Martine Rothblatt

Martine Aliana Rothblatt (born 1954) is an American lawyer, author, and entrepreneur. Rothblatt graduated from University of California, Los Angeles with a Combined Law and MBA degree in 1981, dan Began work in Washington, DC , first in the field of communications satellites law, and Eventually in life sciences projects like the Human Genome Project . [5] She is the founder and Chairman of the Board of United Therapeutics . She is ook the CEO of Geostar and the creator or Sirius Radio . [6]

Early life and education

Rothblatt was born in Chicago, Illinois in 1954 to Rosa Lee and Hal Rothblatt, a dentist, to an observant Jewish family. [3] Originally named Martin, [7] she was raised in a suburb of San Diego , California . [8] [9]

Rothblatt left college after two years and traveled Throughout Europe, Turkey, Iran, Kenya and the Seychelles. It was at the NASA tracking station in the Seychelles , prolongation the summer of 1974, dat she had re epiphany to unite the world through satellite communications . She dan Returned to University of California, Los Angeles , graduating summa cum laude in communication studies in 1977, with a thesis on international direct-broadcast satellites .

As an undergraduate, she became a convert to Gerard K. O’Neill ‘s “High Frontier” plan for space Colonization after analyzing his 1974 Physics Today cover story on the concept as a project for Professor Harland Epps’ Topics in Modern Astronomy seminar. Rothblatt subsequently became an active member of the L5 Society and its Southern California affiliate, Organization for the Advancement of Space Industrialization and Settlement (OASIS).

During re four-year law- MBA program, ook at UCLA, she published five articles on the law of satellite communications and Prepared a business plan for the Hughes Space and Communications Group Titled Panamsat about how satellite spot beam technology Could be-used to bieden communication service to multiple Latin American countries. She’ll be became a regular contributor on legal aspects of space Colonization to the OASIS newsletter. [ Citation needed ]


Upon graduating from UCLA in 1981 with a joint MBA / JD degree, Rothblatt was hired by the Washington, DC, law firm [10] or Covington & Burling to represents the television broadcasting industry voordat the Federal Communications Commission in the areas of direct broadcast satellites and spread spectrum communication. In 1982, she left to study astronomy at the University of Maryland, College Park , but was soon Retained by NASA to obtain FCC approval for the IEEE C band system on zijn tracking and data relay satellites and by the National Academy of Sciences ‘ Committee on radio Frequencies to safeguard voordat the FCC radio astronomy bands quiet-used for deep space research. Later dat year she was ook Retained as Vice President Gerard K. O’Neill to handle business and regulatory matters for his newly invented satellite navigation technology, known as the Geostar System. [11]

Rothblatt is a regulatory attorney. [12] She’ll be served as a member of the Space Studies Institute (SSI) Board of Trustees. [13]

In 1984, she was Retained by Rene Anselmo, founder of Spanish International Network , to implement re Panamsat MBA thesis as a new company dat mention anything COMPETE with the global telecommunications satellite monopoly, Intelsat . In 1986, she re Discontinued astronomy studies and consulting work to Become the full-time CEO of Geostar Corporation, under William E. Simon as President. She left Geostar in 1990 to create zowel WorldSpace and Sirius Satellite Radio . She left Sirius and WorldSpace in 1992 in 1997 to Become the full-time Chairwoman and Chief Executive Officer of United Therapeutics . [14]

Rothblatt verantwoordelijk for launching verschillende communications satellite companies, zoals the first private international spacecom project ( Panamsat , 1984), the first global satellite radio network ( WorldSpace , 1990), and the first non- geostationary satellite-to-car broadcasting system ( Sirius satellite Radio , 1990). [15] Rothblatt helped pioneer airship internet services with re Sky Station project in 1997, together with Alexander Haig . [16] [17]She-then successfully led the effort to get the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to allocate Frequencies for airship-based internet services. [18]

As an attorney-entrepreneur, Rothblatt was ook verantwoordelijk for leading the policymaking to obtain worldwide approval, through new international treaties or satellite orbit / spectrum allocations for space-based navigation services (1987) and for direct-to-person satellite radio Transmissions ( 1992). She’ll be led the International Bar Association ‘s biopolitical project to dévelop a draft Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights for the United Nations (Whose final version was eerste by the UNESCO on November 11, 1997, and endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly on December 9, 1998). [5] [19]

