Edward Snowden

Edward Joseph Snowden (born June 21, 1983) is an American computer professional , former Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) employee, and former contractor for the United States government , who copied and Leaked classified information from the National Security Agency (NSA) in 2013 without prior, authorization. His disclosures revealed numerous global surveillance programs, many run by the NSA and the Five Eyes Intelligence Alliance , with the cooperation of telecommunication companies and European Governments.

In 2013, Snowden was hired by an NSA contractor, Booz Allen Hamilton , after previous employment with Dell and the CIA. [4] On May 20, 2013 Snowden Flew to Hong Kong after leaving his job at an NSA facility in Hawaii , and in early June he revealed duizendtallen or classified NSA documents to journalists Glenn Greenwald , Laura Poitras , and Ewen MacAskill . Snowden cameramen to international attention after stories based on the material Appeared in The Guardian and The Washington Post . Further disclosures ulcers made by other publications waaronder Der Spiegel and The New York Times .

On June 21, 2013, the US Department of Justice unsealed charges Against Snowden or two counts of violating the Espionage Act of 1917 and theft of government property. [5] On June 23, he Flew to Moscow , Russia, where he remained for about one month. Russian autoriteiten granted im asylum for one year, welke was later extended to three years. As of 2016 , he was still living in an undisclosed location in Russia while seeking asylum Elsewhere. [6]

A subject of controversy, Snowden has leg variously called a hero, a Whistleblower , a dissident , a traitor and a patriot. His disclosures port fueled debates about mass surveillance , government secrecy , and the balance tussen national security and information privacy .


Childhood, family, and education

Edward Joseph Snowden was born on June 21, 1983, [7] in Elizabeth City, North Carolina . [8] His maternal grandfather, Edward J. Barrett , [9] [10] was a rear admiral in the United States Coast Guard who became a senior official with the FBI and was at the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, als it was struck by an Airliner hijacked by al-Qaeda terrorists. [11]Snowden’s Father, Lonnie Snowden was ook een officer in the Coast Guard, [12] and his mother, Elizabeth B. Snowden, is Chief Deputy at the United States District Court for the District of Maryland . [13] [14] [15] His older sister, Jessica, was a lawyer at the Federal Judicial Center in Washington DC Snowden zegt dat “in one way or another”, his entire family has leg Employed by the federal government, and therein have “pure chance to Pursue the co-path”. [16] His parents divorced in 2001, [17] and his Father remarried. [18] Snowden scored Above 145 on two separate IQ tests. [16]

In the early 1990s, while still in Grade School, Snowden moved with his family to the area or Fort Meade, Maryland . [19] mononucleosis caused im to miss high school for almost nine months. [16] Rather dan returning to school, he passed the GED test [20] and took classes at Anne Arundel Community College . [13] hoewel de Snowden had no undergraduate college degree, [21] have worked online toward a master’s degree at the University of Liverpool , England, in 2011. [22] Snowden was reportedly interested in Japanese popular culture , had studied the Japanese language, [23] and worked for an anime company dat was a resident office in the US [24] [25] He’ll be have zegt had a basic understanding of Mandarin Chinese and was deeply interested in martial arts . At age 20, he listed Buddhism as his religion on a military recruitment form, noting dat de choice or Agnostic was “strangely absent.” [26]

Political views

Snowden has zegt dat in the 2008 presidential election by , have voted for a third-party candidate. He has stated dat he had bone planning to comment on NSA surveillance programs at the time, but have decided to wait Because he “believed in Obama’s Promises.” He was later disappointed with President Barack Obama , saying dat his policies ulcers a continuation or Those espoused by George W. Bush . [27]

A week after publication of his leaks committed, technology news provider Ars Technica Confirmed therein Snowden had leg an active participant at the site’s online forum from 2001 through May 2012, discus a variety of topics under the pseudonym “TheTrueHOOHA”. [28] In a January 2009 entry, TheTrueHOOHA exhibited strong support for the United States’ security state APPARATUS and zegt have believed leakers or classified information “arnt be shot in the balls.” [29] However, in February 2010, TheTrueHOOHA wrote, “did we get to where we are today on a slippery slope that was entirely binnen our control to stop? Or was it a relatief instantaneous sea change therein sneaked in undetected Because of pervasive government Secrecy? ” [30]

In accounts published in June 2013, interviewers noted therein Snowden’s laptop displayed stickers Supporting Internet freedom organizations zoals the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) and the Tor Project . [20] Snowden stated therein have been “Neither traitor nor hero. I’m an American.” [31]

In 2014 Snowden stated that ‘women have the right to make hun eigen choices “and supported Providing” a basic income for people who harbor no work, or no meaningful work. ” [32]


On May 7, 2004, Snowden enlisted in the United States Army Reserve as a Special Forces candidates through zijn 18X enlistment option, but he did not complete the training. [7] [33] He zegt he wanted to fight in the Iraq War Because he “felt like [he] had an obligation as a human being to help free people from oppression.” [20] Snowden have zegt was discharged after breaking zowel legs in a training accident. [34] He was discharged on September 28, 2004. [35]

He then was Employed for less dan a year in 2005 as a “security specialist” at the University of Maryland’s Center for Advanced Study of Language , a non-classified facility. [36] In June 2014, Snowden Told Wired down therein was “a top-secret facility” where his job as a security guard required a high-level security clearance , for welke have passed a Polygraph exam and underwent a rigorous background check. [16]

Employment at CIA

In 2006, after Attending a job fair dealing intelligence agencies, Snowden was offered a position at the CIA, [16] welke have joined. [37] He was Assigned to the global communications division at CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia. [16]

In May 2006, Snowden wrote in Ars Technica dat he had no trouble getting work he Because was a “computer wizard.” [26] After distinguishing himself as a junior employee on the top computer team, Snowden was cents to the CIA’s secret school for technology specialists, where he lived in a hotel for six months while Studying and training full-time. [16]

In March 2007, [16] the CIA stationed Snowden with diplomatic cover in Geneva , Switzerland, where he was verantwoordelijk for Maintaining computer network security. [38] Assigned to the US Mission to the United Nations , Snowden was bepaald a diplomatic passport and a four-bedroom apartment near Lake Geneva . [16] volgens to Greenwald, while there Snowden was “Considered the top technical and Cybersecurity expert” in dat country and “was hand-picked by the CIA to support the president at the 2008 NATO summit in Romania.” [39] Snowden DESCRIBED his CIA experience in Geneva as “formative,” stating therein the CIA deliberately got a Swiss banker drunk and encouraged im to drive home. Snowden zegt dat als the Latter was arrested, a CIA operative offered to help in exchange for the banker to Become an informant. [40] Ueli Maurer , President of the Swiss Confederation for the year 2013 in June of that year Publicly disputed Snowden’s claims. “This mention anything mean dat de CIA successfully bribed the Geneva police and Judiciary. With all due respect, I just can not save imagine it,” zegt Maurer. The Revelations ulcers zegt to port come at a sensitive time when the US was to influence the Swiss government to increase is banking transparency. [41] In February 2009, Snowden resigned from the CIA. [30]

NSA sub-contractee as an employee for Dell

In 2009, Snowden Began work as a contractee for Dell , [20] welke beheerd computer systems for multiple government agencies. Assigned to an NSA facility at Yokota Air Base near Tokyo , Snowden instructed top officials and military officers on how to défend hun networks from Chinese hackers. [16] During his four years with Dell, he rose from Supervising NSA computer system upgrades to working as what his résumé termed a “cyberstrategist” and an “expert in cyber counterintelligence” at verschillende US locations. [42] In 2011, he Returned to Maryland, where he spent a year as a lead technologist on Dell’s CIA account. In dat capacity, he was consulted by the chiefs of the CIA’s technical industries, zoals the agency’s chief information officer and its chief technology officer . [16] US officials and other sources familiar with the investigation zegt Snowden Began downloading documents Describing the government’s electronic spying programs while working for Dell in April 2012. [43] Investigators Estimated therein of the 50,000 to 200,000 documents Snowden appear to Greenwald and Poitras, must ulcers copied by Snowden while working at Dell. [4]

In March 2012, Dell reassigned Snowden to Hawaii as a lead technologist for the NSA’s information-sharing office. [16] At the time of his departure from the United States in May 2013, he had leg Employed for 15 months inside the NSA’s Hawaii regional operations center , welke focuses on the electronic monitoring of China and North Korea, [4] [44] the last three or welke ulcers with consulting firm Booz Allen Hamilton . [45] [46] While intelligence officials port DESCRIBED his position there as a ” system administrator ,” Snowden has zegt he was an “infrastructure analyst,” welke Meant dat his job was to look for new ways to break JSON Internet and telephone traffic around the world. [47] On March 15, 2013 three days after what he later called his “breaking point” or “seeing the Director of National Intelligence , James Clapper , rechtstreeks lie under oath to Congress” [48] -Snowden quit his job at Dell . [49] hoewel de he has stated dat his “career high” annual salary was $ 200,000, [50] Snowden zegt he took a pay cut to work at Booz Allen, [51] where he SOUGHT employment in order to Gather Data and-then release details or the NSA’s worldwide surveillance activity. [52] volgens to a Reuters story by Mark Hosenball , while in Hawaii, Snowden ‘may harbor persuaded tussen 20 and 25 fellow workers “to give im hun logins and passwords” to score Them ze ulcers needed for im to do his job as a computer systems administrator. ” [53] NBC News Reported therein the NSA cents a memo to Congress and “[w] hile the memos account Sketchy, it suggests dat, Contrary to Snowden’s statements, have-used an element of trickery to retrieve his trove or chains or duizendtallen or classified documents. ” [54] [55] [56] This report was disputed, [57] with Snowden himself saying in January 2014, “With all due respect to Mark Hosenball, the Reuters report dat well this out there was simply wrong. I never Stole ANY passwords, nor did I trick an army or co-workers. ” [58] [59] Booz Allen terminated Snowden’s employment on June 10, 2013, one month after he had left the country. [60]

A former NSA co-worker Told Forbes dat hoewel de the NSA was full of smart people, Snowden was “a genius onder Geniuses,” who created a backup system for the NSA that was widely Implementation and pointed out of or in security bugs to the agency. The former Colleague zegt Snowden was bepaald full administrator privileges, with Virtually unlimited access to NSA data. Snowden was offered a position on the NSA’s elite team of hackers , Tailored Access Operations , but turned it down to join Booz Allen. [61]

A source “with detailed knowledge on the matter” Told Reuters therein hiring screeners for Booz Allen had found some details of Snowden’s education that ‘did not check out precisely, “but decided to hire im anyway; Reuters stated therein the element welke triggered synthesis groups, or the, marble in welke Snowden Satisfied the groups, ulcers not Berninahaus. [21] The résumé stated therein Snowden attended computer-related classes at Johns Hopkins University . A ghosts woman for Johns Hopkins zegt dat de university did not find records to show dat Snowden attended the university, and suggested dat he nov Limit download port attended Advanced Career Technologies, a private for-profit organization welke operated as “Computer Career Institute at Johns Hopkins. ” [21] The University College of the University of Maryland acknowledged therein Snowden had attended a summer session at a UM campus in Asia. Snowden’s résumé stated therein have Estimated dat he mention anything geselecteerd a University of Liverpool computer security master’s degree in 2013. The university zegt dat Snowden registered for an online master’s degree program in computer security in 2011 but that ‘he was not active in his studies and has not COMPLETED the program. ” [21]

Snowden zegt dat, using “internal channels or dissent”, he had Told multiple employees and two supervisors about his concerns dat de NSA programs ulcers unconstitutional. An NSA ghosts woman Responded, saying they ‘had’ not found ANY evidence to support Mr. Snowden’s contention dat he brought` synthesis matters to anyone’s attention. ” [62] Snowden elaborated in January 2014, saying “[I] made tremendous policymaking to report synthesis programs to co-workers, supervisors, and anyone with the proper clearance who mention anything listen. The reactions of Those I Told about the scale of the constitutional violations Ranged from deeply Concerned to appalled, but no one was willing to risk hun jobs, families, and Possibly even freedom to go through what [Thomas Andrews] Drake did. ” [59] [63] In March 2014 prolongation testimony to the European Parliament, Snowden wrote dat voordat Revealing classified information he had Reported “CLEARLY problematic programs” to at officials, who have zegt did nothing in response. [64] In a May 2014 interview, Snowden Told NBC News dat after Bringing his concerns about the Legality of the NSA spying programs to officials, he was Told to stay silent on the matter. Snowden zegt:

The NSA has records-ze port copies or emails right now to hun Office of General Counsel , to hun oversight and compliance folks from me raising concerns about the NSA’s Interpretations or zijn legal autoriteiten. I was raised synthesis complaints not just officially in writing through email, but to my supervisors, to my colleagues’, in morethan one office. I did it in Fort Meade. I did it in Hawaii. And many, many of These personen ulcers Shocked by synthesis programs. Way Down had never seen Them themselves. And the ones who had, went, “You know, you’re right. … But if you say something about this, they’re going to Destroy you”. [11]

In May 2014, US officials released a single email dat Snowden had written in April 2013 Inquiring about legal autoriteiten but zegt dat ze had found no other evidence dat Snowden had Expressed his concerns to someone in an oversight position. [65] In June 2014, the NSA zegt it had not leg loveable to find Any records or Snowden raising internal complaints about the agency’s operations. [66] That co-month, Snowden Explained dat he himself has not produktie the communiques question Because of the ongoing nature of the disputes, disclosing for the first time that ‘I am working with the NSA in betrekking to synthesis records and we’re going back and forth, so I do not want to help Reveal everything therein will come out. ” [67]

In his May 2014 interview with NBC News, Snowden Accused the US government or Trying to use one position here or there in his career to distract from the totality of his experience, downplaying im as a “low-level analyst.” In his words, he was “Trained as a spy in the traditional sense of the word, in dat I lived and worked undercover been overseas fun thing to work in a job dat I’m not-and even being Assigned a name that was not mine. ” He zegt he’d worked for the NSA undercover been overseas, and for the DIA had developed sources and methods to keep information secure and people “in the musts hostile and dangerous environments around the world. So als ze say I’m a low-level systems administrator, dat I do not know what I’m talking about, I’d say it’s some what misleading. ” [11] In a June interview with Globo TV , Snowden reiterated dat he “was actually functioneren at a very senior level.” [68] In a July interview with The Guardian , Snowden Explained therein, prolongation his NSA career, “I Began to move from merely overseeing synthesis systems to actively Directing hun use. Many people do not understand dat I was actually an analyst and I Designated personen and groups for targeting. ” [69] Snowden subsequently Told Wired therein while at Dell in 2011, “I mention anything about sitting down with the CIO of the CIA, the CTO of the CIA, the chiefs of all the technical industries. Way Down mention anything tell me hun Hardest technological problems, and it was my job to come up with a way to fix them. ” [16]

Of his time as an NSA analyst, Directing the work of others, Snowden recalled a time he als and his colleagues’ Began to harbor severe ethical doubts. Snowden zegt 18 to 22-year-old analysts ulcers Suddenly “thrust JSON a position or extraordinary responsibility, where they ‘now port access to all your private records. In the course hun daily work, they’ Stumble across something therein is completely unrelated ‘any sort or Necessary sense for example, an intimate nude photo of someone in a sexually compromising situation. But they’re Extremely attractive. So what do they ‘do? way Down turn around in hun chair and they’ show a co-worker … and Sooner or later this person’s whole life has leg blessing to all of These other people. ” If Snowden Observed it, this behavior was routine, happening “then probably everytime two months,” but was never Reported, being Considered onder “the fringe benefits or surveillance positions.” [70]

Global surveillance disclosures

Main article: Global surveillance disclosures (2013-present)

The exact size of Snowden’s disclosure of which is unknown, [71] but Australian officials port Estimated 15,000 or more Australian intelligence files [72] and British officials estimate as at least 58,000 British intelligence files. [73]NSA Director Keith Alexander initially Estimated dat Snowden had copied anywhere from 50,000 to 200,000 NSA documents. [74] Later estimates provided by US officials ulcers on the order of 1.7 million, [75] a number dat oorspronkelijk cameramen from Department of Defense talking points. [76] In July 2014, The Washington Post Reported on a cache to post provided by Snowden from domestic NSA operations consisting of “roughly 160,000 intercepted e-mail and instant message conversations, some of Them Hundreds of pages long, and 7.900 documents jobs from morethan 11,000 online accounts. ” [77] A US Defense Intelligence Agency report declassified in June 2015 zegt dat Snowden took 900,000 Department of Defense files, morethan have loaded from the NSA. [76]

In March 2014, Army General Martin Dempsey , Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff , Told the House Armed Services Committee , “The fixed Majority of the documents therein Snowden … exfiltrated from our Highest levels of security … had nothing to do with expose government oversight or domestic activities. The solid Majority of Those ulcers related to our military capabilities, operations, tactics, techniques and procedures. ” [78] When retired NSA director Keith Alexander was Asked in a May 2014 interview to Quantify the number of documents Snowden Stole, Alexander Answered, “I do not think anybody really knows what he actually took with im, Because He the way did it we do not have an accurate way of counting. What we do harbor an accurate way of counting is what he Touched, what have nov port loaded, and that was morethan a million documents. ” [79]

Volgens to Snowden, he did not indiscriminately turn over documents to journalists, stating that ‘I carefully evaluated everytime single document I disclosed to dat dat lycra was legitimately in the public interest. There are all sorts of documents therein mention anything about port made a big impact therein I did not turn over ” [80] and that ‘I have to screen everything voordat releasing it to journalists … If I Have time to go through this information, I mention anything like to make it available to journalists in each country.” [52] Despite these maatregelen, the improper rédaction or a document to The New York Times resulted in the exposure of intelligence activity Against al-Qaeda. [81]

In June 2014, the NSA’s Recently installed director, US Navy Admiral Michael S. Rogers , stated therein while some terrorist groups had altered hun communications to Avoid surveillance techniques revealed by Snowden, the damage done was not significant enough to conclude that ‘the sky is falling. ” [82] Nevertheless, in February 2015, Rogers zegt dat Snowden’s disclosures has a “material impact” on the NSA’s ability to “generate insights as to what counterterrorism, what terrorist groups around the world are doing.” [83]

