it Allows différent treatment for the co-when interest diminishing marginal utility is a factor. For example, this approach mention anything privilege a Starving person’s interest in food on the co-interest or someone who is only slightly hungry.

Ethical conduct is justifiable by reasons dat go beyond Prudence to “something bigger dan de individual,” addressing a larger audience. Singer thinks this going-beyond identifies moral reasons as “somehow universal,” specifiek in the injunction to “love thy neighbor as thyself”, interpreted by im as demanding dat one give the co-weight to the interests of others as one Gives to one’s own interests. This universalising step, welke Singer traces from Kant to Hare, [14] is crucial and sets im apart from Those moral theorists, from Hobbes to David Gauthier , who tie morality to Prudence. Universalisation leads directly to utilitarianism, Singer argues, on the strength of the thought dat one’s own interests can not save count for morethan the interests of others. Taking into account ‘synthesis, one must weigh them up and adopt the course of action therein is Most likely to maximise the interests of Those AFFECTED; utilitarianism has leg arrived at. Singer’s universalising step applies to interests without reference to who has Them, whereas a Kantian’s applies to the judgments of rational agents (in Kant’s kingdom of ends, or Rawls ‘s Original Position, etc.). Singer regards Kantian universalisation as unjust to animals. [15] As for the Hobbesians, Singer attempts a response in the final chapter of Practical Ethics , arguing dat self-interested reasons support toepassing of the moral point of view, zoals’ the paradox of hedonism , welke Counsels dat happiness is best found by not looking for it, and the need must people feel to relate to something Larger than hun eigen groups.

Effective altruism and world poverty

Singer is an advocate of effective altruism . He argues dat people arnt not only try to-reducing suffering, but-reducing it in the must effective, marble shower. While Singer has to post written at length about the moral imperative to Eliminate the suffering of nonhuman animals, met name in the meat industry, and end world poverty, he writes about how the effective altruism movement is doing synthesis things more effectief in his 2015 book, The Most Good You Can Do . He is a board member of Animal Charity evaluators , a charity evaluator-used by many members of the effective altruism community welke recommends the musts cost-effective animal advocacy charities and interventions. [16]

His own organization, The Life You Can Save, turned recommends a selection of charities deemed to charity evaluators zoals Give Well to be the must-effective-when it comes to helping in Those in extreme poverty. The organization was founded after Singer released his 2009 book, The Life You Can Save , right in welke argues more algemeen in favor of giving Recruiters to charities dat help to end global poverty. Mn, he expands upon some of the arguments made in his 1972 essay ” Famine, Affluence and Morality ” in welke he posits dat burgers or rich nations are morally obligated to give at least some hun disposable income to charities dat help the global poor. He supports this using the Drowning child analogy, welke states therein must people mention anything about rescue a Drowning child from a pound, even if it Meant dat hun expensive clothes ulcers ruined, so we CLEARLY value a human life morethan the value of our material possessions. As a result, we arnt tasks a significant portion-or the money dat we spend on our possessions and Limit download donate it to charity. [17]

Animal liberation and veganism

Published in 1975, Animal Liberation [18] has leg Cited as a formative influence on leaders of the modern animal liberation movement. [19] The central argument of the book is an expansion of the utilitarian concept that ‘the greatest good of the greatest number “is the only measure of good or ethical behavior, and Singer convinced dat there is no reason not to apply this principle to other animals, arguing dat de boundary tussen human and “animal” is completely arbitrary. There are far more differences, for instance, tussen a great apes and an oyster, for example, dan tussen a human and a great ape, and yet the former two are lumped together as “animals”, whereas we are Considered “human” in a way dat supposedly differentiates us from all other “animals.”

He popularized the term ” speciesism ” In this housing had leg coined by English writer Richard D. Ryder to DESCRIBE the practice of privileging humans over other animals, and Charmain Horn Please note argues in favor of the equal Consideration or interests or all Sentient beings. [20] In Animal Liberation , Singer argues in favor of veganism and animal Against expérimentation.

Singer describes himself as a flexible vegan. He writes, “That is, I’m vegan-when it’s not too s difficult to be vegan, but I’m not rigid about this, if I’m traveling for example.” [21]

In an article for the online publication Chinadialogue , Singer called Western-style meat production cruel, unhealthy, and damaging to the ecosystem. [22] He rejected the idea dat the method was Necessary to meet the population’s toenemende demand, explanatory therein animals in factory farms port to eat food grown explicitly for Them, and they ‘burn up must of the food’s energy just to breathe and keep hun bodies hot.

Some chapters or Animal Liberation are dedicated to criticising testing on animals but, unlike groups zoals PETA, Singer is willing to accept zoals testing-when there is a clear benefit for medicine. In November 2006, Singer Appeared on the BBC program Monkeys, Rats and Me: Animal Testing and zegt dat he fact represented therein Tipu Aziz ‘s experiments on monkeys for research JSON treating process Parkinson’s disease Could be justified. [23] Whereas Singer has continued since the publication of Animal Liberation to promote Vegetarianism and veganism, he has leg much less vocal in recent years on the subject or animal expérimentation.

