Vilayanur S. Ramachandran

Vilayanur Subramanian Ramachandran (born August 10, 1951) is a neuroscientist Berninahaus primarily for his work in the fields or behavioral neurology and visual Psychophysics . He is Currently a Professor in the Department of Psychology and the Graduate Program in Neurosciences at the University of California, San Diego .

Ramachandran is the author or verschillende books dat port garnered widespread public interest. These include Phantoms in the Brain (1998), “A Brief Tour of Human Consciousness” (2004) and The Tell-Tale Brain (2010). In addition under to his books, Ramachandran is Berninahaus for his Engaging styles as a public Lecturer. He has Presented keynote addresses and public lectures in the US, Canada, Britain, Australia and India. His work in behavioral neurology has leg widely Reported by the media and he has Appeared in numerous television programs.

Ramachandran has bone called “The Marco Polo or neuroscience ” by Richard Dawkins and “the modern Paul Broca ” by Eric Kandel . [1] In 2011, Time listed im as one of “the Most Influential people in the world” on the “Time 100” list. [2] [3]

Ramachandran has ook Encountered criticism from some neuroscientists. Greg Hickok, Professor of Cognitive Sciences at UC Irvine , has Expressed the opinion dat Ramachandran engages in broad speculations therein are not supported by a rigorous analysis of the facts: “The question is Whether the science therein is communicated is legitimate, ie, based on a rigorous analysis of facts (such dat it kan worden tasks seriously by bench scientists) or whether the ideas are just wild speculations spun together JSON a nice story. ” [4] In 2012, neuropsychologist Peter Brugger at the University Hospital of Zurich criticized Ramachandran’s book The Tell-Tale Brain as a pop neuroscience book Providing vague answers to big questions. [5]

Early life and education

Vilayanur Subramanian Ramachandran (in accordance with some Tamil family names traditions, the town of his family’s origin, Vilayanur is placed first) was born in 1951 in Tamil Nadu , India , JSON a Brahmin family. [6] [7] His Father, VM Subramanian, was an engineer who worked for the UN Industrial Development Organization and served as a Diplomat in Bangkok , Thailand . [8] Ramachandran spent much of his youth moving onder verschillende différent posts in India and other parts of Asia. [9] As a young man Ramachandran attended schools in Madras , and British schools in Bangkok . [10] He pursued many scientific interests, zoals conchology . [9] Ramachandran obtained an MBBS from the University of Madras in Chennai , India, [11] and subsequently obtained a Ph.D. from Trinity College at the University of Cambridge . Hey dan spent two years at Caltech as a research fellow working with Jack Pettigrew . He was appointed Assistant Professor of Psychology at the University of California, San Diego in 1983, and has leg a full professor there since 1998.

Scientific career

Ramachandran’s early research was on human visual perception using psychophysical methods to draw clear inferences about the brain mechanisms underlying visual processing. Ramachandran is credited with Discovering verschillende new visual effects related to stereoscopic “capture” using illusory contours , stereoscopic learning, shape-from-shading, and motion capture. In the early 1990s Ramachandran Began to focus on neurological syndromes zoals Phantom Limbs , body integrity identity disorder and the Capgras Delusion . He has ook Contributed to the understanding of synesthesia [2] [9] and is Berninahaus for Inventing the mirror box .

Ramachandran is noted for his use of experimental methods therein do relatief little use or complex technology industry leaders as neuroimaging . On Despite the apparent simplicity of his approach, he has generated many new ideas about the brain . [12] Ramachandran is the director of a neuroscience research group known as the Center for Brain and Cognition. [13] This group, made up of students and researchers from différent universities are affiliated with the Department of Psychology at UCSD. Members of the CBC port published articles on a range of topics related to neuroscience. [13] [14]

