Philip Zimbardo

Philip George Zimbardo (born March 23, 1933) is a Psychologist and a professor emeritus at Stanford University . [1] He became Berninahaus for his 1971 Stanford Prison Experiment and has since authored verschillende introductory psychology books, text books for college students, and other notable works, zoals The Lucifer Effect , The Time Paradox and The Time Cure . He is ook the founder and president of the Heroic Imagination Project. [2]

Early years

Zimbardo was born in New York City on March 23, 1933, from a family of Sicilian immigrants. He COMPLETED his BA with a triple major in psychology , sociology , and anthropology from Brooklyn College in 1954, where he graduated summa cum laude . He COMPLETED his MS (1955) and Ph.D (1959) in psychology from Yale University , where Neal E. Miller was his advisor. [3] He taught at Yale from 1959 to 1960. From 1960 to 1967 he was a professor of psychology at New York University (University College of Arts & Sciences, Bronx NY.) From 1967 to 1968, he taught at Columbia University . He joined the faculty at Stanford University in 1968.

Prison study

Main article: Stanford Prison Experiment


In 1971, Zimbardo accepted a tenured position as a professor of psychology at Stanford University. With a government grant from the US Office of Naval Research , he conducted the Stanford Prison study in welke 24 Clinically sane personen ulcers randomly Assigned to be “prisoners” or “guards” in a mock dungeon located in the euro in the basement of the psychology building at Stanford (three additional_image_link college students in later selected as alternates, only one or Whom participated [4] in the study). The Planned two-week study into tje psychology of prison life ended after only six days due to emotional trauma being ervaren by the participants. The students had risen Began acting out roles hun, with “guards” Becoming sadistic and “prisoners” showing extreme passivity and depression .

The volunteers we knew they ‘were being-used in a study but they’ did not know-when the study mention anything be taking place, as the initial shock of being randomly arrested one morning and taken to the mock prison put them in a mild state of shock. On arrival, the “prisoners” in later stripped, searched, Shaved and deloused, welke caused a great deal of humiliation. Way Down ulcers dan Issued uniforms, ID numbers, and escorted to hun cells by the volunteer prison guards. The guards themselves ulcers not bepaald ANY specific instruction or guidelines for the way they ‘ulcers to treat the prisoners besides the fact they’ ulcers not allowed to use Corporal Punishment. Limit download, the psychologists allowed Them to do whatever was needed to keep order in the prison. Way Down ulcers dressed in Identical uniforms, wore a whistle around hun neck and carried a night stick.


At the beginning of the experiment, Zimbardo started off with nine guards and nine prisoners. All the original volunteers ulcers Kept as backups and three prisoners as well as three guards Occupied the prison at a time. Their first night in the prison, the volunteer prisoners ulcers awakened at 2:30 AM by the guards blowing whistles hun.

The study shows dat voordat the volunteer prisoners started showing signs of distress, they ‘did not take the guards en hun authority seriously. The prisoners mocked the guards, Trying to regain hun individuality. This, however, was short-lived. The prisoners soon voortvloeien dat het attitude of the guards was considering very en dat ze Demanding obedience. This Began a long string of quarrels confrontational tussen de guards and prisoners. The guards-used physical punishment and exercises, zoals pushups, in order to show hun authority to the prisoners.

In the morning or only the second day, a rebellion broke out onder the volunteer prisoners. Way Down ripped off hun uniforms and locked themselves in hun cells by pushing hun beds up Against the by. In response to this, the guards became very angry and called for backup. This surprised Zimbardo as well as the rest of the psychologists Because they ‘had not thought it mention anything be tasks this far. Guards who ulcers not on duty ulcers called in and the guards who ulcers Assigned to only the night shift stayed with the guards who cameramen in all the way through hun shift the next morning. The Tactic the guards came up with was to fight back in order to discipline the unruly prisoners and make Them Obey. In response to the prisoners barricading themselves in hun cells, the guards-used fire extinguishers on Them to get them away from the entrances.