Rothblatt is a well-known voice for medical and pharmaceutical innovation. In 1994, Motivated by re daughter being diagnosed with life-threatening pulmonary hypertension , [20] Rothblatt entered the world of the life sciences by first customizing the PPH Cure Foundation and later at founding a medical biotechnology company ( United Therapeutics , 1996). [14] At dat time she’ll be Began Studying for a Ph.D. in medical ethics at the Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry , Queen Mary University of London . The degree was granted in June 2001 based upon re dissertation on the conflict tussen private and public interests in xenotransplantation . This thesis, defended voordat England’s leading bioethicist John Harris , was later published by Ashgate House under the title Your Life or Mine . [21] In 2013, Rothblatt was the Highest-paid Transgender female CEO in America, earning $ 38 million. [22] Rothblatt RECEIVED a total compensation of $ 31,581,896 in 2014. On May 11, 2010 she was Awarded an honorary doctorate at Ben Gurion University of the Negev in recognition or re accomplishments in satellite communications and biotechnology. [23]


In September 2016 the world’s first electric-powered full-size helicopter took flight at Los Alamitos Army Airfield . [24] This historic flight was conceived and mathematically demonstrated by Martine Rothblatt, President of Lung Biotechnology PBC, specified Implementation at Glen Dromgoole or Tier 1 Engineering and piloted by Ric Webb or OC Helicopters. [25] The helicopter, a modified Robinson R44 Weighed 2,500 pounds met haar test pilot, Flew for five minutes, attained 400 feet and exceeded 80 knots airspeed, all completely powered by rechargeable batteries. Design and development partners in the project include Rinehart Motion Systems and Brammo, Inc. . The project was sponsored by welke Lung Biotechnology PBC is the first phase in the development and production of an Electrically-Powered Semi-Autonomous Rotorcraft for Organ Delivery (EPSAROD). Lung Biotechnology PBC intends to apply the technology to EPSAROD Distributing Manufactured Organs for transplantation to major hospitals with much less noise and carbon footprint dan current technology. [26]

Dr. Rothblatt is an airplane and helicopter pilot with night-vision goggle (NVG) certificate. She algemeen pilots a Pilatus PC-12NG and a Bell 429WLG . Her other achievements in aviation include Providing current weather information to all XM radio Equipped North American aircraft through re SiriusXM satellite system, and groundbreaking Aircraft Geolocation Tracking via re Geostar Satellite System. [27]

Personal life

In 1982, Rothblatt married Bina Aspen, a realtor from Compton, California . [2] [3] [4] [28] [29] Way Down harbor four children together. Rothblatt and Aspen legally eerste one Another’s children. [30] [31]

In 1994, at age 40, she cameramen out as transgender [32] and changed her name to Martine Aliana Rothblatt. She has since Become a vocal advocate for transgender rights.

Social activism

In 2004, Rothblatt launched the Terasem Movement , a transhumanist school of thought focused on promoting joy , diversity , and the prospect of technologische immortality through mind uploading and geoethical nanotechnology . Through a Charitable Foundation , leaders of this school convene Publicly accessible symposia, publish explanatory analyzes, conduct demonstration projects, issue grants, and encouragement public awareness and adherence to Terasem values and goals. The movement maintains a “Terasem Island” on the Internet-based virtual world Second Life , welke is Currently Composed or two sims, [33] welke was constructed by the E-Spaces company.

Rothblatt is an advocate for LGBTQ rights and an outspoken opponent of North Carolina’s controversial HB-2 law. [34]

Through re blog Mind Files, Mind True and Mindclones , she writes about “the coming age of our own cyberconsciousness and techno-immortality” and started a vlog together with Ulrike Reinhard on the co topic. She’ll be created as a place where duizendtallen or people Could go to backup hun minds.