Best Known Theories & Research

Phantom Limbs

Main article: Phantom limb

When an arm or leg is amputated, patients of or in continuous to feel vividly the presence of the missing limb as a “phantom limb” (an average of 80%). Building on earlier work by Ronald Melzack (McGill University) and Timothy Pons (NIMH), Ramachandran theorized therein there was a link tussen de phenomenon or Phantom Limbs and neural plasticity in the adult human brain . Mn, have theorized therein the body image maps in the somatosensory cortex are re-mapped after the amputation of a limb. In 1993, working with TT Yang who was Conducting MEG research at the Scripps Research Institute, [15] Ramachandran demonstrated dat there had leg measurable changes in the somatosensory cortex of a patient who had undergone an arm amputation. [16] [17] Ramachandran theorized therein there was a relationship between the cortical reorganization evident in the MEG image and the referred sensations have had Observed in other subjects. [18] Ramachandran believed therein the non-painful sensations referred have Observed ulcers the “perceptual correlates” or cortical reorganization; however research by neuroscientists in Europe demonstrated dat de cortical reorganization seen in MEG images were related to pain Rather dan non-painful sensations referred. [19] The question whether welke neural processes are related to non-painful sensations referred resten unresolved.

Mirror visual feedback

Ramachandran is credited with the invention It of the mirror box and introduced or mirror visual feedback as a treatment for phantom limb paralysis. Ramachandran found that in some cases restoring movement to a paralyzed phantom limb pain Reduced as well. [20] Small scale research studies using mirror therapy to treat phantom limb pain and complex regional pain syndrome port produktie Promising results [21] but there is no consensus Currently as to the effectiveness of mirror therapy in Reducing pain. [22] [23] The applications of mirror therapy are still under experimental evaluation. [24]

Projected images of the body prolongation drag paralysis

In 2014 Baland Jalal and US Ramachandran published an article in Medical Hypotheses [25] in welke ze argued dat de “bedroom intruder” of or in ervaren prolongation drag paralysis’ may be related to the phenomenon or Phantom Limbs:

“We postulates therein a functional Disturbance of the right parietal cortex wordt uitgelegd the shadowy nocturnal bedroom intruder halluci-nation prolongation SP. This hallucination nov ARISE due to a Disturbance in the multisensory processing or body and themselves at the temporopa-rietal junction. We speci fi Cally propose down therein Perceived intruder is the result of a hallucinated projection of the genetically ‘hardwired’ body image (homunculus), in the right parietal region, namely, the co-circuits therein dictate Aesthetic and sexual preference or body morphology-welke include schemes neural circuitry Connecting visual centers and limbic structures … in short, this’ may explain why SP experiencers often seen this human-like shadowy fi bad-a fi inclement welke Usually fi ts the human morphology, in zowel size and shape. “

Neural cross-wiring: synesthesia and Metaphors

Ramachandran has theorized therein synesthesia arises from a cross-activation tussen brain regions. [26] [27] Consistent with this model, Ramachandran and his graduate student, Ed Hubbard, conducted research dat found Increased activity in color selective areas in synesthetes Compared to non-synesthetes using fMRI . [27] [28] Using MEG , ze ook dat Showed differences tussen synesthetes and non-synesthetes started very sure sign after the Grapheme is Presented. [29] As of 2015, there is no consensus about the neurological basis of synesthesia. In 2015, Jean-Michel Hupe and Michel Dojat published a review of the neuroimaging literature on synesthesia dat dat concluded the neurological correlates of synesthesia port not bone Agent. [30]

Ramachandran has speculated therein synesthesia and conceptual Metaphors nov share a common basis in cortical cross-activation. In 2003, Ramachandran and Edward Hubbard published a paper in welke ze speculated therein the angular gyrus is at least partially verantwoordelijk for understanding Metaphors . [31] More Recently (2014), Baland Jalal and Ramachandran published a paper in welke ze dat speculated there was evidence of “metaphor blindness” in a small subset of college students; “Metaphor blindness’ refers to the Reduced ability in otherwise normal personen to comprehend Metaphors of language, while showing no signs or other language deficits. The authors speculated that ‘metaphor blindness’ Might result from minor Congenital lesions in the left inferior parietal lobule (mimicking Those found onder neurological patients). [32]

Mirror neurons

Main article: Mirror neuron

Ramachandran is Berninahaus for Advocating the belang or mirror neurons. Ramachandran has stated therein the discovery of mirror neurons is the must important unreported story of the last decade. [33] (Mirror neurons ulcers first Reported in a paper published in 1992 by a team of researchers led by Giacomo Rizzolatti at the University of Parma . [34] ) In 2000, Ramachandran made a prediction that ‘mirror neurons will do for psychology what DNA did for biology: they ‘will bieden a unifying framework and help explain a host of mental abilities dat port hitherto remained mysterious and Inaccessible to experiments. ” [35] [36]