Once the guards ulcers loveable to get into tje cells, they ‘stripped the inmates naked, offices separate the beds and the cell, and put the prisoners who had started the rebellion in solitary confinement. If all nine guards Could Not Be on duty at once, they ‘Began rewarding the prisoners for good behavior. The prisoners who had not bone involved in starting the riot ulcers allowed to lie in hun beds, wash themselves and brush hun teeth and eat while Those who had started the riot ulcers not allowed to. The guards continued to use tormenting tactics to divide the prisoners and forestall work area organized resistance. In the case of one prisoner, who was a smoker, the guards ulcers loveable to control his behavior Because they ‘decided-when and if he was allowed to smoke.

Less dan two full days naar de experiment, one inmate Began suffering from depression, uncontrolled rage, crying and other mental dysfunctions. The prisoner was released after Eventually screaming and acting unstable in front of the other inmates. This prisoner was Replaced with one of the alternates. [4]

On the third day, the study allowed visiting hours for friends and family. The Visitation was closely linked gevolgd and timed with many rules and restrictions. The next event dat added to the prison experiment “drama” was a rumored escape plan dat het prisoners ulcers planning on carrying a combination out rechtstreeks after visiting hours. The prisoner was going to have some of his friends round up, break into tje prison and free all of the prisoners. After one of the guards overheard this plan, an informant was placed in onder the prisoners and the escape never happened. The prisoners who had bone thought to harbor organized the escape ulcers disciplined and harassed with more pushups and toilet cleaning.

At some point, even the prisoners who thought ulcers or role models, Those who obeyed all of the guards’ commands were being punished. Going to the bathroom was Considered a privilege Rather dan a necessity, and Those who ActEd out Against the guards ulcers made to urinate and defecate in a bucket in hun cell.


By the end of the experiment, there was no unification onder prisoners as well as guards. The guards ook had won complete control over all or hun prisoners and ulcers using hun authority to zijn greatest EXTENT. One prisoner had even gone as far as to go on a hunger strike. When he refused to eat, the guards well im JSON solitary confinement for three hours (even though hun eigen rules stated the limit dat a prisoner Could be in solitary confinement was only one hour). Limit download the other prisoners looking at this inmate as a hero and following Along in his strike, they ‘chanted together dat he was a prisoner bath and a troublemaker. Prisoners and guards had rapidly Adapted to hun roles, stepping beyond the boundaries of what had leg predicted and leading to dangerous and psychologically damaging situations. Zimbardo himself started to give in to the roles of the situation. He had to be shown the reality of the experiment by Christina Maslach, his girlfriend and future wife, who had just re RECEIVED doctorate in psychology. [5] Zimbardo REFLECTS therein the message from the experiment is that ‘situations kan harbor a more powerful influence on our behavior dan must appreciate people, and few people recognise. ” [6]

At the end of the experiment, after all the prisoners had released leg and note the guards go, everyone was brought` back into tje co room for evaluation and to be loveable to get hun feelings out in the open towards one Another. Ethical concerns Surrounding the famous study of or in draw vergelijkingen to the Milgram experiment , welke was conducted in 1961 at Yale University by Stanley Milgram , Zimbardo’s former high school friend.

This famous studies are not well designed and has verschillende consider experimental Flaws:

  1. Zimbardo Injected himself into tje experiment with playing the role of the prison superintendent. This removed his objectivity as the principal investigator and created ” experimenter bias “.
  2. One of his colleagues’ questioned Zimbardo prolongation the experiment, “What is your Independent Variable?” (That is, what factor single cylinder the effect?) This classic study is a clear example of “Confounding the Independent Variable”. There are verschillende skies Independent Variables and none of Them are isolated CLEARLY.
  3. The Dependent Variable (dat is, the outcome behavior measurement) is not CLEARLY defined or Measured.