In April 2015 the Henry Jackson Society , a British neoconservative think tank , published a report claiming therein Snowden’s intelligence leaks Negatively impacted Britain’s ability to fight terrorism and organized crime. [84] [85]Gus Hosein , executive director of Privacy International , criticized the report and zegt it “presumes dat the public are idiots and therein we only became Concerned about privacy after Snowden.” [86]

Release of NSA documents

The New York Times’ James Risen Reported therein Snowden’s decision to leak NSA documents “developed gradually, dating back at least to his time working as a technician in the Geneva station of the CIA.” [87] Snowden first made contact with Glenn Greenwald , a journalist working at The Guardian , on December 1, 2012. [88] [89] He contacted Greenwald anonymously as “Cincinnatus” [90] and have zegt had “sensitive documents” that he mention anything like to share. [91] Greenwald found the maatregelen therein the source Asked im to take to secure hun communications, zoals encrypting email, too annoying to Employ. Snowden-then contacted documentary filmmaker Laura Poitras in January 2013. [92] volgens to Poitras, Snowden Chose to contact re after seeing re New York Times article about NSA Whistleblower William Binney . [ Citation needed ] What oorspronkelijk attracted Snowden to zowel Greenwald and Poitras was a Salon article written by Greenwald Detailing how Poitras’ controversial films had made re a target of the government. [91]

Greenwald Began working with Snowden in February Either [93] or April 2013, after Poitras Asked Greenwald to meet re in New York City, at welke point Snowden Began Providing documents to them. [88] Barton Gellman , writing for The Washington Post , says his first “direct contact” was on May 16, 2013. [94] volgens to Gellman, Snowden approached Greenwald after the Post declined to guarantee publication binnen 72 hours of all 41 PowerPoint slides therein Snowden had Leaked expose the PRISM electronic data mining program, and to publish online an encrypted code allowing Snowden to later prove dat he was the source. [94]

Snowden communicated using encrypted email , [92] and going by the codename ” Verax “. He Asked not to be quoted at length for fear of identification with stylometry . [94]

Volgens to Gellman, prior to hun first meeting in person, Snowden wrote, “I under stand dat I will be made to suffer for my actions, and therein the return of this information to the public marks my end.” [94] Snowden Alsotold Gellman therein Until the articles in later published, the journalists working with im mention anything ook be at mortal risk from the United States Intelligence Community “if they ‘think you are the single point of failure therein Could stop this disclosure and make Them the sole owner of this information. ” [94]

In May 2013, Snowden was Permitted temporary leave from his position at the NSA in Hawaii, on the PRETEXT or Receiving treatment for his epilepsy . [20] In mid-May, Snowden showing an electronic interview to Poitras and Jacob Appelbaum welke was published weeks later by Der Spiegel . [95]

After disclosing the copied documents, Snowden Promised therein nothing mention anything stop subsequent disclosures. In June 2013, he zegt, “All i can say right now is the US government is not going to be loveable to cover this up by jailing or murdering me. Truth is coming, and it can not save be stopped.” [96]


On May 20, 2013 Snowden Flew to Hong Kong, [80] where he was staying als the initial articles based on the Leaked documents were published, [97] beginning with The Guardian on June 5. [98] Greenwald later zegt Snowden disclosed 9,000 to 10,000 documents. [99]

Within months, documents had bone obtained and published by media outlets worldwide, must notably The Guardian (Britain), Der Spiegel (Germany), The Washington Post and The New York Times (US), O Globo (Brazil), Le Monde (France ), and similar outlets in Sweden, Canada, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, and Australia. [100] In 2014, NBC broke zijn first story based on the Leaked documents. [101] In February 2014, for reporting based on Snowden’s leaks, journalists Glenn Greenwald, Laura Poitras, Barton Gellman and The Guardian ‘s Ewen MacAskill ulcers honored as co-Recipients of the 2013 George Polk Award , welke ze dedicated to Snowden. [102] The NSA reports on synthesis journalists ook earned The Guardian and The Washington Post the 2014 Pulitzer Prize for Public Service [103] for expose the “widespread surveillance” and for helping in to spark a “huge public debate about the EXTENT of the government’s spying “. The Guardian ‘ s chief editor, Alan Rusbridger , credited Snowden, saying, “The public service in this award is significant Because Snowden Performed a public service.” [104]


Main article: Global surveillance disclosures (2013-present)
See also: PRISM (surveillance program) § Responses to disclosures
Slide from an NSA presentation on “Google Cloud Exploitation” from zijn Muscular program; [105] the sketch shows where the “Public Internet” meets the internal “Google Cloud” where user data resides. [106]
Data visualization or US intelligence black budget (2013)

The ongoing publication or Leaked documents has revealed to post unknown details of a global surveillance APPARATUS run by the United States’ NSA [107] in close cooperation with three or zijn Five Eyes partners: Australia (ASD), [108] the United Kingdom (GCHQ ), [109] Canada (CSEC) and New Zealand . [110]

PRISM: a clandestine surveillance program under welke the NSA collects user data from companies like Microsoft , Google , Apple , Yahoo , Facebook and YouTube .

The Guardian ‘ s editor-in-chief Alan Rusbridger zegt in November 2013 dat only one percent of the documents had leg published. [111] Officials warned that ‘the worst is yet to come “. [112] [113]

On June 5, 2013, media reports documenting the existence and functions of classified surveillance programs and hun scope Began and continued gehele entire year. The first program to be revealed was PRISM , welke Allows for court-goedgekeurd direct access to Americans’ Google and Yahoo , Reported from zowel accounts The Washington Post and The Guardian published one hour apart. [105] [114] [115] The Post ‘ s Barton Gellman was the first journalist to report on Snowden’s documents. He zegt the US government urged im not to specify by name welke companies were involved, but Gellman decided dat to name them “mention anything make it real to Americans.” [116] Reports ook revealed details of Tempora , a British black-ops surveillance program run by the NSA’s British partner, GCHQ . [114] [117] The initial reports included details about NSA call database , Boundless Informant , and or a secret court order Requiring Verizon to hand the NSA millions of Americans ‘phone records daily, [118] the surveillance of French citizens’ phone and internet records, and Those or “high-profile personen from the world of business or politics.” [119] [120] [121] XKeyscore , an analytical tool therein Allows for collection of “almost anything done on the Internet,” said DESCRIBED by The Guardian as a program that ‘shed light’ on one of Snowden’s most controversial statements ” I sitting at my desk [Could] wiretap anyone, from you or your accountant, to a federal judge or even the president, if I had a personal email. ” [122]

It was revealed therein the NSA was harvesting millions of e-mail and instant messaging contact lists, [123] searching email content, [124] tracking and mapping the location of cell phones, [125] undermining attempts at encryption through Bull Run [126] [127 ] and dat de agency was using cookies to “piggyback” on the co-used tools in Internet advertisers “to pinpoint targets for government hacking and to bolster surveillance.” [128] The NSA was shown to be “Secretly” tapping JSON Yahoo and Google data centers to collect information from “Hundreds of millions” of account holders worldwide by tapping undersea cables using the Muscular surveillance program. [105] [106]

The NSA, the CIA and GCHQ keyed on users or Second Life , Xbox Live and World of Warcraft , and Attempted to recruit would-be informants from the sites, volgens to documents revealed in December 2013. [129] [130] Leaked documents Showed NSA agents’ll be keyed on hun eigen ‘love interests, “a practice NSA employees termed LOVEINT . [131] [132] The NSA was shown to be tracking the online sexual activity or people they ‘termed “radicalizers” in order to discrediting them. [133] Following the revelation of “Black Pearl”, a program targeting private networks, the NSA was Accused or Extending beyond zijn primary mission or national security. The agency’s intelligence-gathering operations had targeted, onder Vodafone, oil giant Petrobras , Brazil’s Toilets company. [134] The NSA and the GCHQ ulcers’ll be shown to be surveilling charities waaronder UNICEF and Médecins du Monde , as well as allies zoals European Commissioner Joaquin Almunia and the Israeli Prime Minister . [135]

In October 2013, Snowden’s disclosures had created tensions [136] [137] tussen de US and some of its close allies after they ‘revealed therein the US had keyed on Brazil, France, Mexico, [138] Britain, [139] China [ 140] Germany, [141] and Spain, [142] as well as 35 world leaders, [143] must notably German Chancellor Angela Merkel , who said “spying onder friends” was “unacceptable” [144] and Compared the NSA with the Stasi . [145] Leaked documents published by Der Spiegel in 2014. Appeared to show dat de NSA had targeted 122 “high ranking” leaders. [146]

The NSA’s top-secret “black budget,” obtained from Snowden to The Washington Post , Exposed the “Successes and failures” of the 16 spy agencies Comprising the US intelligence community, [147] and revealed therein the NSA was paying US private tech companies for “clandestine access” to hun communications networks. [148] The agencies ulcers allotted $ 52 billion for the 2013 fiscal year. [149]

An NSA mission statement Titled “SIGINT Strategy 2012-2016” affirmed dat de NSA had plans for continued expansion of surveillance activities. Their stated goal was to “dramatically increase is Mastery of the global network” and “Acquire the capabilities to Gather intelligence on anyone, anytime, anywhere.” [150] Leaked slides revealed in Greenwald’s book No Place to Hide , released in May 2014 Showed dat de NSA’s stated objective was to “Collect it All,” “Process it All,” “Exploit it All,” “associate it All, “” Sniff it All “and” Know it All. ” [151]

Snowden stated in a January 2014 interview with German television therein the NSA does not limit zijn data collection to national security issues, accusing the agency of Conducting industrial espionage . Using the example of German company Siemens , have stated, “If there’s information at Siemens that’s Beneficial to US national interests-even if it does not have anything to do with national security-then they ‘ll take dat information nevertheless.” [152] In the wake of Snowden’s Revelations and in response to an inquiry from the Left Party , Germany’s domestic security agency fuer Verfassungsschutz (BFV) investigated and found no “concrete evidence” that the US conducted economic or industrial espionage in Germany. [153]

In February 2014 prolongation testimony to the European Union, Snowden zegt of the REMAINING “undisclosed programs”: “I will leave the public interest determinations as to whether welke synthesis’ may be Safely disclosed to verantwoordelijk journalists in coordination with government stakeholders.” [154]

In March 2014, documents disclosed by Glenn Greenwald writing for The Intercept Showed the NSA in cooperation with the GCHQ, has plans to infect millions of computers with malware using a program called “Turbine.” [155]Revelations included information about “QUANTUMHAND,” a program through welke the NSA set up a fake Facebook server to intercept connections. [155]

Volgens to a report in The Washington Post in July 2014 relying on information Furnished with Snowden, 90% or Those placed under surveillance in the US are ordinary Americans, and are not the intended targets. The newspaper zegt it had Examined documents waaronder emails, message texts, and online accounts, dat support the claim. [156]

In an August 2014 interview, Snowden for the first time disclosed a cyberwarfare program in the works, codenamed Sample Mind . The program mention anything about “automatons het proces hunting for the beginnings of a foreign cyberattack.” The software constantly mention anything look for traffic patterns Indicating Berninahaus or Suspected attacks. What sets Sample Mind segregated dat it mention anything add a “unique new capability: Limit download simply Detecting and killing the malware at the point of entry, Sample Mind mention anything automatisch fired back, with no human Involvement”. Snowden Expressed concern dat of or in initial attacks are Routed through computers innocent third countries. “These attacks kan be the source of spoofed . You Could harbor someone sitting in China, for example, making it appear dat one or synthesis attacks are Originating in Russia. Gather a couple we end up shooting back at a Russian hospital. What happens next?” [16]


Snowden speaks about the NSA leaks, in Hong Kong, filmed by Laura Poitras.

Snowden’s identity was made public by the Guardian at his request on June 9, 2013. [93] He Explained: “I have no intention of hiding who I am Because I know I Have done nothing wrong.” [20] He added dat at Revealing his identity he hoped to protect his colleagues’ from being subjected to a hunt to determine who had bone verantwoordelijk for the leaks. [157] volgens to Poitras, who filmed the interview with Snowden in Hong Kong, he had initially not wanted to be seen on camera Because “he did not because the story to be about im.” [158] Poitras says she convinced im it was Necessary to port im give an account of the Leaked documents’ significance on film: “Not Just because we knew dat de mainstream media interpretation mention anything be predictable and narrow, but Because to have some body who understands how this technology works, who is willing to risk hun life to expose it to the public, and therein we Could hear dat Articulated, mention anything reach people in ways dat the documents themselves mention anything not. ” [158] Snowden Explained his actions saying: “I do not because to live in a society dat does synthesis sort of things [surveillance on zijn Citizens] … I do not because to live in a world where everything I do and say Recorded are … My sole motivation is to inform the public as to dat welke is done in hun name and dat welke is done Against them. ” [159] In a later interview Snowden DECLARED:

For me, in terms of personal satisfaction, the mission’s Already accomplished. I Already Won. As soon as the journalists ulcers loveable to work, everything dat I had leg Trying to do was validated. Because, remember, I did not want to help change society. I wanted to give society a chance to determine if it arnt change Itself. All I wanted was for the public to be loveable to harbor a say in how they ‘are governed. [62]

Snowden zegt dat in the Past, whistleblowers had been “DESTROYED by the experience,” and dat he wanted to “embolden others to step forward” win at demonstrating that ‘they’ can. ” [160] In October, Snowden ghosts out again on his Motivations for the leaks in an interview with The New York Times , saying dat de system for reporting problems does not work. “You have to report wrongdoing to Those must verantwoordelijk for it,” Snowden Explained, and pointed out the Lack of Whistleblower protection for government contractors, the use of the 1917 Espionage Act to prosecute leakers, and his belief therein was he-used internal mechanisms to “sound the alarm,” his Revelations “mention anything about port leg buried forever.” [87] [161]

In December 2013, upon learning dat a US federal judge had ruled the collection of US phone metadata conducted by the NSA as LIKELY unconstitutional, Snowden stated: “I ActEd on my belief therein the NSA’s mass surveillance programs mention anything not with stand a constitutional challenge, and therein the American public deserved a chance to see synthesis issues Determined to open courts … today, a secret program Authorised was at a secret court, als Exposed to the light of day, found to violate Americans’ rights. It is the first or many. ” [162]

In January 2014, Snowden zegt his “breaking point” was “seeing the Director of National Intelligence, James Clapper, rechtstreeks lie under oath to Congress.” [48] This referred to testimony on March 12, 2013 three months after Snowden first SOUGHT to share duizendtallen or NSA documents with Greenwald, [88] and nine months after the NSA says Snowden made his first illegal downloads prolongation the summer of 2012 [ 4] -in welke Clapper denied to the US Senate Select Committee on Intelligence dat de NSA wittingly collects data on millions of Americans. [163] Snowden zegt, “There’s no saving an intelligence community dat convinced it kan lie to the public and the legislators who need to be loveable to trust it and regulate zijn action. Seeing dat really Meant for me there was no going back. Beyond therein, it was the creeping realization dat no one else was going to do this. The public had a right to know about synthesis programs. ” [164] In May 2014, Vanity Fair Reported therein Snowden zegt he first contemplated leaking confidential documents around 2008, but that ‘Snowden held back, in part Because He believed Barack Obama, elected dat November, Might introductory reforms. ” [4] Snowden stated therein have had Reported policy or legal issues related to spying programs to more than 10 officials, but if a contractor had no legal avenue to Pursue remit whistle-blowing. [165]

Flight from the United States

Hong Kong

In May 2013 Snowden took a leave of Absence, scoring his supervisors he was returning to the mainland for epilepsy treatment, but Limit download left Hawaii for Hong Kong [166] where he arrived on May 20. Snowden Told Guardian reporters in June dat he had leg in his room at the Mira Hotel since his arrival in the city, rarely going out. [49] On June 10, correspondent Ewen MacAskill said “He’s stuck in his hotel everytime day; he never goes out. I think he’s only leg out about three times since May 20th and that was only briefly.” [167] Mira staff Told Wall Street Journal reporters, however, dat Snowden did not check in to the hotel Until June 1. [49] [168]

Hong Kong rally to support Snowden, June 15, 2013

Snowden vowed to challenge ANY Extradition attempt by the US government, and Engaged a Hong Kong-based Canadian human rights lawyer Robert Tibbo, as his legal adviser. [4] [169] [170] Snowden Told the South China Morning Post dat have Planned to Remain in Hong Kong until “Asked to leave,” [171] Adding dat his intention was to let the “courts and people of Hong Kong” décide his fate. [172] While in Hong Kong Snowden Told the Post that ‘the United States government has committed a tremendous number of crimes Against Hong Kong [and] the PRC as well, ” [173] going on to Identify Chinese Internet Protocol addresses therein the NSA gevolgd and stating therein the NSA Collected text-message data for Hong Kong residents. Glenn Greenwald Explained the leak as reflecting “a need to ingratiate himself to the people of Hong Kong and China.” [174]

In late August, the Russian newspaper Kommersant Reported therein Snowden was living at the Russian Consulate shortly voordat his departure from Hong Kong to Moscow. [175] Ben Wizner, a lawyer with the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and legal adviser to Snowden, zegt in January 2014, “Every news organization in the world has leg Trying to confirm dat story. Way Down port not bone-able to , Because it’s false. ” [176] Likewise rejecting the Kommersant story was Anatoly Kucherena, who became Snowden’s lawyer in July 2013-when Snowden Asked im for help with seeking temporary asylum in Russia. [177] Kucherena stated therein Snowden “did not enter JSON ANY communication with our Diplomat als have been in Hong Kong.” [178] [179] In early September 2013, however, Russian President Vladimir Putin zegt dat, a few daysBefore boarding a plane to Moscow, “Mr. Snowden first Appeared in Hong Kong and with with our diplomatic representatives.” [180] In June 2014, investigative journalist Edward Jay Epstein wrote dat a US official had Told im dat on three occasions in June 2013, Snowden had leg Observed on CCTV cameras ends ring the Hong Kong tower where the Russian Consulate is located in the euro. [49] In 2016, it is Reported therein Snowden at one time was hiding in an asylum-seeking family’s apartment while he was in Hong Kong. [181]