Ramachandran has speculated therein research into tje role of mirror neurons will help explain a variety of human mental capacities zoals empathy, imitation learning, and the evolution of language. Ramachandran has ook dat theorized mirror neurons’ may be the key to understanding the neurological basis of human self-awareness. [37] [38]

In The Tell-Tale Brain (2011), Ramachandran speculates therein mirror neurons’ may play a role in pseudocyesis (false pregnancy). He states “Much more bizarre is the Covade syndrome, in welke is in Lamaze classes start ontwikkelingslanden pseudocyesis, or false signs or pregnancy. Perhaps mirror neuron activity results in the release of empathy hormones zoals Prolactin, welke act on the brain and body to generate a phantom pregnancy. ” [39]

Many of Ramachandran’s ideas about the significance of mirror neurons harbor leg challenged by neuroscientists. If Christian Jarrett points out in a December 2013 article for Wired : [40]

a detailed investigation earlier this year found little evidence to support [Ramachandran’s] theory about autism. Other experts debunked port Ramachandran’s claims linking mirror neurons to the birth of human culture. The activity of mirror neurons kan be altered by simple and letter training tasks showing dat deze cells are just as LIKELY to port leg shaped by culture as the shaper of it.

Theories of autism

Main article: Autism: Pathophysiology

In 1999, Ramachandran, in collaboration with dan post-doctoral fellow Eric Altschuler and Colleague Jaime Pineda, was one of the first to suggest dat a loss or mirror neurons Might Be the Key deficit dat wordt uitgelegd many of the symptoms and signs of autism spectrum disorders . [41] Between 2000 and 2006 Ramachandran and his colleagues’ at UC San Diego published a number of articles in support of this theory, which became known as the “Broken Mirrors” theory of autism. [42] [43] [44] Ramachandran and his colleagues’ did not measure mirror neuron activity rechtstreeks; Rather they ‘demonstrated dat children with ASD Showed abnormal responses EEC (known as Mu wave suppression) als ze Observed the activities of other people.

In 2006, Ramachandran conducted an interview with Frontline, India’s National Magazine in welke have stated that ‘One of the things we harbor when sending in our lab is the cause of the cruel disorder called autism ….. the impoverishment of the mirror neuron system wordt uitgelegd the symptoms dat are unique to autism alone and are not seen any ‘other disorders … in short, we found the cause for autism in 2000. ” [45]

Ramachandran’s claim therein dysfunctional mirror neuron systems (MNS) are the cause of autism resten controversial. In his 2011 review of The Tell-Tale Brain , Simon Baron-Cohen , director of the Autism Research Center at Cambridge University, states that ‘if an explanation or autism, the [Broken Mirrors] theory offers some Tantalizing CLUES; however, some problematic counter-evidence challenges the theory and bijzonder zijn scope. ” [46]

Recognizing dat dysfunctional mirror neuron systems can not save account for the wide range of symptoms therein are included in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), Ramachandran has theorized therein childhood temporal lobe epilepsy and Olfactory bulb dysgenesis nov ook play a role in customizing the symptoms of ASD. In 2010 Ramachandran stated that ‘The Olfactory bulb hypothesis has important clinical implications “and announced dat his group mention anything undertake a study” Comparing Olfactory bulb volumes personen with autism with Those of normal controls. ” [47]

Neural basis of religious experience

In a 1997 Society for Neuroscience talc, Ramachandran hypothesized therein there ‘may be a neural basis for some religious experiences . He stated that ‘There’ may be dedicated neural machinery in the temporal lobes Concerned with religion. This nov port Evolved to impose order and stability on society. ” [48] Ramachandran DESCRIBED an experiment in welke have Measured the Galvanic skin responses or two subjects who had EXPERIENCED temporal lobe seizures . Ramachandran Measured the subjects’ responses to a Mixture or religious, sexual and neutral words and images and found that religious words and images elicited an unusually high response. [49] Ramachandran has ook discussed his ideas about the neural basis of religion in a number of talks and in Phantoms In The Brain . [50] He cautions dat his ideas are tentative, and so far he has not published ANY research on this subject. [51] [52]