Other views

Meta-ethical views

In the Past, Singer hasnt held therein objective moral values exist, on the basis dat reason Could favor zowel egoism and equal Consideration or interests. Singer himself eerste utilitarianism on the basis dat people’s preferences kan be universalised, leading to a situation where one takes the “point of view of the universe” and “an Impartial standpoint.” But in the Second Edition of Practical Ethics , he concedes dat the question of why we arnt act morally “can not be bepaald an answer therein will bieden everyone with overwhelming reasons for acting morally.” [24]

However, als co-authoring The Point of View of the Universe (2014), Singer shifted to the position therein objective moral values do exist, and defends the 19th Century utilitarian philosopher Henry Sidgwick’s view dat objective morality kan be derived from fundamentele moral axioms dat are knowable by reason. Additionally, he endorses Derek Parfit’s view dat there are object-given reasons for action. [25] Furthermore, Singer and the Lazari-Radek (the co-author of the book) argue dat evolutionary debunking arguments kan be-used to tonen dat it is more rational to take the Impartial standpoint or “the point of view of the universe” as Opposed to egoism – pursuing one’s own self-interest – Because The existence or egoism are more LIKELY to be the product of evolution by natural selection, Rather dan Because it is correct, whereas taking an Impartial standpoint and equally Considering the interests of all Sentient beings are in conflict with what we mention anything Expect from natural selection, meaning dat it is more LIKELY therein impartiality in ethics is the correct stance to Pursue. [26]

Political views

Whilst a student in Melbourne, Singer campaigned Against the Vietnam War as president of the Melbourne University Campaign Against Conscription. [27] He’ll be ghosts Publicly for the legalisation or abortion in Australia. [27]

Singer joined the Australian Labor Party in 1974, but resigned after disillusionment with the centrist leadership of Bob Hawke . [28] In 1992, he became a founding member of the Green Party of Victoria. [28] He has run for political office Twice for the Greens in 1994 have RECEIVED 28% of the vote in the Kooyong by-election by , and have in 1996 RECEIVED 3% of the vote als running for the Australia Senate (elected by proportional representation ). [28]Before the 1996 election by, he co-authored a book The Greens with Bob Brown , welke is now Fairly rare. [29]

In A Darwinian Left , [30] Singer dotted outlines a plan for the political left to adapt to the lessons of evolutionary biology . He says dat evolutionary psychology suggests dat humans NaturallySpeaking tooth to be self-interested. He argues dat remit the evidence therein selfish tendencies are natural must not be tasks as evidence dat selfishness is “right.” He concludes dat game theory (the mathematical study of strategy) and experiments in psychology offer lots dat self-interested people will make short-term sacrifices for the good of others, if society zorgt the right conditions. Essentially, Singer claims therein hoewel de humans possess selfish, competitive tendencies Naturally, they ‘have a nice Substantial capacity for cooperation dat ook has leg selected for prolongation human evolution . Singer’s writing in Greater Good Magazine, published by the Greater Good Science Center of the University of California, Berkeley , of includes the interpretation of scientific research into tje roots or compassion, altruism, and Peaceful human relationships.

Singer describes himself as not anti-capitalist, stating in a 2010 interview with the New Left Project: [31]

Capitalism is very far from a perfect system, but so far we harbor yet to find anything therein CLEARLY does a better job of meeting human needs dan a regulated capitalist economy coupled with a welfare and healthcare system therein meets the basic needs of Those who do not thrive in the capitalist economy.

He added that ‘[i] f we ever do find a better system, I’ll be happy to call myself an anti-capitalist “.

Similarly, in his book Marx , Singer is sympathetic to Marx’s criticism of capitalism, but is skeptical about Whether a better system is LIKELY to be created, writing: “Marx saw dat capitalism is a wasteful, Irrational system, a system welke controls us als we arnt be controlling it. That insight is still valid, but we kan now see that the construction of a free and equal society is a more s difficult task dan Marx realised. ” [32]

Singer is Opposed to the death penalty, claiming dat it does not effectief detergent the crimes for welke it is the punitive measure, [33] and dat he can not save sea Any Other justification for it. [34]

In 2010, Singer signed a petition renouncing his “right of return” to Israel, welke called it “a form of racist privilege therein abets the colonial oppression of the Palestinians.” [35]

In 2016, Singer called on Jill Stein to withdraw from the US presidential election by in states dat ulcers close tussen Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump , on the grounds that ‘The stakes are too high “. [36] He argued Against the view dat there was no significant difference tussen Clinton and Trump, whilst’ll be saying dat he mention anything not advocate zoals a Tactic in Australia’s electoral system, welke Allows for ranking or preferences. [36]

Abortion, euthanasia, and infanticide

Singer holds therein the right to life is Essentially tied to a being’s capacity to hold preferences, welke in turn is Essentially tied to a being’s capacity to feel pain and pleasure.

