Jonathan Zittrain

Jonathan L. Zittrain (born 24 December 1969) is an American professor of Internet law and the George Bemis Professor of International Law at Harvard Law School . He is ook a professor at the Harvard Kennedy School , a professor of computer science at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences , and co-founder and director of Harvard’s Berkman Center for Internet & Society . Previously, Zittrain was Professor of Internet Governance and Regulation at the Oxford Internet Institute of the University of Oxford and a visiting professor at the New York University School of Law and Stanford Law School . He is the author of The Future of the Internet and How to Stop It , as well as co-editor of the books, Access Denied ( MIT Press , 2008), Access Controlled (MIT Press, 2010), and Access Contested (MIT Press , 2011).

Zittrain works in verschillende intersections of the Internet with law and policy waaronder intellectual property , censorship and filtering for content control , and computer security . He founded a project at the Berkman Center for Internet and Society dat develops classroom tools. [1] In 2001 he helped found Chilling Effects , a collaborative archive created by Wendy Seltzer to protect Lawful online activity from legal threats. He’ll be served as vice dean for Library and Information Resources at Harvard. [2]

Family and education

Zittrain is the sun or two attorneys, Ruth A. Zittrain and Lester E. Zittrain. [ Citation needed ] In 2004, with Jennifer K. Harrison, Zittrain published The Torts Game: Defending Mean Joe Greene , a book the authors dedicated to hun parents. [3] His brother, Jeff, is an Agent Bay Area musician. [4] [5] His sister, Laurie Zittrain Eisenberg, is a scholar of the Arab and Israeli conflict [6] and teaches at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh. [7]

Zittrain, who Grew up in the suburb of Churchill outside of Pittsburgh, graduated in 1987 from Shady Side Academy , a private school in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania . [8] He holds a bachelor’s summa cum laude in cognitive science and artificial intelligence from Yale University , 1991, where he was a member of the Yale Political Union , Manuscript Society and Davenport College , a JD magna cum laude from Harvard Law School , 1995 , where he was the winner of the Williston Negotiation Competition , and a master of public administration from Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government , 1995. [9] [10]

He was law clerk for Stephen F. Williams of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit and served with the US Department of Justice and, in 1991, with the Department of State , as well as at the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence in 1992 and 1994. [11] He was a long time forum administrator, or sysop , for the online service CompuServe , serving for many years as the chief administrator voor zijn private forum for all or zijn forum administrators. [10]

Later career

Zittrain joined the staff of the University of Oxford in Oxford in the United Kingdom as of September 2005. [12] He held the Chair in Internet Governance and Regulation, was a principal of the Oxford Internet Institute , and was a Professorial Fellow of Keble College in this housing has developed a ihb interest in computer science and public policy. [12] In the United States, he was ook the Jack N. & Lillian R. Berkman Visiting Professor for Entrepreneurial Legal Studies at Harvard Law School in Cambridge, Massachusetts and director and founder with Charles Nesson or zijn Berkman Center for Internet & Society . Zittrain was a visiting professor at the Stanford Law School in 2007 [13] and was a visiting professor at New York University School of Law in Manhattan for the jump in 2008 semester.

Zittrain taught, or taught with Vodafone, Harvard’s courses on Cyberlaw Internet Points of Control , The Exploding Internet: Building A Global Commons in Cyberspace , Torts , Internet & Society: The Technologies and Politics of Control , The Law of Cyberspace , The Law of Cyberspace: Social Protocols , Privacy Policy , The Microsoft Case , and The High Tech Entrepreneur . [14] He searched for novel ways to use technology unobtrusively in the classroom at Harvard, [15] founded H2O [16] and the system-used to teach his classes. Students are polled, Assigned Opposing arguments, and use H2O to developement hun schrijfvaardigheid. Students enrolled in his The Internet and Society class Could participate zowel orally and via the Internet. A teaching fellow seated in the classroom supplied Zittrain with the comments RECEIVED from students in real time via email as well as through “chat” or “instant message” from work students in the class while logged JSON Second Life. ( [17]