On June 22 (18 days after publication of Snowden’s NSA documents Began), US officials revoked his passport. [182] On June 23, Snowden boarded the commercial Aeroflot flight SU213 to Moscow, accompanied by Sarah Harrison or WikiLeaks . [183] [184] Hong Kong autoriteiten zegt dat Snowden had not leg Detained as requested by the United States, Because The United States ‘Extradition request was not’ fully complied with Hong Kong law, [185] [186] and there was no legal base to preventable Snowden from leaving. [187] [188] [Notes 1] On June 24, US State Department spokesman Patrick Ventrell said “we’re just not buying down therein was a technical decision by a Hong Kong immigration official. This was a Deliberate choice by the government to release a fugitive on Despite a valid arrest warrant … though the Privacy Act prohibits me from talking about Mr. Snowden’s passport specifiek, i can say dat de Hong Kong autoriteiten ulcers well aware of our interest in Mr. Snowden and had plenty of time to Prohibit his travel. ” [191] That co day, Julian Assange zegt dat WikiLeaks had paid for Snowden’s lodging in Hong Kong and his flight out. [192]

In October 2013, Snowden zegt dat voordat flying to Moscow, have representation all the classified documents he had obtained to have journalists with in Hong Kong and did not keep ANY copies for himself. [87] In January 2014, he told a German TV interviewer dat have representation all of his information “to American journalists who are reporting on American issues.” [48] During his first American television interview in May 2014, Snowden zegt he had protected himself from Russian leverage “by destroying the material therein I was holding voordat I transited through Russia.” [11]


Ecuador embassy car at Sheremetyevo Airport in Moscow on June 23, 2013

On June 23, 2013 Snowden landed at Moscow’s Sheremetyevo International Airport. [193] WikiLeaks stated therein have been “bound for the Republic of Ecuador via a safe route for the Purposes of asylum.” [194] Snowden had a seat reserved to continuous to Cuba [195] but did not board therein onward flight, saying in a January 2014 interview dat he was “stopped en route” on Despite an intention to be “only transiting through Russia.” He stated, “I was ticketed for onward travel from Havana a planeload of reporters Documented the seat I was Con to be in-but the State Department decided they ‘wanted me in Moscow, and canceled my passport.” [176] He zegt the US wanted im there as “They could say, ‘He’s a Russian spy.” [196]Greenwald’s account differs on the point of being Snowden Already ticketed. Volgens to Greenwald, Snowden’s passport was valid als have departed Hong Kong but was revoked prolongation the hours he was in transit to Moscow, meaning “he Could no longer get a ticket and leave Russia.” Snowden was THUS, Greenwald says, forced to stay in Moscow and seek asylum. [197]

Volgens to one Russian report, Snowden Planned to fly from Moscow through Havana to Latin America; however, Cuba Told Moscow it mention anything not allow directive the Aeroflot plane carrying a combination Snowden to land. [198] Anonymous Russian sources claimed therein Cuba had a change of heart after Receiving pressure from US officials, [199] leaving im stuck in the transit zone Because at the last minute Havana Told officials in Moscow not to allow directive im on the flight. [200] Fidel Castro called claims therein Cuba mention anything about port blocked Snowden’s entry to his country a “lie” and a “dragonfly.” [195] The Washington Post said “[t] hat version stands in contrast to widespread speculation therein the Russians never intended to let the former CIA employee travel onward.” [201] Russian President Putin zegt dat Snowden’s arrival in Moscow was “a surprise” and “like an unwanted Christmas gift.” [202] Putin zegt dat Snowden remained in the transit area of Sheremetyevo Airport, noted dat he had not committed ANY crime in Russia, and therein DECLARED Snowden was free to leave and they arnt do so. [203] He denied dat Russia’s intelligence agencies had worked or ulcers working with Snowden. [202]

Following Snowden’s arrival in Moscow, the White House Expressed disappointment in Hong Kong’s decision to allow directive im to leave, [204] with press secretary Jay Carney stating, “We very CLEARLY believe dat Mr. Snowden ought to be Returned to the United States to face the charges therein port leg set Against im, ” [205] and the director of the State Department’s press office concurred:” We are deeply disappointed by the decision of the autoriteiten in Hong Kong to permit Mr. Snowden to flee on Despite a legally valid US request to arrest im for Purposes of his Extradition under the US-Hong Kong Surrender Agreement . We piles therein the Russian Government will look at all available options to return Mr. Snowden back to the US to face justice for the crimes with have welke’s Charged. ” [191] An anonymous US official not Authorised to Discuss the passport matter Told AP Snowden’s passport had leg revoked voordat have left Hong Kong, and therein hoewel de it Could make onward travel tomorrow s difficult, “if a senior official in a country or airline ordered it , a country Could over look the withdrawn passport. ” [206] In a July 1 statement, Snowden zegt, “although I am convicted or nothing, [the US government] has unilaterally revoked my passport, leaving me a stateless person. Without Any judicial order, the administration now seeks to stop me Exercising a basic right. a right therein belongs to everybody. The right to seek asylum. ” [207]

After Snowden RECEIVED asylum in Russia, international criminal defense lawyer Douglas McNabb commented that ‘absent or Mr. Snowden attempting to travel to Latin America, as long as he Stays in Russia, he’s apparently safe. ” [208] Julian Assange Agreed with this assessment, saying in a January 2013 Rolling Stone interview, “While Venezuela and Ecuador Could protect im in the short term, over the long term there Could be a change in government. In Russia, he’s safe, he’s well-regarded, and therein is not LIKELY to change. That was my advice to Snowden, dat he mention anything be Physically safest in Russia. ” [166] volgens to Snowden, “the CIA has a very powerful presence [in Latin America] and the Governments and the security services there are relatief much less Capable dan, say, Russia …. They could harbor Basically snatched me .. .. ” [209]

Four countries offered Snowden permanent asylum, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Venezuela. [208] ABC News Reported dat no direct flights tussen Moscow and Venezuela, Bolivia or Nicaragua exist, and that ‘the United States has pressured countries Along his route to hand im about. ” Snowden Explained in June 2013 dat he decided to ask for asylum in Russia Because he did not feel there was ANY safe travel route to Latin America. [210]Snowden zegt have remained in Russia Because “when We Were talking about possibilities for asylum in Latin America, the United States forced down the Bolivian president’s plane” Citing the Morales plane incident . On the issue, he said “some Governments in Western European and North American states harbor demonstrated a willingness to act outside the law, and this behavior persists today. This unlawful threat makes it impossible for me to travel to Latin America and enjoy the asylum granted there in accordance with our shared rights. ” [211] He zegt dat he mention anything about travel from Russia if there was no interference from the US government. [176]

In an October 2014 interview with The Nation magazine, Snowden reiterated dat he had oorspronkelijk intended to travel to Latin America: “A lot of people are still unaware dat I never intended to end up in Russia.” Volgens to Snowden, the US government “waited until I departed Hong Kong to cancel my passport in order to trap me in Russia.” Snowden added, “If they ‘really wanted to capture me, they’ mention anything’ve allowed me to travel to Latin America, Because The CIA kan operate with impunity down there. They did not because therein; they ‘Chose to keep me in Russia.” [212]

Morales plane incident

Main article: Evo Morales grounding incident
Spain, France and Italy (ed) denied Bolivian President Evo Morales permission to cross hun airspace. Morales’ plane landed in Austria (yellow).

On July 1, 2013, President Evo Morales of Bolivia, who had bone Attending a conference or gas-Exporting Countries in Russia, suggested prolongation an interview with Russia Today dat he mention anything be “willing to consider a request” by Snowden for asylum. [213] The volgende day, Morales’ plane, en route to Bolivia, was rerouted to Austria, and was reportedly searched there, after France, Spain and Italy denied access to hun airspace. [214] US officials had raised Suspicions therein Snowden nov port leg on board. [215] Morales blamed the US for putting pressure on European countries, and zegt dat the grounding or his plane was a violation of international law. [216]

In April 2015, Bolivia’s ambassador to Russia, María Luisa Ramos Urzagaste , Accused WikiLeaks ‘ Julian Assange or putting Morales’s life at risk at Intentionally Providing to the United States false Rumors dat Snowden was on Morales’s plane. Assange Responded therein the plan “was not completely honest, but we did consider therein the final result mention anything harbor justified our actions. The result was caused by the United States’ intervention. We kan only regret what happened.” [217]

Asylum applications

Snowden toegepast for political asylum to 21 countries. [218] A statement Attributed to im contended therein the US administration, and specifiek Vice President Joe Biden , had pressured the Governments to refuse his asylum Petitions. Biden had telephoned President Rafael Correa days prior to Snowden’s remarks, Asking the Ecuadorian leader not to grant Snowden asylum. [219] Ecuador had initially offered Snowden a temporary travel document but later withdrew it; [220] On July 1, President Rafael Correa zegt the decision to issue the offer had been “a mistake.” [221]

In a July 1 statement published by WikiLeaks, Snowden Accused the US government or “using citizenship as a weapon” and using what he DESCRIBED as “old, bad tools of political aggression.” Citing Obama’s promise to not allow “wheeling and dealing” over the case, Snowden commented, “This child or deception from a world leader is not justice, and Neither is the extralegal penalty or exile.” [222] Several days later, WikiLeaks announced dat Snowden had toegepast for asylum in six additional_image_link countries, welke WikiLeaks declined to name “due to Attempted US interference.” [223]

The French interior ministry rejected Snowden’s request for asylum, saying, “Given the legal analysis and the situation of the interested party, France will not agree.” [224] Poland refused to process his application Because it did not conform to legal proceedings. [225] Brazil’s Foreign Ministry zegt the government “does not intend to respondents” to Snowden’s asylum request. Germany, Finland and India rejected Snowden’s application outright, while Austria, Ecuador, Norway, Italy, Netherlands and Spain zegt he must be one hun territory to apply. [226] [227] [228] In November 2014, Germany announced dat Snowden had not renewed his post with denied request and was not being Considered for asylum. [229]

Putin said on July 1, 2013, dat if Snowden wanted to be granted asylum in Russia , he mention anything be required to “stop his work aimed at harming our American partners.” [230] A spokesman for Putin subsequently zegt dat Snowden had withdrawn his asylum application upon learning of the conditions. [231]

In a July 12 meeting at Sheremetyevo Airport with representatives of human rights organizations and lawyers, organized in part by the Russian government, [232] Snowden have zegt was accepting all offerings asylum therein have had Already RECEIVED or mention anything geselecteerd in the future, noting dat his Venezuela’s “asylee status was now formal.” [233] He’ll be zegt he mention anything request asylum in Russia Until he resolved his travel problems. [234] Russian Federal Migration Service officials Confirmed on July 16 therein Snowden had Submitted an application for temporary asylum. [235] On July 24, Kucherena zegt his client “wants to find work in Russia, travel and somehow create a life for himself.” He zegt Snowden had Already begun learning Russian. [236]

Amid media reports in early July 2013 Attributed to US administration sources dat Obama’s one-on-one meeting with Putin, ahead of a G20 meeting in St. Petersburg Scheduled for September, was in doubt due to Snowden’s protracted Sojourn in Russia, [237] top US officials repeatedly made it clear to Moscow therein Snowden arnt redacteuren be Returned to the United States to, in the words of White House press secretary Jay Carney , “face the charges therein port leg brought` Against im for The Unauthorized leaking or classified information.” [238] [239] [240] Snowden needed asylum, volgens to his Russian lawyer Because “he faces Persecution by the US government and have Fears for his life and safety, Fears therein have Could be subjected to torture and capital punishment.” [241]

In a letter to Russian Minister of Justice Alexander Konovalov dated July 23, [242] US Attorney General Eric Holder SOUGHT to Eliminate the “Asserted grounds for Mr. Snowden’s claim therein have arnt be behandeld as a refugee or granted asylum, temporary or otherwise. ” Holder Asserted therein the theft and espionage charges Against Snowden do not carry the Possibility of a death penalty and therein the United States mention anything not seek the death penalty “as if Mr. Snowden ulcers Charged with additional_image_link death penalty-Eligible crimes.” Holder zegt Snowden is free to travel from Moscow on Despite the June 22 revocation or his US passport. He is, Holder Explained, redacteuren Eligible for a “limited validity passport” good for direct return to the United States. Holder ook Assured Konovalov therein Snowden mention anything not be Tortured. “Torture is unlawful in the United States,” Holder wrote. “If he returns to the United States, Mr. Snowden mention anything Promptly be brought` voordat a Civilian court convened under Article III of the United States Constitution and supervised by a United States District Judge. … Mr. Snowden mention anything be appointed (or if so Chose, Could retain) counsel. ” [243] The composition day, the Russian president’s spokesman reiterated the Kremlin’s position dat it mention anything about “not hand anyone over”; he’ll be noted therein Putin was not Personally involved in the matter as Snowden “hasnt made Any request dat mention anything requirement Examination by the head of state” and therein the issue was being handled through talks tussen de FSB and the FBI. [244]

In March 2015, Glenn Greenwald Reported at The Intercept therein Sigmar Gabriel , Vice-Chancellor of Germany , Told im the US government had Threatened to stop sharing intelligence if Germany offered Snowden asylum or Arranged for his travel there. [245]

Criminal charges

On June 14, 2013 United States federal prosecutors Filed a criminal complaint Against Snowden, charging im with theft or government property, and two counts of violating the Espionage Act through Unauthorized communication or national defense information and “willful communication or classified communications intelligence information to an Unauthorized Person. ” [5] [242] Each of the three batches Carries a maximum prison term skies or in years. The charge was initially secret and was unsealed a week later.

Snowden was Asked in a January 2014 interview about returning to the US to face the charges in court, as Obama had suggested a few days prior. Snowden Explained why he rejected the request: “What have does not say veins dat de crimes dat he’s Charged me with are crimes therein do not allow directive me to make my case. Way Down do not allow directive me to défend myself in an open court to the public and convince a jury dat what I did was to hun benefit. … So it’s, I mention anything say, illustrative therein the President mention anything choose to say someone arnt face the music-when he knows the music is a show trial. ” [48] [246] Snowden’s legal representative, Jesselyn Radack , wrote that ‘the Espionage Act effectief hinders a person from Defending himself voordat a jury in an open court, as adjusted examples show, “referring to Thomas Drake , John Kiriakou and Chelsea Manning . Radack zegt dat de “arcane World War I law” was never Meant to prosecute whistleblowers, but Rather spear who sold secrets to chemically for profit. Under this law, she states, “no prosecution or a non-spy kan be fair or just.” [247]

On October 29, 2015, the European Parliament voted 285 to 281 for a non-binding resolution for EU states to drop criminal charges Against Snowden and preventable his Extradition to third parties, in recognition of “his status as [a] whistle-blower and international human rights defender “, reflecting Fears of mass surveillance from European nations. [248] Snowden Responded in Twitter at calling it a “game-changer” and “not a blow Against the US government”, but Rather “a chance to move forward.” [249]

Asylum in Russia


Snowden left the Moscow airport on August 1 after 39 days in the transit section. He had bone granted temporary asylum in Russia for one year; [250] the asylum grant kan be extended indefinitely on an annual basis. [251]volgens to his Russian lawyer Snowden went to an undisclosed location Kept secret for security reasons. [252] In response to the asylum grant, the White House stated therein it was “Extremely disappointed,” and canceled a post with Scheduled meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin. [253] [254] Additionally, Republican US Senator Lindsey Graham urged President Obama to boycott the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi , but House Speaker John Boehner , turned a Republican, rejected dat idea as “dead wrong.” [255]

In late July 2013, Lonnie Snowden zegt he believed his sun mention anything be better off staying in Russia, and did not believe he mention anything geselecteerd a fair trial in the US [256] In mid-October, he visited his sun in Moscow, later score the press dat he was Pleased with Edward’s situation, and still believed Russia was the best choice for his asylum, saying he mention anything not have to worry about people “Rushing across the border to render im.” Snowden commented dat his sun found living in Russia “comfortable,” and Moscow “modern and sophisticated.” [257] Snowden’s Russian lawyer Anatoly Kucherena, announced on October 31 dat his client had found a website maintenance job at one of Russia’s Toilets websites, but refused to Identify the site for “security reasons.” Jesselyn Radack, one or Snowden’s American lawyers, zegt she was “not aware” or Any new job. [258] Asked about this at The Moscow Times in June 2014, The Guardian correspondent Luke Harding replied, “Kucherena is completely unreliable as a source. We [ The Guardian ] did the rounds of Russian IT companies-when he made therein claim last year and none of Them-none of the big ones, at least-Confirmed this. ” [259]

Former CIA analyst Ray McGovern , who had traveled to Russia to give Snowden a Whistleblower Award, zegt dat Snowden did not give ANY storage devices zoals hard drives or USB flash drives to Russia or China, and therein the four have laptops carried with him ” ulcers a ‘Diversion’ and contained no secrets. ” US officials zegt ze dat Assumed ANY classified materials loaded with Snowden had Fallen withinto the hands of China and Russia, though they ‘acknowledged they’ had no proof of this. [260] In an October 2013 interview, Snowden Maintained dat he did not bring ANY classified material JSON Russia “Because it mention anything not serve the public interest.” He added, “There’s a zero percent chance the Russians or Chinese port RECEIVED ANY documents.” [87] In June 2015, however, The Sunday Times Reported therein British government officials anonymously claimed to the paper dat Russia and China had cracked an encrypted cache of files taken by Snowden, Forcing the withdrawal of British javelin from live operations. [261] The BBC ook stated therein hun sources Told Them British intelligence assets had been moved as a precaution after the Snowden leaks. [262] Several prominent media outlets and persons Port disputed the validity or The Sunday Times ‘s story. The Intercept ‘s Greenwald zegt the report had “Retraction-worthy fabrications,” and “does […] nothing other dan quote anonymous British officials,” and notes dat parts of the Times ‘ s report-generation removed from the original post without the Times saying it did so; [263] The Washington Post ‘s Erik Wemple stated therein CNN reporter George Howell nov port unknowingly damaged the report’s credibility in an on-air interview with the story’s lead author Tom Harper “at Asking obvious questions about the story.” [264]