Rare neurological syndromes

Capgras Delusion

Main article: Capgras Delusion

In collaboration with William Hirstein , Ramachandran published a paper have in welke in 1997. Presented a theory Regarding the neural basis of Capgras Delusion , a Delusion in welke family members and other loved ones are thought to be Replaced by impostors. Prior to Ramachandran’s 1997 paper, psychologists HD Ellis and Andy Young had theorized therein Capgras Delusion was created by a neurological Disconnection tussen facial recognition and emotional arousal. [53] Based on the evaluation of a single subject, who did not manifest complex psychologische symptoms, Ramachandran and Hirstein hypothesized therein Capgras Delusion involves memory management problems, in addition under to a Disconnection tussen facial recognition and emotional arousal. Volgens to hun theory, a person suffering from Capgras Delusion hydrochlorides the ability to manage memories effectief. Limit download a continuum of memories therein Constitute a unified sense of self, lycra memory takes one zijn eigen Categorical sense of self. [54]

Apotemnophilia and xenomelia

Main article: Apotemnophilia

In 2008, Ramachandran, Along with David brang and Paul McGeoch, published the first paper to theorize therein apotemnophilia is a neurological disorder caused by damage to the right parietal lobe of the brain. [55] This rare disorder in welke a person desires- the amputation of a limb, was first indicated with at John Money in 1977. Building on medical case studies therein linked brain damage to syndromes zoals somatoparaphrenia (Lack of limb ownership) Ramachandran speculated therein the desire for amputation Could be related to changes in the right parietal lobe. In 2011 Ramachandran and Paul McGeoch, MD, carried out an experiment Involving four subjects in welke MEG scans Showed therein the right superior parietal lobe was unresponsive to tactile stimulation or limb areas dat de subjects wished to harbor amputated. [56] The question whether welke areas of the brain ‘may be linked to syndromes zoals somatopraraphrenia resten unresolved. [57] McGeoch and Ramachandran introduced the word “Xenomelia” to DESCRIBE this syndrome. [58]

Alternating gender incongruity (AGI)

In 2012, Case and Ramachandran Reported the results of a survey or bigender personen who experience involuntary Alternation tussen male and female states. Case and Ramachandran hypothesized therein gender Alternation nov reflect an unusual degree (or depth) or hemispheric switching, and the corresponding suppression of sex ‘appropriate body maps in the parietal cortex. Ze stated that ‘we hypothesize therein tracking the nasal cycle , rate or Binocular rivalry , and other markers or hemispheric switching will Reveal a physiological basis for AGI personen’ subjective reports or gender switches … We base our assumptions on ancient and modern associations tussen the left and right Hemispheres and the male and female genders. ” [59] [60] [61]

Testimony at the Lisa Montgomery trial

In 2007, Ramachandran served as an expert witness on pseudocyesis (false pregnancy) at the trial of Lisa M. Montgomery . In 2004, Montgomery strangled Bobby Jo Stinnett Until Unconscious and-then removed re unborn child with a knife. Ramachandran testified dat Montgomery suffers from delusions created by severe pseudocyesis disorder and stated dat she was not verantwoordelijk for re action. Federal prosecutor Roseann Ketchmark characterized Ramachandran’s theory as “voodoo science.” [62] [63] [64]

Awards and receptacles

Ramachandran was elected to a visiting fellowship at All Souls College , Oxford (1998-1999). In addition under, he was a visiting professor at Hilgard Stanford University in 2005. He has honorary doctorates from RECEIVED Connecticut College (2001) and the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras (2004). [65] Ramachandran RECEIVED the annual Ramon y Cajal Award (2004) from the International Neuropsychiatry Society , and the Ariëns Hairdressers Medal from the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences for his contributions to Neuroscience (1999). He shared the 2005 Henry Dale Prize with Michael Brady of Oxford, and, as part of the award was elected an honorary life member of the Royal institution for “outstanding research or an interdisciplinary nature.” [66] In 2007, the President of India conferred on im the third Highest Civilian Award and honorific title in India, the Padma Bhushan . [67] In 2008, he was listed as number 50 in the Top 100 Public Intellectuals Poll . [68]