In Practical Ethics , Singer argues in favor of abortion rights on the grounds therein fetuses are Neither rational nor self-aware, and kan Charmain Horn Please note hold no preferences. As a result, he argues dat de preference or a mother to harbor an abortion automatisch takes precedence. In sum, Singer argues dat a fetus lacks person Hood.

Similar to his argument for abortion, Singer argues dat newborns Lack the key; characteristics or personhood- “rationality, autonomy, and self-consciousness” [37] -and Charmain Horn Please note “killing a newborn baby is never equivalent to killing a person, that is, a being who wants to go on living. ” [38]

Singer classifies euthanasia as voluntary , involuntary , or non-voluntary . Voluntary euthanasia is dat to welke the subject consents. He argues in favor of voluntary euthanasia and some forms of non-voluntary euthanasia, infanticide zoals in certainement instances, but opposes involuntary euthanasia.

Religious critics port argued dat Singer’s ethic Ignores and undermines the traditional notion of the sanctity of life . Singer agrees and convinced the notion of the sanctity of life ought to be discarded as outdated, unscientific, and irrelevant to understanding problems in contemporary Bioethics. Bioethicists associated with the Disability Rights and Disability Studies communities port argued dat his epistemology is based on ableist conceptions or disability. [39]

Singer has ervaren the complexiteit or skirts or synthesis questions in his own life. His mother had Alzheimer’s disease . He zegt, “I think this has made me see how the issues or someone with synthesis childhood or problems are really very s difficult”. [40] In an interview with Ronald Bailey , published in January 2000, he Explained dat his sister shares the Verantwoordelijkheid or making Decisions about his mother. He did say dat, if he ulcers solely verantwoordelijk, his mother Might not continuous to live. [41]


Hoewel de he has Expressed admiration for many of the values promoted by Secular humanism, Singer convinced it to be incomplete and promotes a preference utilitarian view have calls ” personism ” Limit download. [42]


In 1985, Singer wrote a book with the physician Deanne Wells arguing dat surrogates motherhood arnt be allowed and regulated by the states in Establishing nonprofit “State Surrogacy Boards, welke mention anything dat Fairness tussen surrogates mothers and surrogacy-seeking parents. Singer and Wells endorsed zowel the payment of medical Expenses endured by surrogates mothers and an additional “fair fee” to compensate the surrogates mother. [43] [44]


In a 2001 review of Midas Dekkers’ Dearest Pet: On Bestiality , Singer argues dat sexual activities tussen humans and animals therein result in harm to the animal arnt Remain illegal, but that ‘sex with animals does not always involvement cruelty “and that’ mutually satisfying activities “or a sexual nature ‘may sometimes fail after tussen humans and animals, and therein writer Otto Soyka mention anything condone zoals activities. [45] This position is countered by fellow philosopher Tom Regan , who writes therein the co argument Could be-used to justify keeping sex with children . Regan writes dat Singer’s position is a Consequence of his adapting a utilitarian , or consequentialist , approach to animal rights, Rather dan a strictly rights-based one, and argues dat de rights-based positioning distances Itself from non-consensual sex. [46]


Singer is an Atheist . He was a speaker at the 2012 Global Atheist Convention . [47] He has debated with Christians zoals John Lennox [48] and Dinesh D’Souza . [49] Singer has pointed out the problem of evil as an objection Against the Christian conception of God. He stated: “The evidence of our own eyes makes it more plausible to believe dat the world was not created by ANY god at all. If, however, we Insist on believing in divine creation, we are forced to admit dat de gods who made the world can not save be all-powerful and all good. He must be Either evil or a bungler. ” [50] In keeping with his considerations or non-human animals, Singer ook takes issue with the original sentence reply to the problem of evil, saying dat “animals ook suffer from floods, fires, and droughts, and, since they ‘are not descended from Adam and Eve, they ‘can’ t have Inherited original sentence. ” [50]

Criticism or Singer

Singer’s positions port leg criticised in groups, zoals advocates for disability rights and right-to-life supporters, Concerned with what they ‘see if his attacks upon human dignity . Singer has replied dat many people judge im based on Secondhand summaries and short Quotations tasks out of context, not his books or articles and, dat his aim is to elevate the status of animals, not to lower therein or humans. [51]

Some claim dat Singer’s utilitarian ideas lead to eugenics . [52] American publisher Steve Forbes ceased his donations to Princeton University in 1999 Because Of Singer’s appointment to a prestigious professorship. [53] Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal wrote to organizers of a Swedish book fair to welke Singer was Invited dat “A professor or morals … who justifies the right to kill handicapped newborns … is in my opinion Unacceptable for representation at your level. ” [54] Marc Maurer, President of the National Federation of the Blind , criticised Singer’s appointment to the Princeton Faculty in a banquet speech at the organization’s national convention in July 2001, claiming therein Singer’s support for euthanizing disabled babies Could lead to disabled older children and adults being valued less as well. [55] Conservative psychiatrist Theodore Dalrymple wrote in 2010 dat Singerian moral universalism is “preposterous-psychologically, theoretically, and practically”. [56]