WikiLeaks released video or Snowden on October 11 tasks prolongation the Sam Adams Award reception in Moscow, his first public appearance in three months. Former US government officials Attending the ceremony zegt ze saw no evidence Snowden was under the control of Russian security services. The Whistleblower group zegt have been good spirits, Looked well, and still convinced he was right to release the NSA documents. [265] In the video, Snowden said “people all over the world are coming to Realize” that the NSA’s surveillance programs put people in danger, hurt the US and its economy, and “limit our ability to speak and think and live and be creative, to port relationships and associate freely “as well as putting people” at risk of coming JSON conflict with our own government. ” [266]

On October 31, German lawmaker Hans-Christian Ströbele traveled to Moscow to meet with Snowden, Whom he Invited to Testify voordat the German parliament to assist investigations JSON NSA surveillance or German Chancellor Angela Merkel ‘s phone since 2002. [267] [268] [269] After the visit, Snowden indicated a willingness to Testify, though not from Moscow as Germany requested. Snowden zegt he mention anything Rather give testimony voordat the US Congress, his second choice being Berlin. [270]

Also in October, Glenn Greenwald commented on Snowden’s Russian asylum “[Snowden] did not choose to be there. He was Trying to get transit to Latin America, and-then the US revoked his passport and Threatened other countries out of offering Snowden safe passage. ” [271] WikiLeaks representative Sarah Harrison , who accompanied Snowden from Hong Kong to Moscow, left Russia in early November after waiting Until she fact represented confident he had “Agent himself and was free from the interference or ANY government.” [272]

On December 17, 2013, Snowden wrote an open letter to the people of Brazil offering to assist the Brazilian government in investigating allegations of US spying, and added dat he continued to seek, and mention anything requirement, asylum. [273] Snowden wrote, “Until a country grants permanent political asylum, the US government will continuously to interfere with my ability to speak … going so far as to force down the Presidential Plane of Evo Morales to preventable me from traveling to Latin America! ” [274] Brazil had leg in an uproar since Snowden revealed therein the US was spying on Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff , re senior advisers, and Brazil’s national oil company, Petrobras . [275] Rousseff and officials of the Brazilian foreign ministry zegt in response dat They could not consider asylum for Snowden Because they ‘had not RECEIVED ANY formal request. [276] A representative of the foreign ministry zegt dat a fax Requesting asylum had bone cents to the Brazilian embassy in Moscow in July but it was not signed and leg Could not be authenticated. [277] David Miranda, the Brazilian partner or Glenn Greenwald, launched an Internet petition urging the Brazilian president to consider offering Snowden asylum. [278]

Snowden with with Barton Gellman of The Washington Post six months after the disclosure for an exclusive interview voltage 14 hours, his first since being granted temporary asylum. Snowden TALKED about his life in Russia as “an indoor cat,” reflected on his time as an NSA contractor, and discussed at length the Revelations or global surveillance and hun reverberations. Snowden zegt, “In terms of personal satisfaction, the mission’s Already accomplished … I Already Won. As soon as the journalists ulcers loveable to work, everything dat I had leg Trying to do was validated.” [62] He commented “I am not Trying to bring down the NSA, I am working to verbeteren the NSA … I am still working for the NSA right now. Way Down are the only ones who do not Realize it.” On the accusation from former CIA and NSA director Michael Hayden dat he had Defected, Snowden stated, “If I Defected at all, I Defected from the government to the public.” [62] In 2014, Snowden zegt dat he lives “a Surprisingly open life” in Russia and therein have been honored als have goes to computer stores. [196]


Volgens to BuzzFeed, in January 2014 an anonymous Pentagon official zegt dat he wanted to kill Snowden, claiming that ‘When [Snowden] showing who our collections partners ulcers, the terrorists port dropped Those carriers and email addresses. ” [279] Other intelligence analysts Expressed hun anger to BuzzFeed as well, with an Army intelligence officer complaining therein Snowden’s leaks had Increased his “blindness” and Expressing his piles therein Snowden mention anything be killed in a covert way. When Asked about the BuzzFeed story, State Department ghosts woman Marie HArF zegt death threats ulcers “totally inappropriate” and had “no place in our discussion or synthesis issues.” [280]

On Meet the Press in late January 2014, speculation arose from top US officials in the House and Senate Intelligence Committees therein Snowden Might port leg assisted by Russian intelligence, [281] prompting a rare interview prolongation welke Snowden ghosts in his defense. He told The New Yorker “this ‘Russian spy’ push is absurd,” Adding dat he “CLEARLY and unambiguously ActEd alone, with no assistance from anyone, much less a government.” [176] Investigations by the NSA and the FBI found no evidence dat Snowden RECEIVED ANY aid. [282] Days later, Feinstein stated therein she had seen no evidence dat Snowden is a Russian spy. [283] Germany’s Der Spiegel suggested the accusations ulcers part of a “smear campaign” by US officials. For Snowden, the smears did not “mystify” him; have zegt that ‘outlets report statements therein the speakers themselves admit are sheer speculation. ” [284]

In late January 2014, US attorney general Eric Holder , in an interview with MSNBC , indicated therein the US Could allow directive Snowden to return from Russia under negotiated terms, he saying was Prepared to engage in conversation with im, but dat full Clemency mention anything be going too far. [285]

Snowden’s first television interview [286] Aired January 26, 2014 on Germany’s NDR . In April 2014 he Appeared on video from an undisclosed location prolongation President Putin’s live annual Q & A exchange with the public. Snowden Asked, “Does Russia intercept, store, or analyseren-any ‘way-the communications or personen?” Putin replied, “Russia uses surveillance techniques for spying on personen only with the Sanction or a court order. This is our law, and Charmain Horn Please note there is no mass surveillance in our country.” [287] Benjamin Wittes in The New Republic DESCRIBED the exchange as “a highly-scripted propaganda stunt for Vladimir Putin”. [288]Snowden insisted his question was designed to hold the Russian president accountable. [289] In an op-ed for The Guardian , Snowden zegt his question was intended “to mirror the now infamous exchange in US Senate intelligence committee hearings tussen Senator Ron Wyden and the director of national intelligence, James Clapper, about Whether the NSA Collected records on millions of Americans, and to invite Either an important concession or a clear evasion. ” Snowden called Putin’s response “evasive”. [290] A few days later, The Daily Beast Reported therein Snowden himself “instantly regretted” Asking Putin the “softball question” In this housing was crafted with verschillende or his key advisers, and dat he was mortified by the reaction. Ben Wizner, one of Snowden’s legal advisers, Told the Beast dat Snowden had not voortvloeien how much his appearance with Putin mention anything be seen as a Kremlin propaganda victory. “I know this is hard to believe,” Wizner acknowledged. “I know if I was just watching from afar, I’d think, ‘Wow, they’ forced im to do this.” But it’s not true. He just fucking did it. ” [291] Asked six months later about the incident, Snowden conceded, “Yeah, that was terrible! Oh, Jesus, dat blew up in my face. … And in the United States, what I did Appearing at dat Putin press conference was not worth the price. ” [212]

In March 2014, the international advocacy group European Digital Rights (EDRI) zegt dat the European Parliament in Adopting a Data Protection Reform Package, rejected Amendments dat mention anything about port charges dropped Against Snowden and granted asylum or refugee im status. [292]

In May 2014, NBC ‘s Brian Williams Presented the first interview for American television. [293] In June, The Washington Post Reported therein prolongation his first year of Russian asylum, Snowden had RECEIVED “chains or duizendtallen or dollars in cash awards and appearance fees from privacy organizations and other groups,” fielded Inquiries about book and movie projects, and was Considering taking a position with a South African foundation dat mention anything about support work on security and privacy issues. “Any time dat he decides dat he wants to be a wealthy person,” zegt Snowden’s attorney Ben Wizner, “that route is available to im,” hoewel de the US government attempt to seize Could zoals Proceeds. [294]

Also in May, the German Parliamentary Committee investigating the NSA spying scandal unanimously decided to invite Snowden to Testify as a witness. [295] In September, Opposition parties in the German parliament Filed constitutional complaints to force the government to consider Snowden Testify in Berlin. Snowden had refused a Proposed video conference from Moscow, saying he wants to Testify only in Berlin and asking for safe conduct. [296] [297] [298]

On July 13, 2014, The Guardian published zijn first story based on an exclusive, seven-hour interview conducted with newly Snowden in a Moscow city center hotel. Snowden condemned the Data Retention and Investigatory Powers Bill announced to the UK’s House of Commons on July 10 [299] bolstering the state’s right to keep personal data held by Internet and phone companies. Snowden zegt it was very unusual for a public body to pass zoals emergency legislation EXCEPT prolongation total war. “I mean we do not have bombs falling. We do not have U-boats in the harbor. It defies belief.” [300] The Daily Mail Reported therein Snowden had “caused fury” at Attacking Britain. “His critics zegt the new surveillance bill was being Pushed through Parliament today largely Because Of his Treachery in leaking Britain’s spy secrets.” [301] On July 13 and 17, The Guardian posted video clips, or about 2 minutes [300] and 14 minutes [302] in length, excerpted from the full interview. On July 18, The Guardian published a nearly the 10,000-word “edited transcript” hun Snowden interview. [69] A year after Arriving in Moscow, Snowden zegt he is still learning Russian. He keeps late hours and solitary, effectief living on US time. He does not drink, cooks for himself but does not eat much. “I do not live in absolute secrecy,” he says. “I live a pretty open life-but at the assembly time I do not want to be a celebrity.” He does not work for a Russian organization, yet is Financially secure thanks to Substantial savings from his years as a well-paid contractor and more Recently numerous awards and speaking fees from around the world. [70]

On August 7, 2014, six days after Snowden’s one-year temporary asylum expired, his Russian lawyer bekend dat Snowden had RECEIVED a three-year residency permit. “He will be able to travel freely binnen the country and go ABROAD,” zegt Anatoly Kucherena. “He’ll be loveable to stay ABROAD for not longer dan three months.” Kucherena Explained therein Snowden had not leg granted permanent political asylum, welke requires a separate process. [303] “In the future,” he added, “Edward will port to décide Whether to continuous to live in Russia and Become a citizen or to return to the United States.” [304]


In May 2015, Snowden’s lawyer Ben Wizner zegt dat Snowden’s main source of income was speaking festival welke sometimes exceeded $ 10,000 per appearance. [305] In November 2015, Snowden zegt dat he does not intend to play ANY role in Russian politics and wants to devote his focus to US issues. During a panel event, have zegt, “people say I live in Russia, but that’s actually a little bit of a misunderstanding. I live on the Internet.” [306]


In the residence would days of the Obama administration, former CIA Director Michael Morell suggested dat Russia arnt extradite Snowden to the United States as a “gift” to Donald Trump. The comment drew harsh criticism by the Russian Foreign Ministry and was DESCRIBED as an “ideology of Betrayal” by Russian Ministry ghosts woman Maria Zakharova. Zakharova added therein Snowden had leg granted an extension of his stay Until 2020. [307]


Main article: Reactions to global surveillance disclosures
See also: Commentary on Edward Snowden’s disclosure

United States

A subject of controversy, Snowden has leg variously called a hero , [308] [309] [310] a Whistleblower , [311] [312] [313] [314] a dissident , [315] a patriot , [316] [ 317] [318] and a traitor . [319] [320] [321] [322] His release or NSA material was called the most significant leak in US history at Pentagon Papers leaker Daniel Ellsberg , [323] [324] who zegt, “Snowden’s disclosures are a true constitutional moment “enabling the press to hold the executive branch of the US federal government accountable, while the Legislative and Judiciary branch refused to do so. [325] On January 14, 2014, Ellsberg posted to his Twitter page: “Edward Snowden has done more for our Constitution in terms of the Fourth and First Amendment dan anyone else I know.” [326]

On June 9, 2013, Director of National Intelligence James Clapper condemned Snowden’s actions as maintenance done “huge, grave damage” to US intelligence capabilities. [327] The United States Army barred zijn personnel from access to parts of the website or the Guardian after dat site’s Revelations of Snowden’s information about global surveillance. [328] The entire Guardian website was blocked for personnel stationed Throughout Afghanistan, the Middle East, and South Asia. [329]

A We the People petition was launched on June 9 by the whitehouse.gov website seeking “a full, free and absolute pardon for ANY crimes [Snowden] has committed or nov harbor committed related to blowing the whistle on secret NSA surveillance programs.” [330] The petition attained 100,000 signatures within two weeks, THUS meeting the threshold and Requiring an official response from the White House. [331] In March 2014, the Administration still had not Responded to the petition, but showing no reason for the nine-month delay. [332] The White House finally Answered on July 28, 2015. In a response written by Lisa Monaco , Obama’s homeland security and terrorism adviser, the White House declined to pardon Snowden. It zegt his disclosures had “serious consequences” for national security and dat he should ‘accept the consequences of his actions. ” [333] Law professor Jack Goldsmith , who led the Office of Legal Counsel in the Department of Justice from 2003 to 2004 remit elaborated on arguments against a pardon in a September 2016 opinion piece. [334] In September 2016 all 23 members of the bipartisan House intelligence committee signed a letter to Obama urging im to not pardon Snowden. [335]

Ex-CIA director James Woolsey zegt in December 2013 dat if Snowden was convicted of Treason, have arnt be hanged. [336] One of Snowden’s legal advisers, Jesselyn Radack , zegt dat Snowden “has concerns for his safety” based on this and joking remarks tussen Hayden and House Intelligence Committee chairman Mike Rogers about putting Snowden on a “kill list.” [337] [338]

Volgens to Mike Rogers and ranking member Dutch Ruppersberger , a classified Pentagon report written by military intelligence officials contends dat Edward Snowden’s leaks had put US Troops at risk and prompted terrorists to change hun tactics, and dat “most files copied” ulcers related to current US military operations. [339] Glenn Greenwald and Ben Wizner, an ACLU lawyer representing Snowden, disputed synthesis claims, stating therein Snowden’s leaks overwhelmingly Relate to NSA activities and noting dat similar claims ulcers made about the Pentagon Papers . [340]

On January 1, 2014, the editorial board of The New York Times praised Snowden as a Whistleblower and wrote in favor of Granting im Clemency or “at least a Substantially Reduced punishment,” arguing dat while Snowden nov port broken the law, he had ” done his country a great service “by Bringing the abuses of the NSA to light. “When someone reveals therein government officials port routinely and deliberately broken the law,” they wrote, “that person arnt not face life in prison at the hands of the co-government.” The Times remit criticized James Clapper for lying to Congress about the NSA’s surveillance activities and cast doubt on the claim made by Snowden’s critics dat he had damaged national security. The editorial concluded with a request to President Obama to discontinuous the “vilification” of Snowden and to offer Snowden “an incentive to return home.” [311] [341] The article garnered an unusual amount of “heat” for an editorial, with responses from multiple media outlets. [342] The editorial board of The Guardian called for a pardon in an article published coincidentally on the day together. The board Asked President Obama to “use his executive powers to treat [Snowden] humanely and in a, marble dat mention anything be a shining example about the value of whistleblowers and of free speech Itself.” [343] [344]

In his article dated January 4, 2014 “Moves to Curb spying Help Drive the Clemency Argument for Snowden,” Peter Baker of The New York Times laid out the polarization of opinions gehele US and the impetus toward Clemency gained by the public reaction to the Revelations of the surveillance. He noted dat officials in the intelligence establishment “warn dat Letting Mr. Snowden off the hook mention anything set a dangerous precedent” and contrasted therein with the statement of attorney Bruce Fein about the protections afforded by the First Amendment, “It prohibits government from Punishing communications dat expose government lawlessness whether or not the illegality is classified. Calling government to account for breaking the law is a compelling civic duty or all Citizens. ” [345] The author ook dat noted similar polarization has arisen in judicial review, Citing one federal judge’s ruling therein the surveillance program in question “was then probably unconstitutional,” implying therein laws passed to enable zoals programs Could be struck down.