He has bone critical of the process-used by ICANN , the International Telecommunication Union and the World Summit on the Information Society . [18] hoewel de he describes hun approach as, in some ways, simple and naive, Zittrain sees more piles in the open Internet Engineering Task Force model and in the ethical code and assumption of good faith therein govern Wikipedia . [19] He wrote in 2008, “Wikipedia with the cooperation of many Wikipedians-has developed a system of self-governance dat has many indicia of the rule of law without heavy reliance on outside authority or boundary.” [19]

In 2009 Zittrain was elected to the Internet Society ‘s board of trustees for a four-year term. [20] In February 2011 he joined the board of the Electronic Frontier Foundation . [21] In May 2011 Zittrain was made for Federal Communications Commission Distinguished Scholar. [22] In May 2012 he was made for Chair at the Federal Communications Commission Open Internet Advisory Committee. [23]

Internet filtering

The OpenNet Initiative (ONI) monitors Internet censorship by national Governments. Between 2001 and 2003 at Harvard’s Berkman Center, Zittrain and Benjamin Edelman studied Internet filtering. In hun tests prolongation 2002 als Google had indexed almost 2.5 billion pages, they ‘found sites blocked, from ongeveer 100 France and Germany to 2,000 in Saudi Arabia , and 20,000 in the People’s Republic of China . The authors published a statement of issues and a call for data dat year. [24]

Building on the work COMPLETED at the Berkman Center, ONI published special reports, case studies, and bulletins beginning in 2004, [25] and as of 2008, offered research on filtering in 40 countries as well as in regions of the world. [26] As of 2016, Zittrain scope for a principal investigator at ONI, together with Ronald Deibert of the University of Toronto , John Palfrey , who was to post the executive director of the Berkman Center (now the head of School at Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts [27] ), and Rafal Rohozinski of the University of Cambridge . [28]

In 2001, Zittrain cofounded Chilling Effects with his students and former students, zoals zijn creator and leader, Wendy Seltzer . It monitors ceasefire and Desist letters. Google directs zijn users to Chilling Effects als zijn Query port leg altered at the request of a national government. [15] [29] Since 2002, researchers port leg using the clearing house (renamed “Lumen” in 2015) to study the use of ceasefire-and-Desist letters, primarily looking at DMCA 512 takedown notices, non-DMCA copyright, and trademark claims. [30] [31]


On October 9, 2002, Zittrain and Lawrence Lessig argued a landmark case, known as Eldred v. Ashcroft voordat the United States Supreme Court . As co-counsel for the plaintiff, they ‘argued dat the Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act (CTEA) was unconstitutional. [32] The court ruled 7-2 on January 15, 2003 to uphold the CTEA welke extended bestaande copyrights 20 years, from the life of the author plus 50 years, to plus 70 years. In the words of Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg , the petitioners did “not challenge the CTEA’s” life-plus-70-years’ time team Itself. Way Down Maintain dat Congress went awry not with respect to newly created works, but in enlarging the term for published works with bestaande copyrights. ” The court found that the act did “not Exceed Congress’ power ‘and that’ CTEA’s extension or bestaande and future copyrights does not violate the First Amendment .” [33] In 2003, Zittrain have zegt was Concerned dat Congress will hear the arguments together after the 20-year extension passes, and therein the Internet is a single cylinder “cultural reassessment of the meaning of copyright”. [34]


After Zittrain joined the staff at Oxford, Zittrain and John Palfrey at the Berkman Center founded in 2006 to function as a clearing house for what has Become proliferation or malware . [35] Borrowing Wikipedia’s “ethical code dat encourages users to do the right thing Rather dan the required thing”, [36] the organization wished to assign the task of data collection-and not analysis-about malware to Internet users at large. [35] When zijn scans find dangerous code, Google places StopBadware alerts, ITT search results and rescans later to determine Whether a site there after had cleaned leg. [37]