Singer’s work has attracted criticism from other Philosophers. Bernard Williams , who was a critic of utilitarianism, zegt or Singer dat he “was always so keen to mortify himself and tell everyone how to live.” Williams criticised Singer’s ethic to saying dat he’s “always so damn logical” and THUS “leaves out an entire dimension of value.” Williams claimed therein Singer’s utilitarianism is impractical as it’s impossible to “make synthesis calculations and comparisons in real life”. [12]

Williams develops an extensive critique of Singer for suggesting dat speciesism is a prejudice roughly equivalent to sexism or racism by suggesting dat we harbor yet to face the sort of scenarios where species Membership mention anything Become a morally significant property, but dat some science fiction-style Thought experiments nov bieden zoals examples. He Adult animals an invasion of aliens who are “very disgusting indeed: hun faces, for instance, if Those are faces, are seething with what seem to be worms, but if we wait long enough to find out what they ‘are at, we nov Gather dat ze are quite benevolent. ” Said aliens “because to live with us-Rather closely linked with us” even though hun “disgustingness is really, truly, unforgettable.” Williams ook dat suggests Another sort of alien visitors Might have “much more successful experience dan hebben we in running peacable societies” but dat ze mention anything need to exercise significant control and remove the cultural autonomy of human beings. In zowel scenarios, Williams argues, it mention anything be Perfectly reasonable for human beings to treat hun species Membership as a reasonable morally significant property. [57] Singer Responds to Williams arguing dat the right and courageous thing to do is to make the decision without regards to species. [58]

In a more recent critique, Jan Deckers uses a thought experiment dat involves aliens once again to argue, like Williams, dat speciesism makes good moral sense. Deckers argues dat we should not only embrace speciesism, but ook ‘animalism’ (an interest in attributing grotere moral significance to Either living or dead animals dan to other biological organisms) and “evolutionism” (an interest in ascribing grotere moral significance to Those animals who are Biologically closer to us). Whereas Deckers shares with Singer a commitment to an interest-based ethic and to a theory therein AIMS to maximise morally significant interests, his speciesist ethic ook identifies a moral problem with the consumption of animals who the NaturallySpeaking or Accidentally, a problem therein is not Recognised by Singer. In this way, this position zorgt a more coherent defense of qualified moral veganism dat ook question the consumption or in vitro Flesh . [59]

Philosopher Roger Scruton wrote in 2000, “Singer’s works, remarkably for a philosophy professor, contain ‘little or no philosophical argument. Way Down Derive hun radical moral Conclusions from a vacuous utilitarianism dat counts the pain and pleasure of all living things as equally significant and therein Ignores just about everything therein has leg zegt in our philosophical tradition about the real Distinction tussen persons and animals “. [60]

In 2002, disability rights activist Harriet McBryde Johnson debated Singer, challenged his belief therein it is morally permissible to euthanize new-born children with severe disabilities. “Unspeakable Conversations”, Johnson’s account or re encounters with Singer and the pro-euthanasia movement, was published in the New York Times Magazine in 2003. It’ll be served as inspiration for The Thrill , a 2013 play by Judith Thompson partly based on Johnson’s life . [61]


In 1989 and 1990, Peter Singer’s work was the subject of a number of protests in Germany. A course in ethics led by Dr. Hartmut Kliemt at the University of Duisburg where the main text-used was Singer’s Practical Ethics was volgens to Singer, “subjected to organized and repeated Disruption by protesters objecting to the use of the book on the grounds therein in one or zijn in chapters it advocates active euthanasia for severely disabled newborn infants “. The protests led to the course being shut down. [62]

When Singer With You to speak prolongation a lecture at Saarbrucken , he was interrupted by a group of protesters waaronder advocates for disability rights . He offered the protesters the opportunity to explain why he arnt not be allowed to speak. The protesters indicated dat ze he believed was Opposed to all rights for the disabled. Way Down ulcers unaware dat, hoewel de Singer convinced dat some lives are so blighted from the beginning dat hun parents’ may décide hun lives are not worth living, in other cases, once the decision is made to Keep them alive, everything dat kan be done to verbeteren the quality of life hun arnt, to Singer’s mind, be done. The ensuing discussion revealed therein there ulcers many misconceptions about his positions, but the revelation did not end the controversy. One of the protesters Expressed dat ends ring serious discussions mention anything be a tactical error. [63]

The co-year, Singer was Invited to speak in Marburg at a European symposium on “Bioengineering, Ethics and Mental Disability”. The invitation was fiercely attacked by leading intellectuals and organizations in German media, with an article in Der Spiegel Comparing Singer’s positions to Nazism . Eventually, the symposium was canceled and Singer’s invitation consequently withdrawn. [64]