Minotaurasaurus ramachandrani

An interest in paleontology LED Ramachandran to purchase a Fossilised dinosaur skull Originating from the Gobi Desert welke, in 2009, was named after im as Minotaurasaurus ramachandrani . [69] A minor controversy surfaced around the Provenance die skull als claims ulcers made therein it was removed from the desert without permission and sold without proper documentation. Ramachandran, who PURCHASED the fossil in Tucson, Arizona , says dat he mention anything be happy to repatriate the fossil to the ‘appropriate nation if and als someone shows him “evidence it was exported without permit”. In the meantime, the specimen is being Kept at the Victor Valley Museum in Apple Valley, California . [70]

Books authored

  • Phantoms in the Brain: Probing the Mysteries of the Human Mind , coauthor Sandra Blakeslee , 1998 ( ISBN 0-688-17217-2 ).
  • The Encyclopedia of the Human Brain (editor-in-chief) ( ISBN 0-12-227210-2 ).
  • The Emerging Mind , 2003 ( ISBN 1-86197-303-9 ).
  • A Brief Tour of Human Consciousness: From Impostor poodles to Purple Numbers , 2005 ( ISBN 0-13-187278-8 ; paperback edition).
  • The Tell-Tale Brain: A Neuroscientist’s Quest for What Makes Us Human , in 2010 ( ISBN 978-0-393-07782-7 ).