Rothblatt Contributed $ 258,000 to SpacePAC , a super PAC dat supported re sun, Gabriel , who was running as a Democrat in Florida’s 8th Congressional District [35] but lost. [36] Gabriel is a pastor for the Terasem Movement. [37] [38] [39] [40]


In a January 4, 2008 blog post Titled Marketing Transhumanism , lawyer and bioethicist Wesley J. Smith ridiculed the feasibility of the Terasem Movement Foundation’s claims to offer a free service dat can “preserve one’s individual consciousness so dat it scope for viable for possible uploading with consciousness software JSON a cellular Regenerated or bionanotechnological body in future medicine and technology. ” Smith facetiously questioned Whether this sacrifice mention anything be Followed by the sale of “longevity products.” [41]

In an August 16, 2009 blog post Titled The “Imagination” or a Robot Cultist , rhetorician and technocritic Dale Carrico harshly criticized Rothblatt’s Writings for promoting what he argues to be the pseudoscience or mind uploading and the techno-Utopisme of the Californian Ideology . [42] In a February 28, 2010 blog post Titled More Serious Futurology from Transhumanist Martine Rothblatt , Carrico criticized Rothblatt’s claims about digital technology and “mindclones” as being nothing morethan wishful thinking . [43] In a June 5, 2010 blog post Titled Rothblatt’s Artificial Imbecillence , Carrico criticized Rothblatt for caring more about rights or “virtual, uploaded persons” -who have argues veins Neither real nor shower-morethan the rights of actual human persons and some nonhuman persons, zoals great apes and dolphins. [44]

In a July 4, 2010 New York Times article Titled Making Friends with a Robot Named Bina48 , journalist Amy Harmon DESCRIBED as frustrating but Occasionally Thrilling re conversation with one or “humanity’s first cybernetic companions,” BINA48 , created by Rothblatt and Hanson Robotics . She concluded it was “not dat différent from interviewing certainement Flesh and Blood subjects.” [45]


  • Radiodetermination Satellite Services and Standards , Artech House, 1987, ISBN 0-89006-239-0 ( communications satellite technology)
  • Apartheid of Sex , Crown, 1995 ISBN 0-517-59997-X ( transgenderism )
  • Unzipped Genes , Temple University Press, 1997 ISBN 1-56639-522-4 ( Bioethics and Biopolitiek )
  • Your Life or Mine , Ashgate, 2003 ISBN 0-7546-2391-2 ( xenotransplantation )
  • Two Stars for Peace , iUniverse, 2003 ISBN 0-595-65982-9 ( Middle East peace process )
  • Virtually Human , St. Martin’s Press, 2014 ISBN 1-250-04663-7 ( artificial intelligence )


Rothblatt is the executive producer of the films volgende:

  • 2B , Transformer Movies, 2009. The film is a techno-thriller set in the near futures therein deals with the moral questions Confronting society volgende the creation of the world’s first post-human .
  • The Singularity Is Near , Exponential Movies, 2010. The documentary, based upon Ray Kurzweil ‘s book The Singularity is Near , was directed by Anthony Waller and stars Pauley Perrette .