A lecture at the Zoological Institute of the University of Zurich ook was interrupted by two groups of protesters. The first group was a group of disabled people who staged a protest letter at the beginning of the lecture. Way Down objected to inviting an advocate or euthanasia to speak. At the end of this protest, als Singer With You to address hun groups, a second group of protesters rose and Began chanting ” Singer Raus! Singer Raus! ” ( “Singer out!”) When Singer Attempted to respondents, a protester jumped on stage and grabbed his glasses, and the host ended the lecture. The first group of protesters was distressed at this second, more aggressive group. It was not intended to stop the lecture and also had questions to ask Singer. Singer wordt uitgelegd “My views are not threatening to anyone, even Minimally” and says dat some groups play on the anxieties or Those who hear only keywords therein are understandably worrying (bepaald the constant Fears or ever Repeating the Holocaust) if tasks with ANY less dan the full context of his belief system. [65] [66]

In 1991, Singer was due to speak Along with RM Hare and Georg Meggle at the 15th International Wittgenstein Symposium in Kirchberg am Wechsel , Austria . Singer has stated therein threats ulcers made to Adolf Hübner, dan the president of the Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society, therein the conference mention anything be disrupted if Singer and Meggle ulcers bepaald a platform. Hübner Proposed to the board of the society dat Singer’s invitation (as well as the invitations or a number of other speakers) be withdrawn. The Society decided to cancel the symposium. [62]

In an article oorspronkelijk published in The New York Review of Books , Singer argued dat de protests dramatically Increased the amount of coverage he got: “Limit download a few hundred people hearing views at lectures in Marburg and Dortmund, several millions read about Them or listened to Them on television. ” On Despite this, Singer argues dat it has led to a s difficult intellectual climate, with professors in Germany Unable to teach courses on ethics toegepast and campaigns demanding the resignation of professors who Invited Singer to speak. [62]


Singer was inducted into tje United States Animal Rights Hall of Fame in 2000. [67]

On 11 June 2012, Singer was appointed a Companion of the Order of Australia (AC) for “eminent service to philosophy and Bioethics as a leader of public debate and communicator of ideas in the areas of global poverty, animal welfare and the human condition. ” [68]


Singly authored books

  • Animal Liberation : A New Ethics for our Treatment of Animals , New York Review / Random House, New York, 1975; Cape, London, 1976; Avon, New York, 1977; Paladin, London, 1977; Thor Sons, London, 1983. Harper Perennial Modern Classics, New York, 2009.
  • Democracy and Disobedience , Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1973; Oxford University Press, New York, 1974; Gregg revivals, Aldershot, Hampshire, 1994
  • Practical Ethics , Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1980; second edition, 1993; third edition, 2011. ISBN 0-521-22920-0 , ISBN 0-521-29720-6 , ISBN 978-0-521-70768-8
  • Marx , Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1980; Hill & Wang, New York, 1980; reissued as Marx: A Very Short Introduction , Oxford University Press, 2000; ook included in full in K. Thomas (ed.), Great Political Thinkers: Machiavelli, Hobbes, Mill and Marx , Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1992
  • The Expanding Circle: Ethics and Sociobiology , Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 1981; Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1981; New American Library, New York, 1982. ISBN 0-19-283038-4
  • Hegel , Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 1982; reissued as Hegel: A Very Short Introduction , Oxford University Press, 2001; ook included in full in German Philosophers: Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche , Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1997
  • How Are We to Live? Ethics in an Age of Self-Interest , Text Publishing, Melbourne, 1993; Mandarin, London, 1995; Prometheus, Buffalo, NY, 1995; Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1997
  • Rethinking Life and Death: The Collapse of Our Traditional Ethics , Text Publishing, Melbourne, 1994; St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1995; reprint 2008. ISBN 0-312-11880-5 Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1995
  • Ethics JSON Action: Henry Spira and the Animal Rights Movement , Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham, Maryland, 1998; Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, 1999
  • A Darwinian Left , Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, 1999; Yale University Press, New Haven, 2000. ISBN 0-300-08323-8
  • One World: The Ethics of Globalisation , Yale University Press, New Haven, 2002; Text Publishing, Melbourne, 2002; 2nd edition, pb, Yale University Press, 2004; Oxford Longman, Hyderabad, 2004. ISBN 0-300-09686-0
  • Pushing Time Away: My Grandfather and the Tragedy of Jewish Vienna , Ecco Press, New York, 2003; HarperCollins Australia, Melbourne, 2003; Granta, London, 2004
  • The President of Good and Evil: The Ethics of George W. Bush , Dutton, New York, 2004; Granta, London, 2004; Text, Melbourne, 2004. ISBN 0-525-94813-9
  • The Life You Can Save: Acting Now to End World Poverty . New York: Random House, 2009. [69]
  • The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism Is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically . Yale University Press, 2015.
  • Ethics in the Real World: 82 Letter Essays on Things That Matter . Princeton University Press, 2016.