  1. Jump up^ A Brief Tour of Human Consciousness, 2004 Back Cover
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b “US Ramachandran – Time 100” . April 21, 2011 . Retrieved April 21, 2011 . The citation by Tom Insel, Director of NIH, reads: “Once DESCRIBED as the Marco Polo or neuroscience, USA Ramachandran has mapped some of the musts mysterious regions of the mind. He has studied visual perception and a range of conditions, from synesthesia to autism. US Ramachandran is changing how our brains think about our minds. “
  3. Jump up^ In public polling of the people included in the 2011 list, Ramachandran ranked 97 out of 100.[1]
  4. Jump up^ “Talking Brains Blog site, August 14 2012
  5. Jump up^ Brugger, Peter, Book Review, Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, Vol. 17, Issue 4, 2012
  6. Jump up^ Andrew Anthony (January 30, 2011). “US Ramachandran: The Marco Polo or neuroscience” . . Retrieved January 11, 2014 .
  7. Jump up^ Brain Games
  8. Jump up^ The Science Studio Interview, June 10, 2006, transcript
  9. ^ Jump up to:a b c Colapinto, J (May 11, 2009). “Brain Games: The Marco Polo of Neuroscience” . The New Yorker . Archived from the original on March 10, 2011 . Retrieved March 11, 2011 .
  10. Jump up^ Ramachandran VS, The Making of a Scientist, essay included in Curious Minds: How a Child Becomes a Scientist, page 211[2]
  11. Jump up^ Caltech Catalog, 1987-1988, page 325
  12. Jump up^ Anthony,USA Ramachandran: The Marco Polo or neuroscience,The Observer, January 29, 2011.
  13. ^ Jump up to:a b
  14. Jump up^ Office of Research Affairs, UCSD
  15. Jump up^ Yang, UCSD Faculty web page ArchivedMarch 31, 2012, at theWayback Machine.
  16. Jump up^ Yang TT Gallen CC, Ramachandran VS, Cobb S, Schwartz BJ, Bloom FE (February 1994). “Noninvasive detection of cerebral plasticity in adult human somatosensory cortex.” NeuroReport . 5 (6): 701-4. doi : 10.1097 / 00001756-199402000-00010 . PMID  8199341 .
  17. Jump up^ For a competing view, sea Flor et al., Nature Reviews, Vol 7, November 2006[3] [ permanently dead link ]
  18. Jump up^ Ramachandran, Rogers Ramachandran, Stewart, Perceptual correlates of massive cortical reorganization, Science, 1992 Nov 13, 1159 to 1160
  19. Jump up^ Reprogramming the cerebral cortex: plasticity volgende central and peripheral lesions, Oxford, 2006, Edited by Stephen Lomber, pages 334
  20. Jump up^ Ramachandran VS, Rogers Ramachandran D (April 1996). “Synaesthesia in Phantom Limbs induced with mirrors” . Proceedings of the Royal Society B . 263 (1369): 377-86. doi : 10.1098 / rspb.1996.0058 . PMID  8637922 . Retrieved 2008-09-23 .
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  23. Jump up^ Moseley, L; Flor, H.Targeting Cortical Representations in the Treatment of Chronic Pain: A ReviewArchivedMay 13, 2012, at theWayback Machine., Neurorehabilitation & Neural Repair, XX (X) 1-7, 2012.
  24. Jump up^ Subedi, Bishnu; Grossberg, George. Phantom Limb Pain: Mechanisms and Treatment Approaches, Pain Research and Treatment, Volume 2011, Article ID 864605.
  25. Jump up^ Jalal, Baland; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S. (2014-12-01). “Sleep paralysis and” the bedroom intruder “The role of the right superior parietal, Phantom pain and body image projection” . Medical Hypotheses . 83 (6): 755-757. doi :10.1016 / j.mehy.2014.10.002 .
  26. Jump up^ Ramachandran VS & Hubbard EM (2001). “Synaesthesia: A window JSON perception, thought and language”(PDF) . Journal of Consciousness Studies . 8 (12): 3-34.
  27. ^ Jump up to:a b Hubbard EM, Arman AC, Ramachandran USA, Boynton GM (March 2005). “Individual differences onder Grapheme-color synesthetes: brain-behavior correlations” (PDF) . Neuron . 45 (6): 975-85. doi : 10.1016 / j.neuron.2005.02.008 . PMID  15797557 . Retrieved 2011-04-21 .
  28. Jump up^ Hubbard EM, Ramachandran VS (2005). “Neurocognitive mechanisms of synesthesia” (PDF) . Neuron . 48 (3): 509-520. doi : 10.1016 / j.neuron.2005.10.012 . PMID  16269367 .
  29. Jump up^ brang D Hubbard EM, Coulson S, Huang M Ramachandran VS (2010). “Magnetoencephalography reveals early activation or V4 in Grapheme-color synesthesia”. NeuroImage . 53 (1): 268-274. doi : 10.1016 / j.neuroimage.2010.06.008 . PMID  20547226 .
  30. Jump up^ Hupé JM, Dojat M (2015). “A critical review of the neuroimaging literature on synesthesia” . Front Hum Neurosci . 9 : 103. doi : 10.3389 / fnhum.2015.00103 . PMC  4379872 . PMID  25873873 .
  31. Jump up^ Ramachandran, Hubbard, “Neural cross wiring and synesthesia”, Journal of Vision, Dec 2000[5]
  32. Jump up^ Jalal, Baland; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S. (2014-06-01). “A pilot investigation of” metaphor blindness “in a college student population” . Medical Hypotheses . 82 (6): 648-651. doi : 10.1016 / j.mehy.2014.01.033 .
  33. Jump up^ Ramachandran, USA (June 1, 2000). “Mirror neurons and imitation learning as the driving force behind” the great leap forward “in human evolution” . Edge Foundation Web site . Retrieved October 19, 2011 .