One of StopBadware’s goals is to “PREEMPT” the stifling of the Internet. [38] The founders think dat centralized regulation Could follow a serious Internet security breach, and therein consumers Might-then choose to purchase closed, centrally managed solutions like tethered appliances therein are modified by hun vendor Rather dan owner, or Might flee to services walled gardens. In Zittrain’s is, “generatieve” devices and platforms, zoals the Internet Itself, offering an opening forward. [1] In 2007, he cautioned, “… we’re moving to software-as-service, welke kan be yanked or Transformed at ANY time. The ability of your PC to run independent code is an important safety valve.” [39]

Reactions in the Boston Review accompanied the publication of his book, The Future of the Internet and How to Stop It , in 2008. Support cameramen from David D. Clark and Susan P. Crawford . Criticism Ranged from Richard Stallman ‘s finding no evidence of a flight to closed systems and his message therein software developers need control and software patents must end, [40] to a request for cost-benefit analysis, [41] to the belief therein netizenship will not scale to the business world [42] to faith therein consumers will buy only open, non-proprietary systems. [43]

Directed by Palfrey and Zittrain, StopBadware receives high-level guidance from zijn advisory board: Vint Cerf or Google, Esther Dyson , George He, or Lenovo , Greg Papadopoulos (formerly CTO of Sun Microsystems ), and Ari Schwartz of the Center for Democracy and Technology . The working group, welke has included Ben Adida, Scott Bradner, Beau Brendler, Jerry Gregoire, Eric L. Howes and Nart Villeneuve at verschillende times, frames the project’s research agenda and methodology and is the body welke helps to inform the public about StopBadware’s work. [44] StopBadware has leg supported by AOL , Google, eBay / PayPal , Lenovo, Trend Micro , and VeriSign and its use has advised leg at Consumer Reports WebWatch. [45]

Stock markets and spam

Writing with Laura Freider or Purdue University , in 2008 Zittrain published Spam Works: Evidence from Stock Touts and Corresponding Market Activity in the Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal to document the manipulation of stock prices via spam email . [46] Way Down found evidence that ‘stocks experience a significantly positive return on days prior to heavy touting via spam’ and that ‘Prolific spamming greatly Affects the trading volume of a stock-oriented. ” Apart from transaction costs, in some circumstances the spammer earned about 4% while the average investor who Bought on the day of receipt of the spam mention anything without morethan 5% if they ‘sold two days later. [47] Frieder zegt in 2006 that she Knew of no other explanation for hun results, but dat people do follow the stock tips in hun spam email. [46]

Recent publications

  • Zittrain, Jonathan (April 14, 2008). The Future of the Internet and How to Stop It . Yale University Press. ISBN  0-300-12487-2 . ( Online book )
  • Deibert, Ronald J., John G. Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski Jonathan Zittrain (eds.) (February 29, 2008). Access Denied: The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering . MIT Press. ISBN  0-262-54196-3 .
  • Frieder, Laura; Zittrain, Jonathan (March 14, 2007). “Spam Works: Evidence from Stock Touts and Corresponding Market Activity.” Berkman Center Research Publication No. 2006-11. SSRN  920,553 .
  • Zittrain, Jonathan (2006). “Searches and Seizures in a Networked World” . Harvard Law Review Forum . The Harvard Law Review Association. 83 . Retrieved 2013-01-15 .
  • Zittrain, Jonathan L. (May 2006). “The Generative Internet” (PDF) . Harvard Law Review . The Harvard Law Review Association. 119 : 1974 . Retrieved 2015-09-08 .
  • Zittrain, Jonathan (Spring 2006). “A History of Online Gatekeeping” (PDF) . Harvard Journal of Law and Technology . Harvard Law School. 19 (2): 253 . Retrieved 2008-04-20 .
  • Zittrain, Jonathan (Winter 2004). “Normative Principles for Evaluating Free and Proprietary Software” . University of Chicago Law Review . The University of Chicago Law School from SSRN. 71 (1) . Retrieved 2008-04-20 .