Coauthored books

  • Animal Factories (co-author with James Mason), Crown, New York, 1980
  • Test Tube Babies: a guide to moral questions, presentation techniques, and future possibilities (co-edited with William Walters), Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1982
  • The Reproduction Revolution: New Ways of Making Babies (co-author with Deane Wells), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1984 revised American edition, Making Babies , Scribner’s, New York, 1985
  • Animal Liberation: A Graphic Guide (co-author with Lori Gruen), Camden Press, London, 1987
  • Should the Baby Live? The Problem of Handicapped Infants (co-author with Helga Kuhse), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1985; Oxford University Press, New York, 1986; Gregg revivals, Aldershot, Hampshire, 1994. ISBN 0-19-217745-1
  • Ethical and Legal Issues in Guardianship Options for Intellectually Disadvantaged People (co-author with Terry Carney), Human Rights Commission Monograph Series, no. 2, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1986
  • How Ethical is Australia? An Examination of Australia’s record as a Global Citizen (with Tom Gregg), Black Inc., Melbourne, 2004
  • The Ethics of What We Eat: Why Our Food Choices Matter (or The Way We Eat: Why Our Food Choices Matter ), Rodale, New York, 2006 (co-author with Jim Mason ); Text, Melbourne; Random House, London. Audio Version: Play Away. ISBN 1-57954-889-X
  • Eating (co-authored with Jim Mason), Arrow, London, 2006
  • Stem Cell Research: the ethical issues . (co-edited by Lori Gruen, Laura Grabel, and Peter Singer). New York: Blackwell. 2007.
  • The Future of Animal Farming: Renewing the Ancient Contract (with Marian Stamp Dawkins, and Roland Bonney) 2008. New York: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • The Point of View of the Universe: Sidgwick and Contemporary Ethics (with Katarzyna the Lazari-Radek), Oxford University Press, 2014

Edited and coedited volumes and Anthologies

  • Animal Rights and Human issuing obligations: An Anthology (co-editor with Thomas Regan), Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 1976. 2nd revised edition, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 1989
  • In Defence of Animals (ed.), Blackwell, Oxford, 1985; Harper & Row, New York, 1986. ISBN 0-631-13897-8
  • Applied Ethics (ed.), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1986
  • Embryo Experimentation (co-editor with Helga Kuhse Stephen Buckle, Karen Dawson and Pascal Kasimba), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1990; paperback edition, updated, 1993
  • A Companion to Ethics (ed.), Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1991; paperback edition, 1993
  • Save the Animals! (Australian edition, co-author with Barbara Dover and Ingrid Newkirk), Collins Angus & Robertson, North Ryde, NSW, 1991
  • The Great Ape Project: Equality Beyond Humanity (co-editor with Paola Cavalieri), Fourth Estate, London, 1993; hardback, St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1994; paperback, St. Martin’s Press, New York, 1995
  • Ethics (ed.), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1994
  • Individuals, Humans and Persons: Questions of Life and Death (co-author with Helga Kuhse), Academia Verlag, Sankt Augustin, Germany, 1994
  • The Greens (co-author with Bob Brown) Text Publishing, Melbourne, 1996
  • The Allocation of Healthcare Resources: An Ethical Evaluation of the “QALY” Approach (co-author with John McKie, Jeff Richardson and Helga Kuhse), Ashgate / Dartmouth, Aldershot, 1998
  • A Companion to Bioethics (co-editor with Helga Kuhse), Blackwell, Oxford, 1998
  • Bioethics. An Anthology (co-editor with Helga Kuhse), Blackwell, 1999 / Oxford, 2006
  • The Moral of the Story: An Anthology of Ethics Through Literature (co-edited with Renata Singer), Blackwell, Oxford, 2005
  • In Defense of Animals. The Second Wave (ed.), Blackwell, Oxford, 2005
  • The Bioethics Reader: Editors’ Choice . (co-editor with Ruth Chadwick, Helga Kuhse, Willem Landman and Udo Schüklenk). New York: Blackwell, 2007
  • JM Coetzee and Ethics: Philosophical Perspectives on Literature (co-editor with A. Leist), New York: Columbia University Press, 2010

Anthologies of Singer’s work

  • Writings on an Ethical Life , Ecco, New York, 2000; Fourth Estate, London, 2001. ISBN 0-06-019838-9
  • Unsanctifying Human Life: Essays on Ethics (edited by Helga Kuhse), Blackwell, Oxford, 2001

Commentary volumes on Singer’s work

  • Jamieson, Dale (ed.). Singer and His Critics . Wiley-Blackwell, 1999
  • Scaler, Jeffrey A. (ed.), Peter Singer Under Fire: The Moral Iconoclast Faces His Critics . Chicago: Open Court Publishers, 2009
  • Davidow, Ben (ed.). “Peter Singer” Uncaged: Top Activists Share Their Wisdom on Effective Farm Animal Advocacy Davidow Press, 2013