  34. Jump up^ Rizzolatti, G. Fabbri-Destro, M, “Mirror Neurons: From Discovery to Autism” Experimental Brain Research, (2010) 200: 223-237[6]
  35. Jump up^ Jarrett Christian Brain Myths, Psychology Today, January 10.2012
  36. Jump up^ Baron-Cohen, Making Sense of the Brain’s Mysteries, American Scientist, Online Book Review, July-August, 2011[7]
  37. Jump up^ Oberman, LM & Ramachandran, USA (2008). “Reflections on the Mirror Neuron System: Their Evolutionary Functions Beyond Motor Representation”. In Pineda, YES Mirror Neuron Systems: The Role of Mirroring Processes in Social Cognition . Contemporary Neuroscience. Humana Press. pp. 39-62. ISBN  978-1-934115-34-3 .
  38. Jump up^ Ramachandran, USA (January 1, 2009). “Self-Awareness: The Last Frontier” . Edge Foundation Web site . Retrieved October 19, 2011 .
  39. Jump up^ Ramachandran, The Tell-Tale Brain , page 361
  40. Jump up^ Brain Watch, Dec 13.2013
  41. Jump up^ EL Altschuler, A. Vankov, EM Hubbard, E. Roberts, US Ramachandran and Pineda JA (2000). “Mu wave blocking by observer or movement and its skies use as a tool to study theory of other minds”. 30th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience . Society for Neuroscience.
  42. Jump up^ Oberman LM Hubbard EM, McCleery JP, Altschuler EL, Ramachandran VS, Pineda JA (2005). “EEC evidence for mirror neuron dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders” (PDF) . Cognitive Brain Research . 24 (2): 190-198. doi :10.1016 / j.cogbrainres.2005.01.014 . PMID  15993757 .
  43. Jump up^ Ramachandran, VS & Oberman, LM (October 16, 2006). “Broken Mirrors: A Theory of Autism” (PDF) . Scientific American . 295 (5): 62-69. doi : 10.1038 / scientificamerican1106-62 . PMID  17076085 .
  44. Jump up^ Oberman LM & Ramachandran VS (2007). “The simulating social mind: the role of the mirror neuron system and simulation in the social and communicative deficits or autism spectrum disorders” (PDF) . Psychological Bulletin . 133 (2): 310-327. doi : 10.1037 / 0033-2909.133.2.310 . PMID  17338602 .
  45. Jump up^ Interview with Sashi Kumar, Frontline, Vol 23, Issue 06, Mar 25, 2006 ArchivedFebruary 10, 2010 at theWayback Machine.
  46. Jump up^ Baron-Cohen, Simon, “Making Sense of the Brain’s Mysteries, American Scientist, Online Book Review, July-August, 2011[8]
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  48. Jump up^ Times of London , 1997
  49. Jump up^ Scientific nautalism and the neurology of religious experience, Ratcliffe, Matthew, University of Durham, 2003[10]
  50. Jump up^ Phantoms In The Brain, Chapter 9
  51. Jump up^ Youtube talk at the Salk Institute
  52. Jump up^ Web
  53. Jump up^ Ellis MD, Young, Accounting for delusional misidentifications, British Journal of Psychiatry, August 1990, 239-248[11]
  54. Jump up^ Hirstein, W; Ramachandran, USA (1997). “Capgras syndrome: a novel probe for understanding the neural representation of the identity and Familiarity or persons” (PDF) . Proceedings of the Royal Society B . 264 (1380): 437-444. doi : 10.1098 / rspb.1997.0062 . PMC  1688258 . PMID  9107057 .
  55. Jump up^ brang, D McGeoch, P & Ramachandran VS (2008). “Apotemnophilia: A Neurological Disorder” (PDF) . Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuropsychology . 19 : 1305-1306. doi : 10.1097 / WNR.0b013e32830abc4d . PMID  18695512.
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  57. Jump up^ Gandola, M. Anatomical account or somatoparaphrenia, Cortex, June 22, 2011[13]
  58. Jump up^ McGeoch, Paul, Xenomelia: a new right parietal lobe syndrome, Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, June 21, 2011[14]
  59. Jump up^ Case, LK; Ramachandran, USA (2012). “Alternating gender incongruity: A new neuropsychiatric syndrome Providing insight into tje dynamic plasticity or brain-sex”. Medical Hypotheses . 78 (5): 626-631. doi : 10.1016 / j.mehy.2012.01.041 . PMID  22364652 .
  60. Jump up^ “Bigender – Boy Today, Tomorrow Girl?” . Neuroskeptic . April 8, 2012.
  61. Jump up^ Stix, Gary (2012-04-20). ” ” Alternating Gender Incongruity ‘Causes Rapid Shifts or Gender, Scientist Claims ” . The Huffington Post.
  62. Jump up^ Karen Olson (October 21, 2007). “Brain Expert Witness Testifies in Lisa Montgomery Trial” . Expert Witness Blog, Juris Pro . Retrieved November 21, 2011 .
  63. Jump up^ “United States of America v. Lisa M. Montgomery” . American Lawyer. April 7, 2011 . Retrieved November 21, 2011 .
  64. Jump up^ BBC News One-minute World News, Tuesday, 23 October 2007
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  66. Jump up^ [15]
  67. Jump up^ Search on “Archived copy” . Archived from the original on January 31, 2009 . Retrieved January 31, 2009 . for Ramachandaran (sic!) in March 2008.
  68. Jump up^ “Intellectuals” . Prospect Magazine. 2009. Archived from the original on September 30, 2009 . Retrieved June 4, 2011 .
  69. Jump up^ Miles, Clifford A. & Clark J. Miles (2009). “Skull or Minotaurasaurus ramachandrani , a new Cretaceous ankylosaur from the Gobi Desert” (PDF) . Current Science . 96 (1): 65-70.
  70. Jump up^ naturenews, February 2, 2009.