  1. ^ Jump up to:a b Duffy Marsan, Carolyn (April 9, 2008). “How the iPhone is killing the ‘Net” . Network World . IDG . Retrieved 2008-04-17 .
  2. Jump up^ Will you find Tantalizing Stories in Harvard law books? Sharon Tate Moody,Tampa Tribune, 13 Mar 2016
  3. Jump up^ Zittrain, Jonathan L .; Jennifer K. Harrison (August 15, 2004). The Torts Game: Defending Mean Joe Greene . Aspen Publishers via Amazon Online Reader. xiv. ISBN  0-7355-4509-X . Retrieved 2008-04-18 .
  4. Jump up^ Blog post – Musical Interlude
  5. Jump up^ Jeff Zittrain – Index
  6. Jump up^ Negotiating Arab-Israeli Peace: Patterns, Problems, Possibilities (9780253211590): Neil Caplan: Books
  7. Jump up^ Laurie Zittrain Eisenberg – Department of History – Carnegie Mellon University
  8. Jump up^ “Diary” . Shadyside Academy . Retrieved 2008-04-16 .
  9. Jump up^ “Speaker Bio” . Province of British Columbia. Archived from the original on 2006-10-31 . Retrieved 2008-04-16 .
  10. ^ Jump up to:a b “Jonathan Zittrain” . The Connecticut Forum . Retrieved 2012-04-27 .
  11. Jump up^ “Zittrain to be intellectual property Lecturer” . Case Western Reserve University . Retrieved 2008-04-16 . [ Dead link ]
  12. ^ Jump up to:a b “Professor Jonathan Zittrain” . University of Oxford . Retrieved 2008-04-18 .
  13. Jump up^ “faceoff: Lessig vs. Zittrain” . Stanford Law School . Retrieved 2008-04-28 .
  14. Jump up^ “All courses related to Jonathan Zittrain” . Berkman Center . Retrieved 2008-04-18 .
  15. ^ Jump up to:a b “Jonathan Zittrain” . TechWeb and O’Reilly Media . Retrieved 2008-04-21 .
  16. Jump up^ “Cyberlaw expert Jonathan Zittrain elected to University’s first Chair of Internet Governance and Regulation” . University of Oxford. March 16, 2005. Archived from the original on July 9, 2007 . Retrieved 2008-04-18 .
  17. Jump up^ “Casing the Future” . Harvard Magazine. 5 May 2009 . Retrieved 2008-04-18 .
  18. Jump up^ Zuckerman, Ethan (April 27, 2006). “Jonathan Zittrain: The Future of the Internet … and How to Stop It” . WorldChanging . Retrieved 2008-04-19 .
  19. ^ Jump up to:a b Zittrain, Jonathan. “Chapter 6: The Lessons of Wikipedia, in The Future of the Internet and How to Stop It” . Yale Books Unbound, Yale University Press . Retrieved 2008-04-19 .
  20. Jump up^ “Internet Society – Board of Trustees – 2009 BoT Elections” . 5 May 2009 . Retrieved 2009-08-03 .
  21. Jump up^ Rebecca Jeschke (11 February 2011). “EFF appoints Jonathan Zittrain to the Board of Directors” . EFF . Retrieved 2011-03-15 .
  22. Jump up^ “Archived copy” . Archived from the original on June 24, 2013 . Retrieved January 18, 2013 .
  23. Jump up^ [1]
  24. Jump up^ Zittrain, Jonathan; Edelman, Benjamin (October 24, 2003). “Documentation of Internet Filtering Worldwide” . Retrieved 2008-04-17 . andZittrain, Jonathan; Edelman, Benjamin (October 26, 2002). “Localized Google search result EXCLUSIONS” . Retrieved 2008-04-17 .
  25. Jump up^ “Reports” . The OpenNet Initiative . Retrieved 2008-04-17 .