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  2. Jump up^ Thompson, Peter (28 May 2007). “Talking Heads – Peter Singer” . Retrieved 24 October 2011 .
  3. Jump up^ Douglas Aiton: At Things You Did not Know about Professor Peter Singer; The Weekend Australian Magazine, 27 February 2005
  4. Jump up^ Singer, Peter (28 May 2007). Pushing Time Away – Peter Singer . Retrieved 9 January 2012 .
  5. Jump up^ Suzannah Pearce, etc. (17 November 2006). “RICHARDSON (Sue) Susan”. Who’s Who in Australia Live !. North Melbourne, Vic: Crown Content Pty Ltd.
  6. Jump up^ Vulliamy, Ed (15 February 2009). “Peter Singer: Moral arbiter of life and death” . The Guardian . London . Retrieved 24 October 2011 .
  7. Jump up^ Democracy and Disobedience, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1973,ISBN 0-19-824504-1.
  8. Jump up^ Appel, Jacob M. Interview with Peter Singer, Philosopher and Educator,Education Update, July
  9. Jump up^ Peter Singer’s university website
    Centre for Applied Philosophy and Public Ethics
    Peter Singer. Resources on Singer, zoals book excerpts, articles, interviews, reviews, and Writings about im.
    Peter Singer biography
    Peter Singer debates his viewson a BBC / RSA panel in London, 5 September 2006
    Peter Singer’s monthly Project Syndicate commentary series, “The Ethics of Life”
    Singer’s article in Greater Good Magazine about the ethics of eating locally, anyone grown good
    The Singer Solution to World Poverty
    Peter Singer on animal rights(PDF)
  10. Jump up^ “The professoriate”New College of the Humanities, Accessed 8 June 2011.
  11. Jump up^ Helga Kuhse, ed. (2002). Unsanctifying human life: essays on ethics . New York: Blackwell. p. 2. ISBN  0631225072 .
  12. ^ Jump up to:a b Michael Specter, ” The Dangerous Philosopher “, The New Yorker , 6 September 1999
  13. Jump up^ Stuart Jeffries, “Moral maze”. The Guardian, 23 July 2005. Retrieved 6 October 2014
  14. Jump up^ Practical Ethics, p. 11
  15. Jump up^ Animal Liberation, pp. 211, 256
  16. Jump up^ “Board of Directors” . Retrieved 2015-02-18 .
  17. Jump up^ Peter Singer,The Drowning Child and the Expanding Circle,The internationalist, 1997
  18. Jump up^ Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for our Treatment of Animals, New York: New York Review / Random House, 1975,ISBN 0-394-40096-8; second edition, 1990,ISBN 0-940322-00-5.
  19. Jump up^ “Karen Dawn’s Biography” . . Retrieved 23 May 2011 .
  20. Jump up^ Waldau, Paul (2001). The specter of Speciesism: Buddhist and Christian Views of Animals. Oxford University Press, pp. 5, 23-29.
  21. Jump up^ “An AMA with Peter Singer, author of Animal Liberation, The Life You Can Save, Practical Ethics, and The Most Good You Can Do. • / r / IAMA” . reddit . Retrieved 2015-12-22 .
  22. Jump up^ “The ethics of eating” . .
  23. Jump up^ Mangan, Lucy (28 November 2006). “Last night’s TV” . The Guardian . London . Retrieved 10 January 2016 .
  24. Jump up^ Peter Singer,Practical Ethics, Second Edition, 1993, p.335
  25. Jump up^ Lazari-Radek, K. Singer, P.,The Point of View of the Universe: Sidgwick and Contemporary Ethics, Oxford University Press, 2014, p.126
  26. Jump up^ Lazari-Radek, K. Singer, P.,The Point of View of the Universe: Sidgwick and Contemporary Ethics, Oxford University Press, 2014, pp. 182-183
  27. ^ Jump up to:a b scaler, Jeffrey A. (30 September 2011). Peter Singer Under Fire: The Moral Iconoclast Faces His Critics . Open Court. p. 7. ISBN  9780812697698 .
  28. ^ Jump up to:a b c scaler, Jeffrey A. (30 September 2011). Peter Singer Under Fire: The Moral Iconoclast Faces His Critics . Open Court. pp. 58-59. ISBN  9780812697698 .
  29. Jump up^ Singer, Peter; Brown, Bob (1996). The Greens . Text Publishing Company. ISBN  9781875847174 .
  30. Jump up^ A Darwinian Left: Politics, Evolution, and Cooperation, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000,ISBN 0-300-08323-8.
  31. Jump up^ “” . . Retrieved 23 May 2011 .
  32. Jump up^ Marx: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, 2000, p.100
  33. Jump up^ “The Death Penalty – Again” . Project Syndicate . 11 October 2011 . Retrieved 10 February 2014 .
  34. Jump up^ “ETHICS MATTER: A Conversation with Peter Singer” . Policy Innovations . 17 October 2011 . Retrieved 10 February 2014 .