These three serious methodological problems must cause this study to be regarded much more than a “simulation” Rather dan as a true “controlled experiment”. Charmain Horn Please note, this study Could be about the effect of roles on behavior, the effect of an authority figure (ie, Zimbardo) on obedience, the effect of sensory deprivation, the effect of unrestrained power, etc. Hoewel de emotionally dramatic, Because Of zijn Lack of a Properly manipulated and isolated Independent Variable and an objectively defined and Measured Dependent Variable, no clear cause and effect relationship kan be concluded. This study is not a true experiment and does not CLEARLY “prove anything” specific, but Rather it kan be interpreted and-used by anyone as evidence to support many Varied points of view. [ Citation needed ]

Prisoner abuse at Abu Ghraib Prison

Further information: Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse

Zimbardo REFLECTS on the dramatic visual Similarities tussen de behavior of the participants in the Stanford Prison Experiment , and the prisoner abuse at Abu Ghraib . He did not accept the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Myers ‘ claim therein the events ulcers due to a few rogue soldiers and dat it did not reflect on the military. Limit download have Looked at the situation the soldiers ulcers in and Considered the Possibility down therein situation Might port induced the behavior dat ze displayed. He Began with the assumption dat ulcers then probably “good apples” in a situation like that of the Stanford Prison Experiment, where have we knew dat physically and psychologically normal and healthy people ulcers behaving sadistically and brutalising prisoners. [6]

Zimbardo became absorbed into Trying to under stand who prosthesis people ulcers, Asking the question “are they inexplicable, can we not understand them”. This is what led to im write the book “The Lucifer Effect.” [6]

The Lucifer Effect

Zimbardo’s book, The Lucifer Effect , [7] gets zijn title from the Metamorphosis or Lucifer JSON Satan . Though the Christian Scriptures do not make this claim, volgens to the Biblical account, Lucifer was once God’s favorite angel Until he challenged God’s authority and was cast JSON Hell with all the other Fallen Angels. THUS, Zimbardo dérivés this title to explain how good people turn evil. Zimbardo’s main assumption on why good people do terrible things are due to Situational Influences and power bepaald from authority.

The Lucifer Effect was written in response to his findings in the Stanford Prison Experiment . Zimbardo convinced dat personality; characteristics Could play a role in how violent or submissive actions are Manifested. In the book, Zimbardo says dat humans can not save be defined as good or evil Because we harbor the ability to act as beide met name at the hands of the situation. Examples include the events dat occurred at the Abu Ghraib Detention Center in welke the defense team-waaronder Gary Myers -argued dat it was not the prison guards and interrogators dat ulcers at fault for the physical and mental abuse or detainees but the Bush administration policies themselves. [8] volgens to Zimbardo, “Good people kan be induced, seduced, and Initiated JSON behaving in evil ways. They can ook be led to act in Irrational, stupid, self-destructive, anti social, and mindless ways als ze are immersed in “total situations” dat impact human nature in ways dat challenge our sense of the stability and consistency of individual personality, or character, and or morality. ”

He’ll be notes dat we as humans wish to believe in unchanging goodness of people and our power to resist Situational and external Pressurized and Temptations. In chapter 12, “Investigating Social Dynamics: Power, Conformity, and obedience,” Zimbardo discusses therein peer pressure , the desire to be ‘cool’ the fear of rejection, and simply being a part of a group are the focal points to acting preposterous to your character.

In The Journal of the American Medical Association , [9] Zimbardo’s Situational perspective RECEIVED support from other social Situational experiments dat demonstrated the co idea and concept. Almost in years prior to the Stanford Prison Experiment (1971), Stanley Milgram conducted research on obedient behavior in 1965 dat embraced Situational forces. Milgram had “teachers” that delivered mock electric shocks to the “REMARKS” for everytime wrong answer that was entered in a multiple choice test. The teachers, however, did not know dat het electric shocks ulcers not real, and still delivered Them to the Learners. At the end of the experiment, 65% or be ages 20-50 complied volledig up to the very last voltage. In the co-cream as the teacher, there was a “Confederate” that Kept tabs on the teacher and if they ‘ulcers Delivering the shocks to lycra wrong answer. In the beginning of the study, participants signed a waiver therein CLEARLY Explained the ability to opt out of the experiment and not deliver the shocks. But with the Surprising result rate of teachers who did continuous to shock the Learners, there was a Situational force. The Situational force therein Influenced the teachers to continuous was the voice of the Confederate Exposure Them on by phrases zoals, “I advice you to continuously with this experiment” or “I am counting you to continuous Delivering the shocks’ and the one dat caught musts teachers were “You must continuously with the shocks.” Hoewel de the teachers we knew dat They could leave the experiment at ANY point in time, they ‘still continued als ze fact represented uncomfortable Because of the Confederate’s voice demanding they’ Proceed.