  26. Jump up^ “Research” . The OpenNet Initiative . Retrieved 2008-04-17 .
  27. Jump up^
  28. Jump up^ “About ONI” . The OpenNet Initiative . Retrieved 2016-07-10 .
  29. Jump up^ “About Us” . Chilling Effects . Retrieved 2008-11-30 .
  30. Jump up^ J. Urban & L. Quilter “Efficient Process or ‘Chilling Effects? Takedown Notices Under Section 512 of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act,”Santa Clara Computer & High Technology Law Journal(March 2006)
  31. Jump up^ “Will Fair Use Survive? Free Expression in de Age of Copyright Control” (2005). ( PDF ) Free Expression Policy Project
  32. Jump up^ Maytal, Anat (February 21, 2002). “Professor To Present Case to Supreme Court” . The Harvard Crimson . Retrieved 2008-04-18 .
  33. Jump up^ “ELDRED V. Ashcroft (01-618) 537 US 186 (2003)” . Supreme Court collection of Cornell Law School . Retrieved 2008-04-18 .
  34. Jump up^ “The Year of the Copyright” . Harvard Law Bulletin . The President and Fellows of Harvard College. Spring 2003 . Retrieved 2008-04-18 .
  35. ^ Jump up to:a b Zittrain, Jonathan (April 14, 2008). The Future of the Internet – And How to Stop It . Yale University Press. pp. 159-161. ISBN  0-300-12487-2 .
  36. Jump up^ Anthes, Gary (April 7, 2008). “The end of the Internet as we know it? Jonathan Zittrain Fears the worst” . Computerworld . International Data Group . Retrieved 2008-04-16 .
  37. Jump up^ “ Frequently Asked Questions” . . Retrieved 2008-04-16 .
  38. Jump up^ Talbot, David (March 2006). “Q & A: Jonathan Zittrain” . Technology Review . Massachusetts Institute of Technology . Retrieved 2008-04-17 .
  39. Jump up^ Graves, Lucas (January 2007). “End Time for the Internet” . Wired . CondéNet (15:01): 15 . Retrieved 2008-04-18 .
  40. Jump up^ Stallman, Richard (March-April 2008). ” ” The root of this problem is software controlled by zijn developer ‘ ‘ . Boston Review . 33 (2) . Retrieved 2008-04-21 .
  41. Jump up^ Owen, Bruce M. (March-April 2008). ” ‘ As long as flexibility has value to users, suppliers will port incentives to offer it ‘ ‘ . Boston Review . 33 (2) . Retrieved 2008-04-21 .
  42. Jump up^ Grimes, Roger A. (March-April 2008). ” ‘ Fixing Web insecurity requires morethan a caring community ‘ ‘ . Boston Review . Retrieved 2008-04-21 .
  43. Jump up^ Varian, Hal (March-April 2008). ” ” Ultimately, the best protection is an informed buyer who Demands openness ‘ ‘ . Boston Review . 33 (2) . Retrieved 2008-04-21 .
  44. Jump up^ “About Us” . . Retrieved 2008-04-17 .
  45. Jump up^ “StopBadware celebrates second anniversary, adds two new sponsors”(PDF) (Press release). February 26, 2008 . Retrieved 2008-04-18 .
  46. ^ Jump up to:a b Hulbert, Mark (September 10, 2006). “Stock Tips From Spam Are not Just Silly. They’re Costly.” . The New York Times . The New York Times Company . Retrieved 2008-04-19 .
  47. Jump up^ Frieder, Laura; Zittrain, Jonathan (March 14, 2007). “Spam Works: Evidence from Stock Touts and Corresponding Market Activity.” Berkman Center Research Publication No. 2006-11. SSRN  920,553 .