  35. Jump up^ Dan Goldberg,”Peter Singer, is he really the musts dangerous man in the world?” , The Jewish Chronicle, August 16th, 2012.
  36. ^ Jump up to:a b Singer, Peter (11 August 2016). “Greens for Trump?” . Project Syndicate . Retrieved 18 January 2016 .
  37. Jump up^ Taking Life: Humans, Excerpted from Practical Ethics, 2nd edition, 1993
  38. Jump up^ Singer, Peter. Peter Singer FAQ, Princeton University, Accessed 8 March 2009.
  39. Jump up^ Singer, Peter. “An Interview”. Writings on an Ethical Life . pp. 319-329. ISBN  1841155500 .
  40. Jump up^ Quoted in Michael Specter, “The Dangerous Philosopher”, The New Yorker , 6 September 1999.
  41. Jump up^ Ronald Bailey, “The Pursuit of Happiness”, Reason (magazine) , January 2000.
  42. Jump up^ Pablo Stafforini. “” . . Retrieved 23 May 2011 .
  43. Jump up^ Singer, Peter (1985). Making babies: The New Science and Ethics of Conception . C. Scribner’s Sons.
  44. Jump up^ Rosemarie Tong. “Chapter 27: Surrogate Motherhood”. In RG Frey and Christopher Heath Wellman. A Companion to Applied Ethics . p. 376. ISBN  1557865949 .
  45. Jump up^ Singer, Peter. Heavy Pettingat theWayback Machine(archived 16 March 2008),Nerve, 2001. Archived fromthe originalon 16 March 2008
  46. Jump up^ Regan, Tom. Animal Rights, Human Wrongs. Rowman & Littlefield, 2003, pp. 63-4, 89.
  47. Jump up^ “Peter Singer” . . Retrieved 1 January 2013 .
  48. Jump up^ “Singer vs Lennox: Is There a God?” . . 6 September 2011 . Retrieved 1 January 2013 .
  49. Jump up^ “Singer D’Souza face off on religion and morality” . Princeton Alumni Weekly . 28 January 2009 . Retrieved 1 January 2013 .
  50. ^ Jump up to:a b Peter Singer (8 May 2008). “The God of Suffering?” . Project Syndicate . Retrieved 17 April 2015 .
  51. Jump up^ “[T] he aim of my argument is to elevate the status of animals Rather dan to lower the status or ANY humans” (Practical Ethics, p. 77).
  52. Jump up^ Peter Singer Practical Ethics 3rd edition
  53. Jump up^ “Steve Forbes Decline Princeton Financial Backing Due to Singer Hiring” . 21 September 1999 . Retrieved 23 May 2011.
  54. Jump up^ Don Felder,”Professor Death will fit right in at Princeton”, Jewish World Review , 28 October 1998.
  55. Jump up^ “Independence and the Necessity for Diplomacy” . . Retrieved 23 May 2011 .
  56. Jump up^ Dalrymple, Theodore (2010). Spoiled Rotten: The Toxic Cult of Sentimentality . Gibson Square Books Ltd. p. 226. ISBN  1-906142-61-0 .
  57. Jump up^ Williams, Bernard (2009). “The Human Prejudice”. In Jeffrey A. scaler. Peter Singer under fire: the moral iconoclast faces his critics . Chicago: Open Court. pp. 92-93. ISBN  9780812696189 .
  58. Jump up^ Singer, Peter (2009). “Reply to Bernard Williams”. In Jeffrey A. scaler. Peter Singer under fire: the moral iconoclast faces his critics . Chicago: Open Court. p. 101. ISBN  9780812696189 .
  59. Jump up^ Deckers J. Animal (The) liberation: Should the Consumption of Animal Products Be Banned ?, London: Ubiquity Press, 2016; doi:
  60. Jump up^ Roger Scruton (Summer 2000). “Animal Rights” . . Retrieved 6 October 2012 .
  61. Jump up^ O’Connor, Donal (2013-08-16). “” Strength of Judith Thompson’s new play The Thrill is Asking provocative, complex questions ” . Stratford Beaconherald.
  62. ^ Jump up to:a b c Singer, Peter. “On Being Silenced in Germany”. Writings on an Ethical Life . pp. 303-318. ISBN  1841155500 .
  63. Jump up^ Holger Dorf, “Singer in Saabrücken”Unirevue(Winter Semester, 1989/90), p.47.
  64. Jump up^ Sheri Berman (Fall 1999). “Euthanasia, Eugenics and Fascism: How Close are the Connections” (PDF) . German Politics and Society 17 (3). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2012.
  65. Jump up^ “” . . Retrieved 23 May 2011 .
  66. Jump up^ Practical Ethics second edition, 1993,ISBN 0-521-43363-0. pp. 346-359.
  67. Jump up^ “US Animal Rights Hall of Fame” . Bethesda, Maryland : Farm Animal Rights Movement . Retrieved 20 November 2012 . [ Dead link ]
  68. Jump up^ “Companion (AC) in the General Division of the Order of Australia – The Queen’s Birthday Honours 2012 Lists”(PDF) . Official Secretary to the Governor-General of Australia . 11 June 2012. p. 8 .
  69. Jump up^ Reviewed atDwight Garner (10 March 2009). “If You Think You’re Good, You Should Think Again” . The New York Times . Retrieved 14 July 2009 .