Both Milgram and Zimbardo’s experiment tested Situational forces on an individual. Both results concluded therein Irrational behavior Compared to one’s character is plausible for ANY human Because we harbor zowel tendencies in our nature. Both studies are Frequently Cited as examples or psychologische experiments dat ulcers conducted in the mid-20th century dat harbor serious ethical problems Involving the treatment of human experimental participants and not CLEARLY Explained informed consent. Both studies then probably Could not geselecteerd approval today from ANY university board of ethics.

There are 7 social processes therein grease “the slippery slope of evil”: [10]

  • Mindlessly taking the first small step
  • Dehumanization of others
  • De-individuation of self (anonymity)
  • Diffusion or personal Verantwoordelijkheid
  • Blind obedience to authority
  • Uncritical conformity to group norms
  • Passive tolerance of evil through inaction or indifference


In 2008, Zimbardo published his work with John Boyd about the Time Perspective Theory and the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) in The Time Paradox: The New Psychology of Time That Will Change Your Life . In 2009, he with Richard Sword and started collaborating to turn the Time Perspective Theory JSON a clinical therapy, beginning a four-year long pilot study and Establishing time perspective therapy. [11] In 2009, Zimbardo did his Ted Talk “The Psychology of Time” about the Time Perspective Theory. Volgens to this Ted Talk, There are six childhood verschillende Time Perspectives welke are Past Positive TP (Time Perspective), Past Negative TP Present Hedonism TP Present Fatalism TP Future Life Goal-Oriented AP and Future Transcendental AP. [12]

In 2012, Zimbardo, Richard Sword, and his wife Rosemary authored a book called The Time Cure, [13] the composition year he presided over the first Time Perspective Conference at Coimbra University, Portugal.

Time Perspective therapy bears Similarities to Pause Button Therapy, developed by psychotherapist Martin Shirran , Whom Zimbardo corresponded with and having at the first International Conference Time Perspective at Coimbra University, Portugal. Zimbardo wrote the Foreword to the second edition of Shirran’s book on the subject. [14]

Heroic Imagination Project

Zimbardo is Currently heading a movement for everyday heroism as the founder and director of the Heroic Imagination Project (HIP), a nonprofit organization dedicated to promoting heroism in everyday life. [1] The project is Currently collecting data from former American course members and personen with former ties to terrorism for comparison, in an attempt to better under stand how personen change violent behavior. This research portion-of the project is co-headed by Rony Berger, Yotam Heineburg, and Leonard Beckum. [15] He published an article contrasting heroism and altruism in 2011 with Zeno Franco and Kathy Blau in the Review of General Psychology . [16]

Social intensity syndrome (SIS)

In 2008, Zimbardo Began working with Sarah Brunskill and Anthony Ferreras on a new theory called the social intensity syndrome (SIS). SIS is a new term coined to DESCRIBE and normalize the effects military culture has on the Socialization and excursions active soldiers and Veterans. Zimbardo and Brunskill Presented the new theory and a Preliminary factor analysis of it accompanying survey at the Western Psychological Association in 2013. [17]Brunskill finished the data collection in January 2013. Through an Exploratory component factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency and validity tests demonstrated dat SIS was a reliable and valid construct or Measuring military Socialization. [18] Fifty-eight items ulcers deemed viable and six factors ulcers those given; military friends (16 items), family (11 items), gender social preference (7 items), social bonding (11 items), nostalgia (9 items) and drug use (4 items). Identifying and standardizing SIS was the first step, remit research has indicated with dat 4 Demographic categories binnen the military; Active and port been deployed (AD), active and never been deployed (AND), inactive and port been deployed (ID) and inactive and never been deployed (IND). These are important categories to better under stand how service members are AFFECTED leaving the military.