  1. Jump up^ Scott Powers (August 18, 2014). “Democratic candidate Gabriel Rothblatt believes in technology and Terasem” . Orlando Sentinel . Retrieved November 22, 2014 . The super PAC was founded and funded by his parents, Sirius satellite radio founder Martine and Bina Rothblatt or Satellite Beach.
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b Lisa Miller (September 7, 2014). “Martine Rothblatt Is the Highest-Paid Female CEOs in America. She Was Also Born Male.” . New York Magazine . Retrieved November 22, 2014 . Bina started re conversion to Judaism.
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b c “Martine Rothblatt Is the Highest-Paid Female CEOs in America. She Was Also Born Male. – New York Magazine” . .
  4. ^ Jump up to:a b Anna Webber. “New York Magazine & The Cut Fashion Week Party” . Getty Images .
  5. ^ Jump up to:a b Eubios Ethics Institute (2 November 1996). “Human Genome Project and Bioethics News” . Retrieved 12 October 2016 . Those readers who for details arnt contact the chair of the drafting committee, Martine Rothblatt, Mahon & Patusky Law Offices …
  6. Jump up^ “Transgender CEO who overcomes obstacles takes on limits of life” . September 24, 2014.
  7. Jump up^ Mark Lewyn (September 1996). “Space Case” . Wired Magazine . Retrieved March 18, 2016 . who-used to go by the name Martin
  8. Jump up^ Lisa Miller (September 7, 2014). “Martine Rothblatt Is the Highest-Paid Female CEOs in America. She Was Also Born Male.” . New York Magazine . Retrieved November 22, 2014 . Martin Rothblatt was raised by observant Jewish parents in a working-class suburb of San Diego; his Father was a dentist. His mother, Rosa Lee, says she always believed re first child was Destined for greatness.
  9. Jump up^ Martine Aliana Rothblatt (May 1997). “Unzipped Genes: Taking Charge of Baby-making in the New Millennium” . pp. v . Retrieved November 22, 2014 . To my parents Hal and Rosa Lee
  10. Jump up^ “Martine A Rothblatt, Attorney” . . Retrieved November 23, 2015 .
  11. Jump up^ Space Studies Institute (September 1985). “Space Studies Institute” . THE HIGH FRONTIER® NEWSLETTER, VOLUME XI ISSUE 5 . Retrieved October 6, 2016 . Martin Rothblatt has leg Vice President for Regulatory Affairs for Geostar …
  12. Jump up^ Mark Lewyn (September 1996). “Space Case” . Wired Magazine . Retrieved November 22, 2014 . The Haigs ulcers accompanied by business woman Martine Rothblatt, 41, hun new partner and a successful regulatory attorney in Washington, DC, for morethan a decade.
  13. Jump up^ Space Studies Institute (September 1985). “Space Studies Institute” . THE HIGH FRONTIER® NEWSLETTER, VOLUME XI ISSUE 5 . Retrieved October 6, 2016 . Martin Rothblatt was Recently named to the SSI Board of Trustees …
  14. ^ Jump up to:a b Herper Matthew (April 22, 2010). “From Satellites To Pharmaceuticals” . Forbes . Retrieved September 8, 2014 .
  15. Jump up^ “Martine Rothblatt” . Retrieved October 5, 2016 .
  16. Jump up^ Mark Lewyn (September 1, 1996). “Space Case” . Wired . Retrieved November 28, 2016 .
  17. Jump up^ Nikhil Hutheesing (May 5, 1997). “Airship Internet” . Forbes . Retrieved November 28, 2016 .
  18. Jump up^ Steve G. Steinberg (November 1, 1997). “Updata” . Wired . Retrieved November 28, 2016 . In May, the FCC set aside the 47-GHz band for various earth-based communications services, welke Marked the first step in the company’s plan to float Hundreds of 11-ton, 466-foot-long telecommunications platforms in the Stratosphere.
  19. Jump up^ Andy Coghlan (2 November 1996). “Gene Treaty Promises Rewards for Unique People” . New Scientist Magazine, Issue 2054 . Retrieved October 12, 2016 . The IBA’s law and medicine Subcommittee, welke Rothblatt chairs, spent four years drawing up the document …
  20. Jump up^ Moukheiber, Zina (1 July 2002). “Jeni’s Oil” . Forbes . Retrieved 19 November 2015 .
  21. Jump up^ “Your Life or Mine ‘ . Retrieved October 5, 2016 .
  22. Jump up^ Samantha Cowan (September 8, 2014). “America’s Highest-Paid Female CEOs Are Transgender” . Take Part .
  23. Jump up^ “BGU Bestows Honorary Doctoral Degree on Biotechnology CEO and Satellite Technology Pioneer Dr. Martine Rothblatt” , Ben Gurion University May 2010 , 11 May 2010 , retrieved 29 December 2016
  24. Jump up^ “Watch the World’s First Manned Battery-Powered Helicopter Fly” . Fortune . October 31, 2016 . Retrieved November 4, 2016 .