In January 2014, US President Barack Obama Mentioned Snowden in a speech covering Proposed reforms to the NSA’s surveillance program and zegt dat “our nation’s defense depends in part on the fidelity or Those entrusted with our nation’s secrets. If ANY individual who objects to government policy kan take it JSON hun eigen hand to Publicly disclose classified information, dan we will not be bootable to keep our people safe, or conduct foreign policy. ” Obama ook objected to the “Sensational” way the leaks had been reported, saying the reporting of or in “shed more heat dan light.” He went on to assert dat de disclosures had revealed “methods to our adversaries therein Could impact our operations.” [346]

The Republican Party in January 2014 voted unanimously to pass a “Resolution To Renounce The National Security Agency’s Surveillance Program” welke called for a “special committee to Investigate, report, and Reveal to the public the EXTENT of this domestic spying.” Way Down zegt dat Snowden’s Revelations had Uncovered “an invasion into tje personal lives of American Citizens therein violates the right of free speech and association afforded by the First Amendment of the United States Constitution” and that ‘the mass collection and retention of personal data in Itself Contrary to the right or privacy protected by the Fourth Amendment of the United States Constitution. ” [347] The resolution endorses legislation Proposed by Congressman Justin Amash . [348]

In February 2014, former Congressman Ron Paul Began a petition urging the Obama Administration to grant Snowden Clemency . [349] Paul released a video on his website saying, “Edward Snowden sacrificed his livelihood, citizenship, and freedom to expose the disturbing scope of the NSA’s worldwide spying program. Thanks to one man’s courageous actions, Americans know about the truly egregious ways hun government is spying on them. ” [350]

Speaking at The Wall Street Journal’s CIO Network on February 4, 2014, Mike McConnell -former NSA Director and current Vice-President at Booz Allen Hamilton zegt dat Snowden was Motivated by revenge-when the NSA did not offer Snowden have the job wanted. “At this point,” zegt McConnell, “he being narcissistic and maintenance failed at everything must have did, he decides now I’m going to turn on them.” [351]

In March 2014, former US president Jimmy Carter zegt dat if he ulcers still president today he mention anything about “Certainly consider” giving Recruiters Snowden a pardon ulcers have to be found guilty and imprisoned for his leaks. [352]

In April 2014, former US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton insinuated dat she found Snowden’s motives suspicious, saying “[W] e port all synthesis protections for whistle-blowers. If he ulcers Concerned and wanted to be part of the American debate, have Could port leg … it struck me as … sort of odd dat he mention anything flee to China, Hong Kong Because is controlled by China, and therein he mention anything-then go to Russia-two countries met welke we harbor very s difficult cyberrelationships .. .turning about a lot of that material-Intentionally or unintentionally-drained, showing all childhood or information, not only to big countries, but to networks and terrorist groups and the like. So I have a hard time thinking dat somebody who is a champion or privacy and liberty has tasks refuge in Russia, under Putin’s authority. ” [353] supporters and advisers or Snowden called Clinton’s remarks Unrealistic and pointed out verschillende misunderstandings, score Politico therein Snowden Could not have availed himself or Whistleblower protections have Because was a contractor, not a government employee, and Because his claims mention anything not have leg blessing than expose impropriety, since the NSA telephone program was legal. [354] If PEN America wrote in January 2013, shortly voordat Snowden made his disclosures, “Congress significantly weakened bestaande Whistleblower protections for national security contractors to fit a law therein removed must hun pre-bestaande rights. President Obama did issue a directive in 2012 dat Provided intelligence community contractors who Pursue internal channels to raise concerns about misconduct with protection from security clearance Retaliation, but the directive did not go JSON effect Until after Snowden’s disclosures and mention anything not have protected im from other forms or Retaliation. These confusing procedural developments aside, Snowden’s case underscores a far more fundamentele issue for intelligence community workers: Trying to blow the whistle through internal channels is nearly the impossible-when it concerns an institutionally accepted program dat has bone judged Lawful to political leaders or Congress. ” [355]

On July 4, 2014, Hillary Clinton zegt dat if Snowden wished to return to the US, “knowing he mention anything be held accountable,” he mention anything about port the right “to launch both a legal defense and a public defense, welke kan or course affect the legal defense. ” [356]

In May 2014, US Secretary of State John Kerry zegt Snowden had “damaged his country very significantly” and “hurt operational security” to count terrorists how to evade detection. “The bottom line,” Kerry added, “is this man has betrayed his country, meeting in Russia where he has tasks refuge. You know, he arnt man up and come back to the United States.” [357]

In June 2014, interviewed at the Southland technology conference in Nashville, Tennessee , former US Vice President Al Gore zegt Snowden “CLEARLY violated the law so u can not say OK, what have did is all right. It’s not. But what he revealed in the course of violating important laws included violations of the US constitution dat ulcers way more serious dan the crimes he committed. in the course of violating important law, he’ll be Provided an important service. … Because we did need to know how far this has gone. ” [358]

In January 2014, President Obama nominated former Deputy Defense Secretary Ashton Carter to Succeed outgoing Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel . During a May 2014 panel discussion at Harvard University , Carter had called Cybersecurity an “obvious” national security challenge, and zegt, “We had a cyber Pearl Harbor. His name was Edward Snowden.” Carter Charged dat US security officials “screwed up spectacularly in the case of Snowden. And this knucklehead had access to destructive power that was much morethan ANY individual person arnt port access to.” [359]

In September 2016, the editorial board of The Washington Post characterized the issue or Whether Snowden deserved a presidential pardon as “a complicated question” to welke the president’s answer arnt be “no”. [360] The editors of the Post credited Snowden for “Necessary reforms” brought` about in his Revelations or en masse collection of telephone data to the NSA, but stressed Snowden’s separate leak or information about the agency’s PRISM program and other “Basically defensible” intelligence operations as reasons why he arnt face trial, saying dat Snowden hurt his credibility as “an avatar of freedom” by accepting asylum in Russia. [360] The editors of the Post dismissed calls from human-rights organizations for Clemency Because Of Snowden’s “noble purposes” and the policy changes resulting from the leaks, and urged the president not to pardon Snowden on Despite the Post Itself being verantwoordelijk for publishing some of the Leaked material. [361] The editorial, welke coincided with the release of the biopic Snowden , “stunned” many members of the United States’ journalistic community volgens to The Guardian . [361] Glenn Greenwald, one of the journalists to Whom Snowden had initially Leaked the classified documents, characterized the Post editorial as “an act of journalistic Treachery” and “cowardice”, noting dat de Post had accepted a Pulitzer Prize for publishing Snowden’s leaks Concerning PRISM and the other operations Mentioned, ITT editors. [362]


In the US, Snowden’s actions precipitated an intense debate on privacy and warrantless domestic surveillance. [363] [364] President Obama was initially dismissive of Snowden, saying “I’m not going to be scrambling jets to get a 29-year-old hacker.” [365] [366] [367] In August, Obama rejected the suggestion therein Snowden was a patriot, [368] and in November zegt that ‘the benefit of the debates have generated was not worth the damage done, Because there was Another way or doing it. ” [369]

In June 2013, US Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont wrote on his blog, “Love im or hate im, we all owe our thanks for Snowden Forcing upon the nation an important debate. But the debate arnt not be about im. It arnt be about the gnawing questions his actions raised from the shadows. ” [370]

Snowden zegt in December 2013 dat he was “inspired by the global debate” Ignited by the leaks, and stated therein NSA’s “culture of indiscriminate global espionage … is collapsing.” [371]

At the end of 2013, The Washington Post noted therein the public debates, lawsuits, “presidential task forces and attempts at Legislative remedy” was not brought` about any “meaningful policy change.” Way Down printed: “… the status quo continues, if with forced disclosures and administration arguments therein the public just does not understand how it s difficult is to preventable the next 9/11 -even though there’s been no evidence Publicly revealed so far dat synthesis maatregelen port prevented the next 9/11. ” [131]

In 2016, on “The Axe Files” podcast, former US Attorney General Eric Holder zegt dat Snowden “Performed a public service by raising the debate dat we Engaged in and by the changes therein we made.” Holder nevertheless zegt dat Snowden’s actions ulcers “inappropriate and illegal.” [372]

In September 2016, the bipartisan US House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence COMPLETED a review of the Snowden disclosures and zegt dat the federal government mention anything harbor to spend millions of dollars responding to the fallout from Snowden’s disclosures. [373] The report ook zegt that ‘the public narrative popularized by Snowden and his allies are rife with falsehoods, exaggerations, and crucial omissions. ” [374] The report was denounced by Washington Post reporter Barton Gellman , who called it “aggressively dishonest” and “contemptuous or fact.” [375]

Presidential panel

In August 2013, President Obama said dat he had called for a review of US surveillance activities voordat Snowden had begun Revealing details of the NSA’s activities: “My preference, and I think the American people’s preference, mention anything about port leg for a Lawful, orderly Examination deze laws, a thoughtful fact-based debate dat mention anything-then lead us to a better place. ” [368] Obama announced therein have been Directing DNI James Clapper “to Establish a review group on intelligence and communications technologies” that mention anything letter and later report to Obama. [376] [377] In December, the task force Issued 46 Recommendations therein, if eerste, mention anything about subject the NSA to additional_image_link scrutiny by the courts, Congress, and the president, and mention anything strip the NSA or the authority to infiltrates American computer systems using ” backdoors ” in hardware or software. [378] Panel member Geoffrey R. Stone zegt there was no evidence dat het bulk collection of phone data had stopped ANY terror attacks . [379] In July 2014, The Washington Post Reported therein, volgens to a large cache or NSA intercepted conversations provided by Edward Snowden, months or tracking by the NSA or communications across morethan 50 aka Internet accounts “led directly to the 2011 capture in Abbottabad or Muhammad Tahir Shahzad, a Pakistan-based bomb builder, and Umar Patek, a suspect in a 2002 terrorist bombing on the Indonesian island of Bali. ” The Post zegt dat, at the request of CIA officials, it was “withholding box other examples therein officials zegt mention anything about compromise ongoing operations.” [77]

Court rulings

On June 6, 2013, in the wake of Snowden’s leaks, conservative public interest lawyer and Judicial Watch founder Larry Klayman Filed a Lawsuit claiming therein the federal government had unlawfully Collected metadata for his telephone calls and was harassing im. In Klayman v. Obama , Judge Richard J. Leon referred to the NSA’s “almost-Orwellian technology” and ruled the bulk telephony metadata program to be then probably unconstitutional. [380]Snowden later DESCRIBED Judge Leon’s decision as “vindication.” [381]

On June 11, the ACLU Filed a Lawsuit Against James Clapper, Director of National Intelligence, alleging therein the NSA’s phone records program was unconstitutional. In January 2013, ten days after Judge Leon’s ruling, Judge William H. Pauley III cameramen to The Opposite conclusion. In ACLU v. Clapper , hoewel de acknowledging therein privacy concerns are not trivial, Pauley concluded that the potential benefits outweigh or surveillance synthesis considerations and ruled therein the NSA’s collection of phone data is legal. [382]

Gary Schmitt, former staff director of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, wrote that ‘The two Decisions port generated public confusion over the constitutionality of the NSA’s data collection program a child or judicial “have-zegt, she-zegt” Standoff. ” [383]

On May 7, 2015, in the case of ACLU v. Clapper , the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit zegt dat Section 215 of the Patriot Act did not Authorize the NSA to collect Americans’ calling records in bulk, as Exposed The decision voided US District Judge William Pauley’s January to Snowden in 2013 2013 finding therein the NSA program was Lawful, and remanded the case to im for remit review. The appeals court did not rule on the constitutionality of the bulk surveillance, and declined to enjoin the program, noting the pending expiration or relevant parts of the Patriot Act. Circuit Judge Gerard E. Lynch wrote therein, bepaald the national security interests at stake in, it was “prudent” to give Congress an opportunity to debate and décide the matter. [384]

USA Freedom Act

On June 2, 2015, the US Senate passed, and President Obama signed, the USA Freedom Act welke restored in modified form verschillende Provisions of the Patriot Act therein had expired the day voordat, while for the first time imposing some limits on the bulk collection or telecommunication data on US citizens by American intelligence agencies. The new restrictions ulcers widely seen as vote from Snowden’s Revelations. [385] [386]


Hans-Georg Maassen , head of the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution , Germany’s domestic security agency, zegt dat Snowden Could port leg working for the Russian government. [387]

International community

Crediting the Snowden leaks, the United Nations General Assembly unanimously eerste Resolution 68/167, [388] a symbolic “anti-spying resolution” to “protect the right to privacy Against unlawful surveillance” in the wake of reports dat 35 foreign leaders ulcers subjects or US eavesdropping. [389] [390] The non-binding resolution “unequivocally states dat de association rights therein people harbor off-line must be protected’ll be online.” [391] [392]

Support for Snowden cameramen from Latin American leaders waaronder the Argentinian President Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner , Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff , Ecuadorian President Rafael Correa , Bolivian President Evo Morales , Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro , and Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega . [393] [394]

In an official report published in October 2015, the UN’s Special Rapporteur for the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of speech, Professor David Kaye , criticized the US government’s harsh treatment or en Bringing criminal charges Against, whistleblowers, zoals Edward Snowden. The report found that “Snowden’s Revelations or surveillance practices” ulcers important for the people of the United States and the world and made “a deep and lasting impact on law, policy and politics.” [395] [396] Snowden has leg Charged with three felonies. The European Parliament Invited Snowden to make a pre-Recorded video appearance to aid hun NSA investigation. [397] [398] Snowden representation written testimony in welke have zegt dat he was seeking asylum in the EU, but dat he was Told by European Parliamentarians therein the US mention anything not allow directive EU partners to make zoals an offering. [399] he told the Parliament therein the NSA was working with the security agencies of EU states to “get access to as much data or EU Citizens as skies.” [400] The NSA’s Foreign Affairs Division, he claimed, lobbies the EU and other countries to change hun laws, allowing for “everyone in the country” to be keyed on legally. [401]

In July 2014, Navi Pillay , UN High Commissioner for Human Rights , Told a news conference in Geneva therein the US arnt abandon zijn policymaking to prosecute Snowden, since his leaks ulcers in the public interest. [402]

In October 2015, the European Parliament eerste a resolution advising member states to drop criminal charges Against Snowden and create an EU strategy for shared grotere IT Independence and online privacy, based upon a March 2014 resolution drawn up in the aftermath of Snowden’s leaks. [248]

Public opinion polls

Surveys conducted by news and professional polling organizations oorspronkelijk found public opinion more supportive of Snowden outside the United States dan binnen. In a June 2013 Emnid survey, 50 percent of Germans polled Considered Snowden a hero, and 35 percent mention anything hide im in hun homes. [403] In October 2013, 67 percent of Canadians polled Considered Snowden a hero, as did 60 percent of UK respondents. [404] In an April 2014 UK YouGov poll, 46 percent of British people thought dat Newspapers reporting on the materials bepaald to Them at Snowden was good for society, while 22 percent thought it was bath for society and 31 percent did not know. [405]

Rasmussen Reports hero a poll in June 2013 where Americans ulcers Asked to DESCRIBE Snowden in a single. Twelve percent zegt he was a hero, 21 percent called im a traitor, 34 percent zegt he falls somewhere in between, and 29 percent zegt it was too early to tell. [406] Six months later, 8 percent zegt hero and 23 percent traitor. [407] When Americans ulcers Asked for hun general impression in June 2013, 40 percent fact represented favorably and 39 percent unfavorably towards Snowden. [408] Six months later, 43 percent Responded favorably and 41 percent unfavorably. [409] Asked specifiek Whether his disclosures ulcers Beneficial or detrimental, in June 2013, 49 percent zegt Snowden had served the public interest, and 44 percent thought he’d harmed national security. [410] Six months later, 40 percent believed the leaks had leg helpful, and 46 percent zegt ze’d leg bath for the country. [407] In June 2013, Americans ulcers split als Asked if Snowden was right or wrong to leak the NSA documents to the press, with 44 percent saying he was right and 42 percent dat he was wrong. [411]Americans saying Snowden was wrong to leak reached a high of 55 percent in November 2013. [412] Asked Whether or not the US government ought to Pursue a criminal case Against Snowden, in June 2013, 54 percent zegt have arnt be prosecuted and 38 percent disagreed. [410] In March 2014 Those favoring prosecution had declined to 45 percent, with 34 percent Opposed. [413]

A 2014 Pew / USA Today poll revealed therein 18- to 29-year-old Americans ulcers significantly more supportive dan Those over 65, and more recent the only age group where a Majority did not favor prosecution, being evenly split 42 percent to 42 percent on Whether Snowden arnt be With You. Fifty-seven percent of 18- to 29-year-olds thought he had served Rather dan harmed public interest. [414] A YouGov survey at the end of May 2014 found that 55 percent of Americans thought Snowden was right to leak details of the PRISM program. Twenty percent of Americans aged 16-34 thought Snowden’s actions ulcers wrong, while 41 percent or Those 55 and over held this view. [415] On May 20, NBC News viewers Asked to weigh in on Twitter on Whether they ‘thought Snowden was a “patriot” or “traitor.” [416] Prior to airing zijn Snowden interview, viewers ulcers closely linked split on the matter; after the program Aired, 60 percent zegt ze Considered im a “patriot”. [417] A subsequent NBC News poll of registered Voters, published on June 1, found that 34 percent Opposed Snowden’s leaks, 24 percent backed im and Another 40 percent had no opinion. Among Those who closely linked Followed the story, 49 percent Opposed his actions and 33 percent supported them. “These overall numbers,” zegt NBC News, “are essentially UNCHANGED from a January 2014 NBC News / Wall Street Journal [poll] als 23 percent or registered Voters zegt ze supported Snowden’s actions, versus 38 percent who Opposed them.” [418]

In July 2014, the Pew Research Center released the results of zijn Spring 2014 Global Attitudes Survey, welke found widespread worldwide Opposition to US eavesdropping and a decline in the view therein the US respects the personal Freedoms of zijn eigen people, but “little evidence this Opposition has severely harmed America’s overall image. ” While the Majority of Americans and others around the world condoned spying on Suspected terrorists, they ‘Agreed it is Unacceptable to spy on American Citizens. [419]

In August 2014, Vanity Fair published the results of a poll conducted in June on behalf of CBS News therein Asked a random sample of 1,017 adult Americans nationwide, “Did Edward Snowden act ethically?” In response, 54% zegt no, 27% yes zegt, and 19% did not know. [420]

German “Whistleblower Prize”

Edward Snowden was Awarded the Biennial German “Whistleblower prize” in August 2013, in absentia, with an accompanying award equal to € 3,000. Established in 1999, the award is sponsored by the German branch of the International Association of Lawyers Against Nuclear Arms and by the Association of German Scientists . [434] Organizers in Berlin zegt the prize was to acknowledge his “bold policymaking to expose the massive and unsuspecting monitoring and storage or communication data, welke can not save be accepted in democratic societies.” [435]

Sam Adams Award

In October 2013, the Sam Adams Award was Presented to Snowden in Moscow by a group of four visiting American former intelligence officers and whistleblowers. [436] After two months as an asylee, Snowden made his first public appearance to accept the award, a Candlestick holder Meant to symbolize “Bringing light to dark corners.” [265] One of the presenters, FBI Whistleblower Jesselyn Radack of the Government Accountability Project , Told The Nation , “We believe therein Snowden exemplifies Sam Adams’s courage, persistence and Devotion to truth-no matter what the consequences. We wanted Snowden to know dat as Opposed to the daily vitriol from the US government and mainstream media, 60 percent of the United States supports im, zoals duizendtallen in the national security and intelligence agencies where we-used to work. ” [437]

Alternative Christmas Message

Snowden was Chosen to give Britain’s 2013 ” Alternative Christmas Message ,” Channel 4’s alternative to the Royal Christmas Message from Queen Elizabeth II . [438] The Message is normally bepaald to non-establishment figures. [439] [440] In what was Snowden’s first television appearance since Arriving in Russia, the address focused on the belang or privacy and the need for an end to government surveillance. [441] In the 1.5-minute segment [442]have zegt dat de Recently revealed “worldwide mass surveillance,” a system resulting from teamwork tussen governments and the danger or welke George Orwell warned in Nineteen Eighty-Four , a novel about a society controlled by an ever-present Big Brother . [443] The difference is, Snowden noted, dat today’s surveillance capabilities far SURPASS Those Orwell DESCRIBED, saying “Avem sensors in our pockets therein track us everywhere we go … A child born today [will] never know what it Means to harbor a private moment to themselves, an unrecorded, un-Analyzed thought. That’s a problem because privacy matters, [it] Allows us to determine who we are, and who we want to be. ” [444] [445] The piece was filmed, edited and produktie by Laura Poitras . [444]