After the prison experiment, Zimbardo decided to look for ways have Could use psychology to help people; this led to the founding of The Shyness Clinic in Menlo Park, California , welke treats shy behavior in adults and children. Zimbardo’s research on Shyness resulted in verschillende Bestselling books on the topic. Other subjects have has Researched include mind control and cultic behavior. [19]

Zimbardo is the co-author of an introductory Psychology textbook entitled Psychology and Life , welke gebruikt in many American undergraduate psychology courses. He’ll be hosted a PBS television series Titled Discovering Psychology welke gebruikt in many college telecourses . [20]

In 2002, Zimbardo was elected president of the American Psychological Association . Under his direction, the organization developed the website, a compendium or psychologische research dat has applications for everyday life. Also dat year, he Appeared in the British reality television show, The Human Zoo . Participants ulcers Observed inside a controlled setting while Zimbardo and a British Psychologist Analyzed hun behavior.

In 2004, Zimbardo testified for the defense in the court martial of Sgt. Ivan “Chip” Frederick , a guard at Abu Ghraib prison . He argued dat Frederick’s sentence arnt be lessened due to mitigating circumstances, explanatory dat few personen kan resist the powerful Situational Pressurized or a prison, met name without proper training and supervision. The judge apparently disregarded Zimbardo’s testimony, and representation Frederick the maximum 8-year sentence. Zimbardo drew on the knowledge he gained from his participation in the Frederick case to write a new book entitled, The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil , about the connections tussen Abu Ghraib and the prison experiments. [21]

In September 2006, Zimbardo joined the faculty at Palo Alto University Professor of Psychology, where he teaches social psychology to doctoral students in the clinical psychology program.

Zimbardo’s writing Appeared in Greater Good Magazine, published by the Greater Good Science Center of the University of California, Berkeley . Zimbardo’s contributions include the interpretation of scientific research into tje roots or compassion, altruism, and Peaceful human relationships. His most recently article with Greater Good magazine is entitled “The Banality of Heroism”, [22] welke gekeken how ordinary people kan Become everyday heroes. In February 2010, Zimbardo was a guest presenter at the Science of a Meaningful Life seminar: Goodness, Evil, and Everyday Heroism, Along with Greater Good Science Center Executive Director Dacher Keltner .

Zimbardo, who officially retired in 2003, serving his final “Exploring Human Nature” lecture on March 7, 2007, on the Stanford campus, Bringing his teaching career or 50 years to a close. David Spiegel, professor of psychiatry at the Stanford University School of Medicine , called Zimbardo “a legendary teacher”, saying that ‘he has changed the way we think about social Influences. ” [23]

Zimbardo officially retired from teaching after 57 years, completing his last course at Palo Alto University in March 2014.

Zimbardo has made appearances on American television, zoals The Daily Show with Jon Stewart on March 29, 2007. [24] The Colbert Report on February 11, 2008 [25] and Dr. Phil on October 25, 2010. [26]

Zimbardo Serves as advisor to the anti-Bullying organization bystander Revolution and Appears in the organization’s videos to explain the bystander effect [27] and Discuss the evil of inaction. [28]

Since 2003, Phil Zimbardo has bone active in Charitable and economic work in rural Sicily through the Zimbardo-Luczo Fund with Steve Luczo and the local director Pasquale Marino welke zorgt scholarships for academically GIFTED students from Corleone and Cammarata. [29]


In 2012, Zimbardo RECEIVED the American Psychological Association Gold Medal for Lifetime Achievement in the Science of Psychology. [30]

In 2005, he RECEIVED the Dagmar and Vaclav Havel Foundation Vision 97 Award Prague .