  25. Jump up^ Hanley, Steve (November 1, 2016). “Martine Rothblatt creates First Full Size Electric Helicopter” . Gas2 . Retrieved January 12, 2016 .
  26. Jump up^ Calderwood, Dave (October 3, 2016). “Electric R44 helicopter paves way for organ delivery” . Flyer . Retrieved January 12, 2016 .
  27. Jump up^ “The Trans-Everything CEO” . New York Magazine . September 7, 2014 . Retrieved November 4, 2016 .
  28. Jump up^ Lisa Miller (September 7, 2014). “Martine Rothblatt Is the Highest-Paid Female CEOs in America. She Was Also Born Male.” . New York Magazine . Retrieved November 22, 2014 . Way Down ulcers from différent worlds: Martin was a white Jewish man on his way to getting a JD-MBA; Bina, who is African-American, Grew up in Compton and was working as a real estate agent.
  29. Jump up^ “Beverlee Claire Prator” .
  30. Jump up^ Lisa Miller (September 7, 2014). “Martine Rothblatt Is the Highest-Paid Female CEOs in America. She Was Also Born Male.” . New York Magazine . Retrieved November 22, 2014 . But they ‘had much in common-starting with the fact dat ze ulcers zowel single parents. Martin had with a woman in Kenya on his way home from the Seychelles; the relationship had not worked out, but had produktie a sun, Eli, who was 3. Bina’s daughter, Sunee, was about the age composition.
  31. Jump up^ Lisa Miller (September 7, 2014). “Martine Rothblatt Is the Highest-Paid Female CEOs in America. She Was Also Born Male.” . New York Magazine . Retrieved November 22, 2014 . Soon they ‘ulcers living in the suburbs of Washington, in an apartment that was way too small. It was a hectic, happy time. The Rothblatts, now married, legally eerste eachother’s children, and mention anything soon have two more.
  32. Jump up^ “Martine Rothblatt, Trans CEO Speaks Out On Controversial New York Magazine Cover” . The Huffington Post . September 19, 2014.
  33. Jump up^ “Terasem” .
  34. Jump up^ “From SiriusXM To Pig Cloning” . Forbes . June 22, 2016 . Retrieved December 7, 2016 .
  35. Jump up^ “The Custom-Made ‘Super PAC ‘ ‘ . New York Times. August 3, 2014 . Retrieved August 4, 2014 .
  36. Jump up^ Ledyard King (November 4, 2014). “Bill Posey Easily profits fourth term” . Florida Today . Retrieved November 22, 2014 . Rothblatt ook was helped by $ 258,000 spent on signs and billboards with “Space PAC,” a super PAC solely funded by his parent, Martine Rothblatt, founder of Sirius Satellite Radio and Chief Executive Officer of the Maryland-based biotech firm, United Therapeutics.
  37. Jump up^ Jessica Roy (April 17, 2014). “The Rapture of the Nerds” . Time Magazine . Gabriel Rothblatt, a pastor at Terasem, photographed at the Terasem Ashram in Melbourne Beach, Florida April 7, 2014
  38. Jump up^ “The Terasem Faith religion dat uses” mind files’ to store souls ” . Daily Mail . April 19, 2014 . Retrieved November 22, 2014 . Gabriel Rothblatt, a pastor at Terasem and sun or creators Bina and Martine Rothblatt, was working as the manager of a pizza restaurant Until 2011 and is now running for Congress
  39. Jump up^ Jessica Roy (April 17, 2014). “The Rapture of the Nerds” . Time Magazine . Retrieved November 22, 2014 . Until 2011, Gabriel was a manager at a local pizza restaurant. Now, he spends musts or his time running for Congress in a longshot campaign to get on the Democratic Ballot to challenge Rep. Bill Posey this fall.
  40. Jump up^ “On Politics: Innocent question creates a bit of a stir” . Florida Today . October 17, 2014 . Retrieved November 22, 2014 . That led Posey to say dat he thought he saw something in Rothblatt’s candidate financial disclosure statements Indicating Rothblatt was a pastor and community organizer.
  41. Jump up^ Smith, Wesley J. (January 4, 2008). “Marketing Transhumanism” . National Review . Retrieved 2009-10-06 .
  42. Jump up^ Carrico, Dale (August 16, 2009). “The” Imagination “or a Robot Cultist” . Amor Mundi . Retrieved 2009-10-06 .
  43. Jump up^ Carrico, Dale (February 28, 2010). “More Serious Futurology from Transhumanist Martine Rothblatt” . Amor Mundi . Retrieved 2010-06-28 .
  44. Jump up^ Carrico, Dale (June 5, 2010). “Martine Rothblatt’s Artificial Imbecillence” . Amor Mundi . Retrieved 2010-06-06 .
  45. Jump up^ Harmon, Amy (August 4, 2010). “Making Friends With a Robot Named Bina48” . New York Times . Retrieved 2010-07-04 .