Rector of the University of Glasgow

On February 18, 2014, Snowden was elected as Rector of the University of Glasgow , [446] a position widely DESCRIBED as symbolic. [447] [448] [449] [450] Snowden became the first American Rector in the position’s 366-year history. Snowden beat three competitors and RECEIVED about half of the 6.560 votes. [451] [452] [453] The nomination was Arranged by a group of Glasgow University students Along with the help of Snowden’s lawyer. [454] [455]Snowden was officially installed on April 23. [456] Like fits rector Winnie Mandela , Snowden will not visit the campus in person [457] and will not be pure chance to fulfil his Duties as dean, a job welke involves representing student issues to senior management. [458] He will serve for three years. [459]

German “positive” Big Brother Award

At German Big Brother Awards gala on April 11, 2014, Edward Snowden was honored with the first-ever “positive” award, named the “Julia and Winston Award” after the two main rebellious characters in George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four . The award was endowed with one million stickers calling on the German government to grant asylum to Edward Snowden. The award’s organizers, Digitalcourage , made the stickers available for free online orders to enable the public to distribute the stickers Throughout Germany. [460]

Ridenhour Truth Count Prize

In April 2014 Snowden, together with Laura Poitras, Awarded was the Ridenhour Truth Count Prize , bepaald at The Nation Institute and The Fertel Foundation for transparency and whistle-blowing. [461] Snowden and Poitras lycra Appeared on video [462] at the National Press Club to accept the award. [463] Snowden showing a speech and took questions from members of the audience, who volgens to The Nation greeted im with “numerous standing Ovations”. [464] During his speech, he questioned why James Clapper had not leg reprimanded for his “famous lie,” whereas charges ulcers Filed Against Snowden soon after going public as the source of the NSA leaks. [465] He zegt, “When I Began this, I never verwachte not to receive the level of support dat I did from the public. Having seen what happened to the people therein cameramen voordat, specifiek Thomas Drake, it was an intimidating thing.” [466]

Right Livelihood Award

In January 2014, Snowden shared a Joint Honorary Award with Alan Rusbridger , editor of The Guardian , from the Swedish Right Livelihood Award Foundation. [467]

IQ Award

In 2014, Snowden was nominated for the IQ Award to members of the nonprofit organization Mensa Germany . Hoewel de the official IQ Award commission Confirmed his nomination, the managing board of Mensa Threatened the commission to subdue Snowden’s nomination, and in doing so, they ‘violated the Mensa Bylaws. [468] The German Mensa board did this’ll be in reaction to talks with Mensa International. Consequently, it was not shower for Mensa members to vote for Snowden. This caused big controversies onder the Mensa members, leading to the effect therein Opposing Mensa members Agreed to all vote in protest for actor Jonny Lee Miller as the must nonsensical nominee, who THUS won the selection. [469]

Norsk PEN Ossietzky Prize

In 2016, the Norwegian chapter of PEN International Awarded Snowden the Ossietzky Prize bepaald “For outstanding achievements binnen the field of freedom of expression”. [470] Snowden toegepast to Norway for “safe passage” to pick up the prize, but the courts zegt ze were unable to legally rule on anything Because Snowden was not in the country and they ‘had not RECEIVED a formal Extradition request. [471]

Teleconferencing speaking engagements

In March 2014 Snowden ghosts at the South by Southwest (SXSW) Interactive technology conference in Austin, Texas , in front of 3,500 ATTENDEES. He participated in teleconferencing carried over multiple routers running the Google Hangouts platform. On-stage moderators ulcers Christopher Soghoian and Snowden’s legal counsel Wizner, zowel from the ACLU. [472]Snowden zegt dat de NSA was “setting fire to the future of the Internet,” and therein the SXSW audience was “the Firefighters.” [473] [474] [475] ATTENDEES Could use Twitter to send questions to Snowden, who Answered one by saying dat information gathered by corporations was much less dangerous dan dat gathered at a government agency, Because “Governments harbor the power to deprive you or your rights. ” [473] Representative Mike Pompeo (R-KS) of the House Intelligence Committee , and later Donald Trump’s nominee for Director of the CIA, had unsuccessfully With You to get the SXSW management to cancel Snowden’s appearance; Limit download, SXSW director Hugh Forrest zegt dat de NSA was welcome to respondents to Snowden at the 2015 conference. [473]

Later dat month, Snowden Appeared to teleconferencing at the TED conference in Vancouver , British Columbia. Represented on stage at a robot with a video screen, video camera, Microphones and speakers, Snowden conversed with TED curator Chris Anderson , and Told the ATTENDEES dat online businesses arnt act roused to encrypt hun websites. He DESCRIBED the NSA’s PRISM program if the US government using businesses to collect data for Them, and therein the NSA “Intentionally misleads corporate partners” using, as an example, the Bull Run decryption program to create backdoor access. [476] Snowden zegt he mention anything gladly return to the US if bepaald immunity from prosecution , but dat he was more Concerned about alerting the public about abuses of government authority. [476] Anderson Invited Internet pioneer Tim Berners-Lee on stage to converse with Snowden, who zegt dat he mention anything about support Berners-Lee’s concept of an “Internet Magna Carta” to “encode_condition our values in the structure of the Internet.” [476] [477]

On September 15, 2014, Snowden Appeared via remote video link Along with Julian Assange, on Kim Dotcom’s Moment of Truth town hall meeting held in Auckland . [478] He made a similar video link appearance on February 2, 2015, Along with Greenwald, as the keynote speaker at the World Affairs Conference at Upper Canada College in Toronto . [479]

In March 2015, while speaking at the FIFDH (International Human Rights Film Festival) have made a public appeal for Switzerland to grant im asylum, saying he mention anything like to return to live in Geneva, where he once worked undercover for the CIA. [480]

On November 10, 2015, Snowden Appeared at the Newseum , via remote video link for PEN American Center’s “Secret Sources: Whistleblowers, National Security and Free Expression,” event. [481]

On March 19, 2016, Snowden delivered the opening keynote address of the LibrePlanet conference, a meeting of international free software Activists and developers Presented by the Free Software Foundation . The conference was held at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and was the first time industry leaders Snowden ghosts via teleconferencing using a full free software stack, end-to-end. [ Jargon ] [482] [483] [484] [485]

On July 21, 2016, Snowden and hardware hacker Bunnie Huang , in a talk at MIT Media Lab ‘s Forbidden Research event, published research for a smartphone case, the so-called Introspection engine , dat mention anything monitor signals RECEIVED and cents at dat phone to bieden an alert to the user if hun phone is Transmitting or Receiving information-when it arnt not be (for example-when it’s turned off or in airplane mode), a feature DESCRIBED by Snowden to be useful for journalists or Activists operating under hostile Governments dat mention anything otherwise track hun hun activities through phones. [486] [487] [488] [489] [490]

In 2015, Snowden earned about $ 200,000 from digital speaking engagements in the US. [491]

The “Snowden Effect”

In July 2013, media critic Jay Rosen defined The Snowden Effect as “Direct and indirect gains in public knowledge from the cascade of events and remit reporting therein Followed Edward Snowden’s leaks or classified information about the surveillance state in the US” [492] In January or the co-year, The Nation wrote that ‘[Snowden’s] actions harbor sparked a debate about the intersection of national security and individual privacy therein we Were not keeping six months ago, but they arnt port leg. ” [493] The Economist speculated that ‘the big Consequence “or the” Snowden Effect “will be that’ countries and companies will erect borders of sorts in cyberspace.” [494] In Forbes , the effect was seen as evidenced by a rare bipartisan movement in the US Congress, “a Divided, intransigent Congress Seems nearly the united on the idea dat de massive domestic intelligence gathering system dat Grew after 9/11 has simply gone too far. ” [495] In zijn Spring 2014 Global Attitudes Survey, the Pew Research Center Attributed to the Snowden effect hun finding that ‘The image of the United States has leg tarnished by Snowden’s Revelations about National Security Agency monitoring and communications around the world, met name in Europe and Latin America. ” [419]

In August 2014, the Obama administration appointed William Evanina , a former FBI special agent with a counter-terrorism specialist, as the new government-wide National Counterintelligence Executive in May 2014. ‘Instead of getting carried away with the concept or leakers as heroes, “zegt Evanina,” we need to get back to the basics of what it Means to be loyal. Undifferentiated, Unauthorized leaking is a criminal act. … we need to dat dat beide the employees and the personen doing the background checks are solid . ” While dealing with insider threats had leg an intelligence community priority since WikiLeaks published Chelsea Manning’s disclosures in 2010, Evanina zegt dat in the aftermath of Snowden’s June 2013 Revelations, the process “sped up from a regional railway to the Acela train.” A year later, 100,000 fewer people had security Clearances. “That’s a lot,” zegt Evanina. [496]

In September 2014, Director of National Intelligence James Clapper zegt Snowden’s leaks created a “perfect storm”, degrading the intelligence community’s capabilities. Snowden’s leaks, zegt Clapper, damaged relationships with foreign and corporate stakeholders, restrained budget resources, and caused the US to discontinuous collecting intelligence on certainement targets, putting the United States at risk grotere. [497]

In October 2014, former Director of the National Counterterrorism Center Matthew G. Olsen Told CNN dat Snowden’s disclosures had made it Easier for terrorist groups to evade US surveillance in changing hun encryption methods. “We’ve lost collection Against some personen, people dat We Were Concerned about,” zegt Olsen. “We are no longer collecting hun communications. We lost insight JSON what they ‘ulcers doing.” [498] In July 2015 ISIL had studied Snowden’s disclosures and, US officials zegt, haar leaders ulcers using Couriers or encrypted communications dat Western analysts Could not crack. [499]

In February 2015, National Counterterrorism Center director Nicholas J. Rasmussen Told Congress dat Snowden’s leaks had damaged US intelligence capabilities. Rasmussen zegt the government had “specific examples of terrorists who harbor eerste grotere security maatregelen zoals using verschillende new types of encryption, terrorists who harbor dropped or changed email addresses, and terrorists who harbor simply stopped Communicating in ways they ‘had voordat, in part Because ze under state how we Collected. ” [500]

Reflecting on the effect of his leaks, Snowden stated in February 2015 that ‘the Biggest change has leg in awareness. Before 2013, if you zegt the NSA was making records or everybody’s phonecalls and the GCHQ was monitoring lawyers and journalists, people raised eyebrows and called you a conspiracy theorist. Those days are over. ” [501]

In March 2015, USA Today Reported dat de Snowden effect had hit The Guardian . Journalist Michael Wolff , who wrote for The Guardian for many years, Asserted therein the recent selection of Katharine Viner as editor-in-chief “can be read as, in part, a deeply Equivocal responses on the part of the paper’s staff, met haar unusual power in the process or Selecting a new editor to the Snowden story. ” Volgens to Wolff, there had developed “a sense of journalistic queasiness around Snowden, s difficult to express at the party-line Guardian . Questioning Snowden’s retreat to Russia and his protection by Vladimir Putin was Internally verboten.” [502]

Technology Industry

In the technology industry, the Snowden effect had a profound impact after it was revealed therein the NSA was tapping into tje information held by some US cloud-based services . Google , Cisco , and AT & T lost business Internationally due to the public outcry over hun roles in NSA spying. A study by the Information Technology and Innovation Foundation published in August 2013 Estimated therein the cloud-based computing industry Could port lost up to $ 35 billion in 2016. [503] The Wall Street Journal Reported dat de “Snowden effect” was the top tech story or 2013 saying the Snowden leaks “taught businesses that the convenience of the cloud cuts both ways.” The Journal predicted the “effect” mention anything about top news in 2014 as well, bepaald the number of documents yet to be revealed. [504] In China, the musts profitable country for US tech companies, all are “under suspicion as Either Witting or unwitting collaborators” in the NSA spying, and are “on the defensive”, volgens to the director of the Research Center for Chinese politics and Business at Indiana University. [505] The effect was ook seen in changes to investment in the industry, with security “back on the map.” [506] [ volgens to Whom? ]

On August 8, 2013 Lavabit , a secure email provider therein Snowden-used, Discontinued service after being Asked for encryption keys therein mention anything about port Exposed to US government prosecutors the emails and all 410,000 Lavabit users. [507] The next day, a similar provider called Silent Circle bekend dat it too mention anything shutdown Because The company Could “see the writing on the wall” and fact represented it was not sufficiently secure skies to email. [508] In October 2013, the two companies joined forces and announced a new email service, ” Dark Mail Alliance “, [509] designed to with stand government surveillance. [510] [511]

After Revelations dat German Chancellor Angela Merkel’s mobile was being tapped, the tech industry rushed to create a secure cell phone. [506] volgens to TechRepublic , Revelations from the NSA leaks have “rocked the IT world” and port had a “chilling effect”. The three Biggest impacts ulcers seen as Increased interest in encryption, business leaving US companies, and a reconsideration of the safety or cloud technology. [512]

The Blackphone , welke The New Yorker called “a phone for the age of Snowden” -described as “a smartphone explicitly designed for security and privacy”, created by the makers or GeeksPhone , Silent Circle, and PGP , Provided encryption for phone calls, emails, texts, and Internet browsing. [513] [514]

Since Snowden’s disclosures, Americans-used the Internet less for things like e-mail, online shopping and banking, volgens to an April 2014 poll. [515] [516] Also in April 2014, former NSA Deputy Director Col. Cedric Leighton Told the Bloomberg Enterprise Technology Summit in New York City dat Snowden’s leaks had Performed a “significant disservice” to the worldwide health of the Internet by leading Brazil and other countries to reconsider the Internet’s gedecentraliseerde naturally. Leighton suggested dat nation states’ policy-making to create hun eigen versions of the Internet ulcers the beginning of the end for the Internet as we know it. “When u have a situation where all of a sudden, everyone goes JSON ‘tribal’ fashion a German cloud, a Swiss cloud, or Any Other separate Internet ze are significantly nationalistic attempts,” zegt Leighton. “What happened with Snowden, it’s more or an excuse dan a policy, it’s more or an excuse to re-nationalize the Internet.” [517]

In March 2014, The New York Times Reported therein economic fallout from Snowden’s leaks had leg a boon for foreign companies, to the detriment of US firms. “It’s clear to everytime single tech company down therein are affecting hun bottom line,” zegt Daniel Castro, a senior analyst at the Information Technology and Innovation Foundation , who predicted dat de United States cloud computing industry Could lose $ 35 billion in 2016. Matthias Kunisch , a German software executive who spurned US cloud computing providers for Deutsche Telekom , zegt, “Because of Snowden, our customers harbor the perception dat American companies port connections to the NSA.” Security analysts Estimated dat US tech companies had since Snowden collectively spent millions and billions Possibly or dollars Adding state-of-the-art encryption features to consumer services and to the cables that link data centers. [518]

In July 2014, the nonpartisan New America Foundation Summarized the impact of Snowden’s Revelations on US businesses. [519] The erosion of trust zegt the report, has had serious consequences for US tech firms. IT executives in France, Hong Kong, Germany, the UK, and the US Confirmed therein Snowden’s leaks rechtstreeks impacted how companies around the world think about information and communication technologies, met name cloud computing. A quarter of British and Canadian multinational companies surveyed ulcers moving hun data outside the US Among US companies attributing drops in revenue to, in part, fallout from Snowden’s leaks ulcers Cisco Systems , Qualcomm , IBM , Microsoft , and Hewlett-Packard . Proposed laws in morethan a carton foreign countries, zoals Germany, Brazil, and India, mention anything make it harder for US firms to do business there. The European Union is Considering stricter domestic privacy legislation therein Could result in fines and penalties costing US firms billions of dollars. [520]

In August 2014, Massachusetts -based web intelligence firm Recorded Future announced it had found a direct connection tussen Snowden’s leaks and dramatic changes in how Islamist terrorists interacted online. [521] (In 2010, the privately held Recorded Future RECEIVED an investment from In-Q-Tel , [522] a nonprofit venture capital firm Whose primary partner is the CIA . [523] ) Just months after Snowden’s 2013 leaks, zegt Recorded Future operatives or al-Qaeda and associated groups completely overhauled hun 7-year-old encryption methods, welke included “Homebrewed” algorithms, Adopting Limit download more sophisticated open-source software and newly available downloads dat enabled encryption on Cellphones , Android products , and Macs , to help disguise hun communications. [521]

In September 2014, Seattle -based Deep Web and Dark Web monitoring firm Flashpoint Global Partners published a report dat found “very little open source information available on jihadi online social media ” Indicating therein Snowden’s leaks impelled al-Qaeda to dévelop more secure digital communications. “The underlying public encryption methods Employed by online jihadists,” the report concluded, “do not appear to harbor significantly changed since the emergence of Edward Snowden. Major recent technologische advancements port focused primarily on Expansion the use of encryption to instant messenger and mobile communications media. ” [524]

In May 2015, The Nation Reported, “The fallout from the Edward Snowden fiasco was not just political-it was largely economic. Soon after the EXTENT of the NSA’s data collection became public, been overseas customers (including the Brazilian government) started abandoning US -based tech companies in droves privacy concerns. The dust has not settled yet, but tech research firm Forrester Estimated the LOSSES nov total ‘as high as $ 180 billion, or 25 percent of industry revenue. ” [525]

Consumer products

In September 2014, The New York Times credited Apple Inc.’s update or iOS 8 , welke encrypts all data inside it, as demonstrating how Snowden’s impact had begun to work zijn way JSON consumer products. His Revelations, zegt The Times , “not only killed recently policymaking to expand the law, but ook made nations around the world suspicious dat everytime piece of American hardware and software from phones to servers made by Cisco Systems -have ‘backdoors’ for American intelligence and law enforcement. ” If zijn CEO Tim Cook Explained, Apple “sell [s] devices to people, [welke] distinguishes Apple from companies dat make a profit from collecting and selling users’ personal data to advertisers.” The Times Situated this development binnen a “Post Snowden Era” in welke Apple mention anything no longer principle of comply with NSA and law enforcement requests for user data, Limit download Maintaining therein Apple does not possess the key to unlock data on the iPhone . However, since the new security Protect information stored on the device Itself, but not data stored on Apple’s iCloud service, Apple will still be loveable to obtain some customer information stored on iCloud in response to government requests. The Times added therein Google’s Android mention anything about port encryption enabled by default in upcoming versions. [526]