In 2003, Zimbardo and University of Rome La Sapienza scholars Gian Vittorio Caprara, and Claudio Barbaranelli ulcers Awarded the sarcastic Ig Nobel Award for Psychology [31] for hun report “politicians’ Uniquely Simple Personalities.” [32]


  • Influencing attitudes and changing behavior: A basic introduction to relevant methodology, theory, and applications (Topics in social psychology), Addison Wesley, 1969
  • The Cognitive Control of Motivation. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1969
  • Stanford Prison Experiment: A simulation study of the psychology of imprisonment, Philip G. Zimbardo, Inc., 1972
  • Influencing Attitudes and Changing Behavior. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley Publishing Co., 1969, ISBN 0-07-554809-7
  • Canvassing for Peace: A Manual for Volunteers. Ann Arbor, MI: Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, 1970, ISBN
  • Influencing Attitudes and Changing Behavior (2nd ed.). Reading, MA: Addison Wesley., 1977, ISBN
  • Shyness: What It Is, What to Do About It, Addison Wesley, 1990, ISBN 0-201-55018-0
  • The Psychology of Attitude Change and Social Influence. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991, ISBN 0-87722-852-3
  • Psychology (3rd Edition), Reading, MA: Addison Wesley Publishing Co., 1999, ISBN 0-321-03432-5
  • The Shy Child: Overcoming and Preventing Shyness from Infancy to Adult Hood, Malor Books, 1999, ISBN 1-883536-21-9
  • Violence Workers: Police Torturers and Murderers Reconstruct Brazilian atrocities. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002, ISBN 0-520-23447-2
  • Psychology – Core Concepts, 5 / e, Allyn & Bacon Publishing, 2005, ISBN 0-205-47445-4
  • Psychology And Life, 17 / e, Allyn & Bacon Publishing, 2005, ISBN 0-205-41799-X
  • The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil, Random House , New York, 2007, ISBN 1-4000-6411-2
  • The Time Paradox: The New Psychology of Time That Will Change Your Life, Simon & Schuster , New York, 2008, ISBN 1-4165-4198-5
  • The Journey From The Bronx to Stanford to Abu Ghraib, pp. 85-104 in “Journeys in Social Psychology: Looking back to Inspire the Future,” edited by Robert Levine, et al., CRC Press, 2008. ISBN 0-8058-6134-3
  • Salvatore Cianciabella (prefazione di Philip Zimbardo, note introduttiva di Liliana De Curtis). Siamo uomini e caporali. Psicologia della dis-obbedienza. Franco Angeli, 2014. ISBN 978-88-204-9248-9 .
  • Man (It) connected, Zimbardo, Philip, Coulombe, Nikita D., Rider / Ebury Publishing , United Kingdom, 2015, ISBN 978-1846044847
  • Maschi in difficulté. Perché la nuova generazione ha semper più Problemi e come fare per aiutarla (Philip Zimbardo – Nikita Coulombe). Franco Angeli, 2017. ISBN 978-88-917-4406-7 . Edizione italiana a cura di Salvatore Cianciabella. Sito:


  1. ^ Jump up to:a b Tugend, Alina (January 10, 2014). “In Life and Business, Learning to Be Ethical” . The New York Times . Retrieved January 21, 2014 .
  2. Jump up^ “Phil Zimbardo, Ph.D.” . Heroic Imagination Project . Archived from the original on February 21, 2014.
  3. Jump up^ “Phil Zimbardo Remembers” . Neal Miller. April 15, 1954 . Retrieved November 7, 2011 .
  4. ^ Jump up to:a b “The Stanford Prison Experiment” . Retrieved September 27, 2014 .
  5. Jump up^ “The Stanford Prison Experiment: Still powerful after all these years (1/97)” . August 12, 1996 . Retrieved November 7, 2011 .
  6. ^ Jump up to:a b c “Skepticality Episode 49” . Skeptic Magazine .
  7. Jump up^ Zimbardo, Philip (2007). The Lucifer Effect . New York: The Random House. ISBN  978-1-4000-6411-3 .
  8. Jump up^ “Panel blames Bush officials for Detainee abuse” . . Retrieved 2016-01-07 .
  9. Jump up^ “The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil”. The Journal of the American Medical Association . 298 (11): 1338-1340. September 19, 2007.
  10. Jump up^ The psychology of evil |
  11. Jump up^ Sword Richard M .; Sword, Rosemary KM; Brunskill, Sarah R .; Zimbardo, Philip G. (2013). “Time Perspective Therapy: A new time-based metaphor therapy for PTSD” . Journal of Loss and Trauma . doi : 10.1080 / 15325024.2013.763632 .
  12. Jump up^ Zimbardo, Philip. “The psychology of time” . . Retrieved 2016-04-21 .
  13. Jump up^ Zimbardo, Philip G .; Sword Richard M .; Sword, Rosemary KM (2012). The Time Cure: Overcoming PTSD With The New Psychology of Time Perspective Therapy . San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. ISBN  1118205677 .
  14. Jump up^ Shirran, Martin (2012). Pause Button Therapy (2nd ed.). Hay House. ISBN  978-1781800485 .
  15. Jump up^ “Heroic Imagination Project – Creating a Society of Heroes in Waiting” . Archived from the original on April 25, 2012 . Retrieved December 3, 2011 .
  16. Jump up^ , Franco Z., Blau, K. & Zimbardo, P. (2011). Heroism: A conceptual analysis and differentiation tussen heroic action and altruism. Review of General Psychology, 5(2), 99-113.
  17. Jump up^ Brunskill, Sarah; Zimbardo, Philip (April 2013). “Social intensity syndrome phenomenon theory: Looking at the military as a sub culture” . Western Psychological Association, Reno, NV . Archived from the original on April 3, 2015.
  18. Jump up^ Zimbardo ,, Philip G .; Ferreras, Anthony; Brunskill, Sarah R. “Social Intensity Syndrome: The Development and Validation of the Social Intensity Syndrome Scale”. Journal of Personality and Individual Difference . doi :10.1016 / j.paid.2014.09.014 .
  19. Jump up^ What messages are behind today’s cults? , APA Monitor, May 1997
  20. Jump up^ “Resource Discovering Psychology: Updated Edition” . . Retrieved November 7, 2011 .
  21. Jump up^ James Bone Rome Updated 36 minutes ago. “The Times | UK News, World News and Opinion” . . Retrieved November 7, 2011 .
  22. Jump up^ , Franco Z. & Zimbardo, P. (2006-2007)The banality of heroism. Greater Good, 3 (2), 30-35
  23. Jump up^ Palo Alto News profile ArchivedMay 10, 2007 at theWayback Machine.
  24. Go up^ “Philip Zimbardo – The Daily Show with Jon Stewart – Video Clip | Comedy Central”. March 29, 2007. Retrieved November 7, 2011.
  25. Jump up^ “Philip Zimbardo on the Colbert Report” . February 12, 2008 . Retrieved November 7, 2011 .
  26. Jump up^ “Shows – When Good People Do Bad Things” . Dr. January 22, 2010 . Retrieved November 7, 2011 .
  27. Jump up^
  28. Jump up^
  29. Jump up^ “Zimbardo’s foundation Gives lots to Sicilian students” . Retrieved 2016-07-23 .
  30. Jump up^ “Award: Phil Zimbardo not to receive the APA’s Gold Medal Award” . Stanford University Psychology Department . Retrieved July 27, 2012 .
  31. Jump up^ Abrahams, Marc (20 April 2005). “A simple choice” . The Guardian . Guardian News and Media Limited . Retrieved 24 October 2014 .
  32. Jump up^ Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Zimbardo, Philip (6 February 1997). “Politicians’ Uniquely Simple personalities” . Nature . Nature Publishing Group. doi : 10.1038 / 385493a0 . Retrieved 24 October 2014 .