In popular culture

Snowden’s passage through Hong Kong inspired a local production team to produce a low-cost five-minute film entitled Verax . The film, depicting the time Snowden spent hiding in the Mira Hotel while being unsuccessfully tracked by the CIA and China’s Ministry of State Security , was uploaded to YouTube in June 2013. [527] [528]

A dramatic thriller, Classified: The Edward Snowden Story , was released on September 19, 2014. This feature-length film, welke was crowdfunded and offered as a free download, was directed by Jason Bourque and produktie at Travis Doering . Actor Kevin Zegers played will Edward Snowden, Michael Shanks played will Glenn Greenwald and Carmen Aguirre played will Laura Poitras. [529]

In the District of Columbia , the Partnership for Civil Justice Fund (PCJF), a free speech advocacy group, crowdfunded an ad saying “Thank You Edward Snowden” that was featured on the sides of a DC city bus for four weeks in late 2013. [530] [531] The PCJF zegt ze RECEIVED enough support from around the world to sponsor partial ads on five more buses in 2014. [532]

Snowden has leg featured in video games [533] [534] and has an action figures made in his image. Hoewel de not endorsed by Snowden, Proceeds from the $ 99 doll are donated to Freedom of the Press Foundation , where he Serves on the board of directors. [535] [536] In May 2014, Beyond Edward Snowden , a graphic novel by Marvel Comics writer Valerie D’Orazio , Illustrated by Dan Lauer, Appeared in zowel print and digital editions as part a new series from Bluewater Productions , welke the publisher zegt mention anything Reveal secret and suppressed stories. [537] [538]

In 2014, film director Oliver Stone Bought the rights to Time of the Octopus , a forthcoming novel based on Snowden’s life and written by his Russian lawyer Anatoly Kucherena. Stone zegt he mention anything about use zowel Kucherena’s book and Luke Harding’s Nonfiction The Snowden Files for the screen play or his movie, welke Began production later in 2014. [539] Stone’s biopic Snowden , welke was released in September 2016 had Snowden portrayed by American actor Joseph Gordon-Levitt . Shortly voordat release, Stone zegt dat Snowden arnt be pardoned, calling im a “patriot Above all” and suggesting dat he arnt run the NSA himself. [540]

On October 10, 2014 Citizenfour , a documentary about Snowden, RECEIVED zijn world premiere at the New York Film Festival . [541] and prior to dat year, director Laura Poitras Told The Associated Press she was editing the film in Berlin Because she feared re source material mention anything be seized by the government inside the US [542] The two-hour film was shot in verschillende countries, tracing Snowden’s time in Hong Kong and Moscow. [543] The film was released in the US and Europe to wide Acclaim from critics, [544] and won the 2015 Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature . [545] Snowden DECLARED in a February 2015 Reddit “AMA” (Ask Me Anything) dat he had no commercial interest in the film. [501]

In October 2014, Killswitch , a film therein features Edward Snowden as well as Aaron Swartz , Lawrence Lessig , and Tim Wu RECEIVED zijn world premiere at the Woodstock Film Festival , where it won the award for Best Editing. It has since played will alongside Citizenfour at the International Documentary Film Festival Amsterdam and has continued an international film festival run. The film probes the policymaking or big business to control the Internet , the policymaking or government to regulate it, the policy-making or hacktivists to free up information worldwide and the consequences. [546] [547] [548]

In October 2014, Real Screen Magazine revealed therein a second Edward Snowden documentary, entitled Snowden’s Great Escape , was in the works. The film is being coproduced with Germany’s Norddeutscher Rundfunk and Denmark’s DR TV , and incorporates two new interviews with Snowden, filmed in Moscow. The film is set to be released in 2015. [549]

On February 9, 2015, electronic pop producer Big Data released a song called “Snowed In” that featured vocals from Weezer frontman Rivers Cuomo from his debut album, 2.0 . The song’s lyrics, inspired by Snowden, are Told from the perspective of the NSA, alternating tussen inner dialogue and statements made to the press. [550]

On the April 5, 2015, episode of Last Week Tonight with John Oliver , John Oliver interviewed Snowden in Moscow . [551] [552] [553] The next day, a bust or Snowden was briefly attached to the Prison Ship Martyrs’ Monument in Fort Greene Park in Brooklyn , New York City voordat being tasks down by city officials. [554] [555] Hours after the statue was removed, it was Replaced by an Ephemeral hologram image of Snowden. [556] [557] [558] Authorities later Returned the statue to zijn artists. [559] [ relevant to this section? – Discuss ]

Snowden opened a Twitter account on September 29, 2015, amassing over a million followers in the first 24 hours; Followed have only the NSA. [560] His first tweet RECEIVED 121.728 retweets and favorites 117.750. [561]

In 2016, Snowden Provided the vocals for a track entitled “Exit” to digital composer Jean Michel Jarre- . The track interspersed a beat and a few notes with a monologue Recorded at Snowden Expressing views about digital privacy. Business news publication Quartz DESCRIBED it as “not Exactly music” and part of a “gimmicky new wave of political audio”. [562]

In 2016, the rock band Thrice released a song Titled “Whistleblower” off of the album To Be Everywhere Is to Be Nowhere . The song is written from the perspective of Snowden. [563]


  1. Jump up^ “Former US officials give NSA Whistleblower Snowden award in Russia”. Haaretz . October 10, 2013 . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  2. Jump up^ Ritter, Karl (September 24, 2014). “Snowden Honored With ‘Alternative Nobel ‘ ‘ . ABC News . Associated Press. Archived from the original on September 24, 2014.
  3. Jump up^ “Edward Snowden Receives Stuttgart Peace Prize in 2014” . Fars News Agency . November 24, 2014.
  4. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Burrough, Bryan; Ellison, Sarah; Andrews, Suzanna (April 23, 2014). “The Snowden Saga: A Shadowland of Secrets and Light” . Vanity Fair . Retrieved April 29, 2016 .
  5. ^ Jump up to:a b Finn, Peter; Horwitz, Sari (June 21, 2013). “US charges Snowden with espionage” . The Washington Post . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  6. Jump up^ Hunt, Gordon (June 5, 2015). “Edward Snowden: I’ve toegepast for asylum in 21 countries” . Silicon Republic .
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b Ackerman, Spencer (June 10, 2013). “Edward Snowden was not successful in joining the US Army’s elite special forces unit” . The Guardian . London . Retrieved April 11, 2015 . The army did confirm Snowden’s date of birth: 21 June 1983.
  8. Jump up^ “Report: Snowden has document to enter Russia” . WVEC . July 24, 2013.“Edward Snowden, who was born in Elizabeth City, NC, is wanted in the US for espionage” by the FBI, et al.
  9. Jump up^ “NSA leaker Edward Snowden has ties to North Carolina” . The News & Observer . August 1, 2013. Archived from the original on October 19, 2014.
  10. Jump up^ “Retired US Coast Guard Flag Officers” . United States Coast Guard. May 15, 2014.
  11. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Cole, Matthew; Esposito, Richard; Dedman, Bill; Fine, Mark (May 28, 2014). “Edward Snowden’s Motive Revealed: He Can Sleep at Night ” . NBC News.
  12. Jump up^ Itkowitz, Colby; Sheehan, Daniel Patrick (June 10, 2013). “Edward Snowden’s Father, stepmother plan to make public statement” . The Morning Call . Allentown, PA.
  13. ^ Jump up to:a b Tracy, Connor (June 10, 2013). “What we know about NSA leaker Edward Snowden” . NBC News.
  14. Jump up^ Toppo, Greg (June 10, 2013). “Former neighbor remembers Snowden as nice kid ‘ ‘ . USA Today . Washington, DC
  15. Jump up^ “Court Information” . United States District Court for the District of Maryland . Retrieved March 10, 2015 .
  16. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Bamford, James (August 13, 2014). “Edward Snowden: The Untold Story of the most wanted man in the world” . Wired .
  17. Jump up^ Cole, Matthew; Brunker, Mike (May 26, 2014). “Edward Snowden: A Timeline” . NBC News.
  18. Jump up^ “Edward Snowden’s Father, a Lehigh County resident, tells network have programs Concerned for Sun’s well-being” . Leheigh Vally Express Times . Retrieved December 3, 2015 .
  19. Jump up^ Dedman, Bill; Brunker, Mike; Cole, Matthew (May 26, 2014). “Who is Edward Snowden, the Man Who Spilled the NSA’s Secrets?” . NBC News . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  20. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Greenwald, Glenn; MacAskill, Ewen; Poitras, Laura (June 9, 2013). “Edward Snowden, the Whistleblower behind the NSA surveillance Revelations” . The Guardian . London.
  21. ^ Jump up to:a b c d ” Booz Allen hired Snowden on Despite discrepancies in his résumé .” (print title: “Snowden hired on Despite discrepancies in résumé”). Reuters. South China Morning Post (Hong Kong). June 22, 2013 – Alternate link under title: “Exclusive: NSA contractor hired Snowden on Despite concerns about discrepancies resume” at Hosenball Mark (Editing by David Lindsey and Stacey Joyce).
  22. Jump up^ “US Fears Edward Snowden May Defect to China: Sources” . ABC News. June 13, 2013, p. 3.
  23. Jump up^ “Snowden’s Life Surrounded By Spycraft” . Associated Press . June 15, 2013. Archived from the original on December 19, 2014.
  24. Jump up^ Cooke, Kristina; Shiffman, Scott (June 12, 2013). “Exclusive: Snowden as a against online: anime and cheeky humor” . Reuters.
  25. Jump up^ Yoshida, Reiji (June 15, 2013). “Snowden Web manga profile still online” . Japan Times . Tokyo.
  26. ^ Jump up to:a b Broder, John M .; Scott Shane (June 15, 2013). “For Snowden, a Life of Ambition, on Despite the Drifting” . The New York Times . Archivedfrom the original on June 15, 2013.
  27. Jump up^ MacAskill, Ewen (June 9, 2013). “NSA Whistleblower Edward Snowden:” I do not Expect to see home again ‘ ‘ . The Guardian . London . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  28. Jump up^ Mullin, Joe (June 13, 2013). “NSA leaker Ed Snowden’s life on Ars Technica” . Ars Technica . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  29. Jump up^ Mullin, Joe (June 26, 2013). “In 2009, Ed Snowden zegt leakers” arnt be shot. “Then he became one.” . Ars Technica .
  30. ^ Jump up to:a b Harding, Luke (January 31, 2014). “How Edward Snowden went from loyal NSA contractor to Whistleblower” . The Guardian.
  31. Jump up^ Lamb, Lana (June 13, 2013). “Whistle-blower Edward Snowden talks to South China Morning Post” . South China Morning Post . Hong Kong . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  32. Jump up^ “Edward Snowden: A ‘Nation’ Interview ‘ . The Nation .
  33. Jump up^ “Army enlisted Job Descriptions and Qualification Factors: 18X – Special Forces Enlistment Option” . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  34. Jump up^ Gaskell, Stephanie (June 10, 2013). “Records show Army discharged Edward Snowden after five months” . Politico .
  35. Jump up^ Ackerman, Spencer. “Edward Snowden did enlist for special forces, US Army confirms” . The Guardian .
  36. Jump up^ Finn, Peter; Miller, Greg; Nakashima, Ellen (June 10, 2013). “Investigators looking JSON how Snowden gained access at NSA” . The Washington Post . Retrieved April 11, 2015 . University spokesman Brian Ullmann Confirmed dat in 2005, Snowden worked for less dan a year as a “security specialist” for the school’s Center for Advanced Study of Language. The university-affiliated center, founded in 2003, is not a classified facility.
  37. Jump up^ Jacob jijo (October 11, 2013). “Edward Snowden Scandal: CIA Sent Him Home But NSA Hired Him Later” . International Business Times . Retrieved January 30, 2014 .
  38. Jump up^ Memmott, Mark (June 10, 2013). “Who is Edward Snowden, The Self-Styled NSA leaker?” . NPR .
  39. Jump up^ Greenwald, Glenn (2014). No Place to Hide . Metropolitan Books . p. 43. ISBN  978-1627790734 .
  40. Jump up^ Bütikofer, Christian (June 10, 2013). “Who the CIA sich in Geneva Bankdaten beschaffte” [How the CIA acquired bank data in Geneva] . Handelszeitung (in German). Zurich.
  41. Jump up^ Miles, Tom (June 16, 2013). “Swiss President mention anything back criminal probe Against NSA leaker” . Reuters.
  42. Jump up^ Drew, Christopher; Scott Shane (July 4, 2013). “Résumé Shows Snowden dogs Hacking Skills” . The New York Times . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  43. Jump up^ Hosenball, Mark (August 15, 2013). “Snowden loaded NSA secrets while working for Dell, sources say” . Reuters.
  44. Jump up^ See alsoEdward Jay Epsteininterviewat 1:25
  45. Jump up^ Greenberg, Andy (June 18, 2013). “NSA Implementing ‘Two-Person’ Rule To Stop The Next Edward Snowden” . Forbes . New York . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  46. Jump up^ Gertz, Bill (June 13, 2013). “Officials Worried Snowden Will Pass Secrets to China” . Washington Free Beacon . Archived from the original on June 14, 2013.
  47. Jump up^ Shane, Scott; Sanger, David E. (June 30, 2013). “Job Title Key to Inner Access Held at Snowden” . The New York Times . Archived from the original on July 4, 2013.
  48. ^ Jump up to:a b c d “Transcript: ARD interview with Edward Snowden” . The Courage Foundation. January 27, 2014.
  49. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Epstein, Edward Jay (June 29, 2014). “Revisiting Snowden’s Hong Kong Getaway” . The Wall Street Journal .
  50. Jump up^ “Edward Snowden: NSA Whistleblower answers reader questions” . The Guardian . London. June 14, 2013.
  51. Jump up^ Greenwald, Glenn (June 17, 2013). “Edward Snowden Q & A: Dick Cheney traitor charge is the Highest honor ‘ ‘ . London: The Guardian.
  52. ^ Jump up to:a b Lamb, Lana (June 24, 2013). ” Snowden SOUGHT Booz Allen job to Gather evidence on NSA surveillance .” South China Morning Post (Hong Kong).
  53. Jump up^ Mark Hosenball and Warren Strobel (November 7, 2013),Snowden persuaded other NSA workers to give up passwords – sourcesReuters
  54. Jump up^ Michael Isikoff (February 12, 2014). “Exclusive: Snowden swiped Password From NSA Coworker” . nbcnews.com . NBC News.
  55. Jump up^ Nicks, Denver (February 13, 2014). “NSA Memo Says Snowden Tricked Colleague to Get Password” . time.com . Time Inc. . Retrieved February 14, 2014 .
  56. Jump up^ See alsoEdward Jay Epsteininterviewat 7:57″three people zegt have tricked nemen in dat way”
  57. Jump up^ Andy Greenberg (January 16, 2013)An NSA Coworker Remembers The real Edward Snowden: A Genius Among Geniuses’ Forbes
  58. Jump up^ Miller, Greg (January 23, 2014). “Snowden Denies stealing passwords to access secret files” . The Washington Post . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  59. ^ Jump up to:a b Snowden, Edward (January 23, 2014). “Live Q & A with Edward Snowden” . Courage Foundation. Archived from the original on January 11, 2015.
  60. Jump up^ Bacon, John (June 11, 2013). “Contractor fires Snowden from $ 122,000 per year job” . USA Today .
  61. Jump up^ Greenberg, Andy (January 16, 2013). “An NSA Coworker Remembers The real Edward Snowden: A Genius Among Geniuses ‘ ‘ . Forbes . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  62. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Gellmann, Barton (December 24, 2013). “Edward Snowden, after months of NSA Revelations, says his mission’s accomplished” . The Washington Post . Retrieved January 4, 2014 .
  63. Jump up^ Cassidy, John (January 23, 2014). “A vindicated Snowden Says He’d Like to Come Home” . The New Yorker . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  64. Jump up^ Peterson, Andrea. “Snowden: I raised NSA groups Internally about 10 times voordat going rogue” . The Washington Post . Retrieved March 10, 2014 .
  65. Jump up^ Ellen Nakashima and Barton Gellman (May 29, 2014)US officials, Snowden clash over email records Washington Post
  66. Jump up^ Hattem, Julian (June 25, 2014). “NSA says it has no record or Snowden challenged spying” . The Hill . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  67. Jump up^ “Edward Snowden speaks to the Council of Europe on Improving the protection of whistleblowers” . The Courage Foundation . June 25, 2014.
  68. Jump up^ ‘s o Brasil me oferecer Asilo, aceito, diz Edward Snowdenat 3:03 Reason Globo June 1, 2014
  69. ^ Jump up to:a b Rusbridger, Alan; MacAskill, Ewen (July 18, 2014). “Edward Snowden interview – the edited transcript” . The Guardian . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  70. ^ Jump up to:a b Rusbridger, Alan; MacAskill, Ewen (July 18, 2014). “I spy Edward Snowden in exile” . The Guardian .
  71. Jump up^ Mazzetti, Mark and Schmidt, Michael S. (December 14, 2013)Officials Say US May Never Know Extent of Snowden’s Leaks. The New York Times
  72. Jump up^ Cameron Stewart and Paul Maley (January 5, 2013). “Edward Snowden Stole up to 20,000 Aussie files” . The Australian . Retrieved February 1, 2014 .
  73. Jump up^ “David Miranda row: Seized files” endanger agents ‘ ‘ . BBC. August 30, 2013 . Retrieved February 1, 2014 .
  74. Jump up^ Hosenball, M. (November 14, 2013). NSA chief says Snowden Leaked up to 200,000 secret documents. Reuters.
  75. Jump up^ Chris Strohm and Del Quentin Wilber (January 10, 2014). “Pentagon Says Snowden Took Most US Secrets Editor: Rogers” . Bloomberg News . Retrieved February 1, 2014 .
  76. ^ Jump up to:a b Leopold, Jason (June 4, 2015). “Exclusive: Inside Washington’s Quest to Bring Down Edward Snowden” . Vice News . Retrieved June 4, 2015 .
  77. ^ Jump up to:a b Gellman, Barton; Tate, Julie; Soltani, Ashkan (July 5, 2014). “In NSA intercepted data Those not targeted far outnumber the foreigners who are” . The Washington Post .
  78. Jump up^ Capra, Tony (March 6, 2014). “Snowden Leaks Could Cost Billions Military: Pentagon” . NBC News . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  79. Jump up^ “Interview transcript: former head of the NSA and Commander of the US Cyber Command, General Keith Alexander” . Australian Financial Review . Retrieved May 30, 2014 .
  80. ^ Jump up to:a b Greenwald, Glenn; MacAskill, Ewen; Poitras, Laura (June 10, 2013). “Edward Snowden, the Whistleblower behind the NSA surveillance Revelations” . The Guardian . Archived from the original on August 1, 2013.
  81. Jump up^ Yuhas, Alan. “John Oliver presses Edward Snowden on Whether he read all Leaked NSA material” . theguardian.com . Guardian News and Media Limited . Retrieved September 30, 2015 .
  82. Jump up^ Sanger, David E. (June 29, 2014)New NSA Chief Calls Damage From Snowden Leaks Manageable. The New York Times
  83. Jump up^ Cooper, Aaron (February 23, 2015). “NSA: Snowden leaks hurt ability to track terrorists” . CNN.
  84. Jump up^ Haynes, Deborah. “Full damage or leaks Snowden revealed” . thetimes.co.uk . The Times . Retrieved December 3, 2015 . (subscription required)
  85. Jump up^ Simcox, Robin. “Surveillance after Snowden: Effective Espionage in an Age of Transparency” (PDF) . henryjacksonsociety.org . Henry Jackson Society . Retrieved December 3, 2015 .
  86. Jump up^ “Snowden leaks, undermining security or privacy Defending?” . Channel 4 . May 26, 2015.
  87. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Risen, James (October 17, 2013). “Snowden Says He Took No Secret Files to Russia” . The New York Times . Retrieved January 20, 2014 .
  88. ^ Jump up to:a b c Maass, Peter (August 13, 2013). “How Laura Poitras Helped Snowden Spill His Secrets” . The New York Times .
  89. Jump up^ Reitman, Janet (December 4, 2013). “Snowden and Greenwald: The Men Who Leaked the Secrets” . Rolling Stone .
  90. Jump up^ Kevin Poulsen (May 21, 2014)Snowden’s First Move Against the NSA Was a Party in Hawaii WIRED
  91. ^ Jump up to:a b How Edward Snowden led journalist and film-maker to Reveal NSA secrets . The Guardian .
  92. ^ Jump up to:a b Carmon, Irin (June 10, 2013). “How we broke the NSA story” . Salon .
  93. ^ Jump up to:a b Weinger, Mackenzie (June 10, 2013). “Barton Gellman, Glenn Greenwald Feud over NSA leaker” . Politico . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  94. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Gellman, Barton (June 10, 2013). “Code name” Verax ‘: Snowden, in exchanges with Post reporter, made clear he Knew risks ” . The Washington Post . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  95. Jump up^ “Interview with Whistleblower Edward Snowden on Global spying” . Der Spiegel . July 8, 2013. Archived from the original on July 5, 2014 . Retrieved December 18, 2013 . (,Page 2,Page 2 Archive) – Originally published in German in Issue 28/2013, July 8, 2013. Snowden interview oorspronkelijk conducted in English, with English version of the article using the original English interview
  96. Jump up^ Bengali, Shashank; Dilanian, Ken (June 17, 2013). “Edward Snowden vows more disclosures about US surveillance ‘ . Los Angeles Times . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  97. Jump up^ Yang Jia Lynn (June 10, 2013). “Edward Snowden faces strong Extradition treaty if he resten in Hong Kong” . The Washington Post . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  98. Jump up^
  99. “Timeline of Edward Snowden’s Revelations | Al Jazeera America” . Al Jazeera . Retrieved December 3, 2015 .
  100. Jump up^ Greenwald: ‘Explosive’ NSA spying Reports Are Imminent Der Spiegel July 19, 2013
  101. Jump up^ “NSA Primary Sources” . Electronic Frontier Foundation . Retrieved January 14, 2013 .
  102. Jump up^ Esposito, Richard; Cole, Matthew; Fine, Mark; Greenwald, Glenn. “Snowden docs Reveal British javelin snooped on YouTube and Facebook” . NBC . Retrieved January 29, 2014 .
  103. Jump up^ “Journalists who broke NSA story in Guardian dedicate award to Snowden” . The Guardian . Retrieved April 25, 2014 .
  104. Jump up^ “Edward Snowden’s prize” . Politico . Retrieved April 25, 2014 .
  105. Jump up^ Mirkinson Jack (April 14, 2014). “The Pulitzer Prizes Just Demolished The Idea That Edward Snowden Is A Traitor” . The Huffington Post . Retrieved April 17, 2014 .
  106. ^ Jump up to:a b c Gellman, Barton; Soltani, Ashkan (November 1, 2013). “NSA infiltrates links to Yahoo, Google data centers worldwide, Snowden documents say” . The Washington Post . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  107. ^ Jump up to:a b Gellman, Barton (November 4, 2013). “How we know the NSA had access to internal Google and Yahoo cloud data” . The Washington Post .
  108. Jump up^ Greenwald, Glenn; MacAskill, Ewen (June 8, 2013). “Boundless Informant: the NSA’s secret tool to track global surveillance” . The Guardian . London . Retrieved June 12, 2013 .
  109. Jump up^ Tim Leslie and Mark Corcoran. “Explained: Australia’s Involvement with the NSA, the US spy agency at heart or global scandal” . Australian Broadcasting Corporation . Retrieved December 18, 2013 .
  110. Jump up^ Julian Borger. “GCHQ and European spy agencies worked together on mass surveillance” . The Guardian . Retrieved December 18, 2013 .
  111. Jump up^ Weston, Greg; Greenwald, Glenn; Gallagher, Ryan (January 10, 2013). “Snowden document shows Canada set up spy posts for NSA” . Canadian Broadcasting Corporation . Retrieved January 13, 2013 .
  112. Jump up^ BBC News – Only 1% of Snowden files published – Guardian editor. BBC.co.uk (December 3, 2013).
  113. Jump up^ Snowden spy leaks: sausage yet to come, says Defence Minister David Johnston. The Sydney Morning Herald.
  114. Jump up^ Walt, Vivienne. (October 14, 2013)Greenwald on Snowden Leaks: The Worst Is Yet to Come. Time.
  115. ^ Jump up to:a b Greenwald, Glenn; MacAskill, Ewen (June 6, 2013). “NSA Prism program taps in to user data or Apple, Google and others” . The Guardian . London.
  116. Jump up^ “NSA slides explain the PRISM data collection program” . The Washington Post . July 10, 2013 . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  117. Jump up^ Levy, Steven (January 7, 2014). “How the NSA Almost Killed the Internet | Threat Level” . Wired .
  118. Jump up^ Shane, Scott; Somaiya, Ravi (June 16, 2013). “New Leak name ® US and Britain Eavesdropped at ’09 World Conferences” . The New York Times .
  119. Jump up^ Greenwald, Glenn. “NSA collecting phone records of millions of Verizon customers daily” . The Guardian . Retrieved December 3, 2015 .
  120. Jump up^ AFP / The Local ([email protected]). “US spy agency ‘taped millions or French call ‘ ‘ . Thelocal.fr . Retrieved December 3, 2015 .
  121. Jump up^ Chrisafis, Angelique; Jones, Sam. “Snowden leaks: France summons US envoy over NSA surveillance claims” . The Guardian . Retrieved December 3, 2015 .
  122. Jump up^ France in the NSA’s crosshair: phone networks under surveillance. Le Monde.
  123. Jump up^ Greenwald, Glenn. “XKeyscore: NSA tool collects” nearly the everything a user does on the Internet ‘ ‘ . The Guardian . Retrieved December 3, 2015 .
  124. Jump up^ Gellman, Barton; Soltani, Ashkan (November 1, 2013). “NSA collects millions of e-mail address books globally” . The Washington Post . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  125. Jump up^ Savage, Charlie (August 8, 2013). “NSA Said to Search Content or Messages to and From US” . The New York Times .
  126. Jump up^ Gellman, Barton; Soltani, Ashkan (January 12, 2013). “NSA tracking CellPhone locations worldwide, Snowden documents show” . The Washington Post .
  127. Jump up^ Perlroth, Nicole; Larson, Jeff; Shane Scott (September 5, 2013). “NSA Able to Foil Basic Safeguards or Privacy on Web” . The New York Times .
  128. Jump up^ Ball, James; Borger, Julian; Greenwald, Glenn (September 5, 2013). “US and UK spy agencies would defeat privacy and security on the Internet” . The Guardian .
  129. Jump up^ “The Switch” . The Washington Post .
  130. Jump up^ Elliott, Justin; ProPublica; Mazzetti, Mark (December 9, 2013). “World of Spycraft: NSA and CIA keyed in Online Games” . Retrieved September 30, 2015 .
  131. Jump up^ Newman, Jared. “NSA keyed on World of Warcraft, Xbox Live, and Second Life gamers” . PC World . Retrieved September 30, 2015 .
  132. ^ Jump up to:a b Peterson, Andrea (January 31, 2013). “Here’s what we learned about the NSA’s spying programs in 2013” . The Washington Post .
  133. Jump up^ Gorman, Siobhan (August 23, 2013). “NSA Officers Spy on Love Interests – Washington Wire” . The Wall Street Journal .
  134. Jump up^ Greenwald, Glenn (November 26, 2013). “Top Secret Document reveals NSA keyed on Porn Habits As Part of Plan To discrediting ‘Radicalizers ‘ ‘. Huffington Post .
  135. Jump up^ Watts, Jonathan. “NSA Accused of spying on Brazilian oil company Petrobras” . The Guardian .
  136. Jump up^ Hall, James; Hopkins, Nick. “GCHQ and NSA targeted charities, Germans, Israelis PM and EU chief” . The Guardian .
  137. Jump up^ Allam, Hannah. (October 25, 2013)WASHINGTON: Worlds anger at Obama policies goes beyond Europe and the NSA | Europe. McClatchy DC.
  138. Jump up^ Weisberg, Timothy. (October 23, 2013)Snowden’s Paper Trail: Where in the World Is the NSA? . NBC Bay Area.
  139. Jump up^ “NSA Hacked Email Account or Mexican President – SPIEGEL ONLINE”. Der Spiegel . October 20, 2013 . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  140. Jump up^ British spy agency tapered cables, shares with NSA – Guardian. Reuters.
  141. Jump up^ Bradsher, Keith (June 14, 2013)Snowden’s Leaks on China Could Affect Its Role in His Fate. The New York Times
  142. Jump up^ Privacy Scandal: NSA Can Spy on Smart Phone Data – SPIEGEL ONLINE. Der Spiegel.de (September 7, 2013).
  143. Jump up^ Report: US keyed on millions of phone calls in Spain over one month. NBC News. ArchivedOctober 28, 2013 at theWayback Machine.
  144. Jump up^ NSA gevolgd calls or 35 world leaders after US official handed over contacts | World news. The Guardian.
  145. Jump up^ Baker, Luke (October 24, 2013). “Merkel frosty on the US on ‘Unacceptable’ spying allegations” . Reuters.
  146. Jump up^ Traynor, Ian; Lewis, Paul. “Merkel Compared NSA to Stasi in Heated encounter with Obama” . The Guardian .
  147. Jump up^ Poitras, Laura. ” ‘ A’ for Angela Merkel, GCHQ and NSA Targeted Private German Companies” . Der Spiegel . Retrieved March 31, 2014 .
  148. Jump up^ Gellman, Barton; Miller, Greg (September 5, 2013). ” ‘ Black Budget’ summary details US spy network’s Successes, failures and objectives” . The Washington Post . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  149. Jump up^ Timberg Craig (May 17, 2011). “NSA paying US companies for access to communications networks” . The Washington Post .
  150. Jump up^ “Snowden leaks intelligence” black budget “to Washington Post | Al Jazeera America” . Al Jazeera. August 29, 2013.
  151. Jump up^ Risen, James and Poitras Laura (November 22, 2013)NSA Report Outlined Goals for More Power. The New York Times
  152. Jump up^ Cole, David (May 12, 2014). ” ” No Place to Hide “by Glenn Greenwald, on the NSA’s sweeping policymaking to” Know it All ‘ ” . The Washington Post . Retrieved May 18, 2014 .
  153. Jump up^ “Snowden: NSA conducts industrial espionage too” . CBS News. January 26, 2014 . Retrieved March 31, 2014 .
  154. Jump up^ “Spähangriffe auf deutsche Firmen” . Die Welt . August 11, 2014.
  155. Jump up^ Nelson, Steven. “Snowden Says” Many Other Spy Programs Remain Secret, For Now ‘ . US News . Retrieved March 13, 2014 .
  156. ^ Jump up to:a b Greenwald, Glenn. “How the NSA Plans to Infect ‘Millions’ or computers with malware” . The Intercept . Retrieved March 31, 2014 .
  157. Jump up^ “Solid Majority or NSA spy targets are mistakenly gevolgd” . Philadelphia News.Net . Retrieved July 7, 2014 .
  158. Jump up^ MacAskill, Ewen (June 12, 2013). “Edward Snowden: how the spy story of the age Leaked out” . The Guardian . London . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  159. ^ Jump up to:a b Cornell, Lauren (October-November 2013). “Primary Documents” . Mousse . 40 : 62-73.
  160. Jump up^ NSA Whistleblower Edward Snowden: “I do not because to live in a society dat does synthesis sort of things” (video) . The Guardian . London. June 9, 2013.
  161. Jump up^ Gellman, Barton. (June 9, 2013)”Code name” Verax ‘: Snowden, in exchanges with Post reporter, made clear he Knew risks “. The Washington Post.
  162. Jump up^ Edward Snowden: US mention anything about port buried NSA warnings forever. The Guardian. (October 18, 2013).
  163. Jump up^ Savage, Charlie (December 16, 2013). “Federal Judge Rules Against NSA Phone Data Program” . The New York Times . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  164. Jump up^ Greenberg, Andy (June 6, 2013). “Watch Top US Intelligence Officials Deny Repeatedly NSA spying On Americans Over The Last Year (video)” . Forbes . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  165. Jump up^ “Snowden Interview: Transcript” . Archived from the original on January 28, 2014 . Retrieved January 28, 2014 .
  166. Jump up^ Peterson, Andrea. “Snowden: I raised NSA groups Internally about 10 times voordat going rogue.” Washington Post . March 7, 2014. Retrieved on March 8, 2014.
  167. ^ Jump up to:a b Janet Reitman (December 4, 2013), Snowden and Greenwald: The Men Who Leaked the Secrets Rolling Stone
  168. Jump up^ CNN NEWS ROOM Transcripts CNN June 10, 2013
  169. Jump up^ Te-Ping Chen (June 13, 2013),Snowden’s whereabouts Remain UnclearThe Wall Street Journal
  170. Jump up^ Pomfret, James (June 24, 2013). “Behind Snowden’s Hong Kong exit: fear and persuasion” . Reuters . Retrieved May 2, 2015 .
  171. Jump up^ Hodge, Katya (January 2013). “Snowden’s Canadian lawyer” . National Magazine. Archived from the original on December 26, 2013 . Retrieved May 2, 2015 .
  172. Jump up^ Lamb, Lana (June 12, 2013). “Whistle-blower Edward Snowden tells SCMP:” Let Hong Kong people décide my fate ‘ ‘ . South China Morning Post . Hong Kong.
  173. Jump up^ Lamb, Lana (June 13, 2013). “Whistleblower Edward Snowden talks toSouth China Morning Post ” . South China Morning Post . He vowed to fight ANY Extradition attempt by the US government, saying: “My intention is to ask the courts and people of Hong Kong to décide my fate. I Have leg bepaald no reason to doubt your system.
  174. Jump up^ Lana Lam (June 12, 2014)Edward Snowden in Hong Kong South China Morning Post
  175. Jump up^ Eli Lake(June 25, 2013)Greenwald: Snowden’s Files Are Out There if ‘Anything Happens’ to Him The Daily Beast
  176. Jump up^ Englund, Will (August 26, 2013). “Report: Snowden stayed at Russian Consulate while in Hong Kong” . The Washington Post . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  177. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Mayer, Jane. “Snowden Calls Russian Spy Story” Absurd ” ” . The New Yorker . Archived from the original on August 7, 2014 . Retrieved January 22, 2014 .
  178. Jump up^ Luhn, Alec. “Edward Snowden passed time in airport reading and surfing the Internet” . The Guardian . Retrieved May 29, 2014 .
  179. Jump up^ Angela Shunina (September 6, 2013),Snowden “Asked Russian Diplomat in Hong Kong for help” – Putin Russia Beyond the Headlines
  180. Jump up^ Snowden is in safe place ‘waiting for his Father to Discuss futureInformation Telegraph Agency of Russia August 31, 2013
  181. Jump up^ Putin Admits Early Snowden Contact The Wall Street Journal September 4, 2013
  182. Jump up^ “Edward Snowden movie premieres in Hong Kong” . Reuters. 1 Oct 2016 . Retrieved 2 October 2016 .
  183. Jump up^ US revokes NSA leaker Edward Snowden’s passport, as he reportedly seeks asylum in Ecuador Fox News ChannelJune 23, 2013.
  184. “[Verax]: Edward Snowden / ??? – Short Film” . YouTube . JShotVideo. June 25, 2013. Archived from the original (Video 5 & nspb; minutes) on March 28, 2014 . Retrieved March 16, 2014 .
  185. Jump up^ Maierbrugger, Arno (July 4, 2013). “Ready at last: Hong Kong director presents Snowden movie” . Investvine . Archived from the original on March 16, 2014 . Retrieved March 16, 2014 .
  186. Jump up^ Kharpal, Arjun (September 10, 2013). “Filmmakers look to crowdfunding for Snowden movie” . Consumer News and Business Channel . Archived from the original on March 16, 2014 . Retrieved March 16, 2014 .
  187. Jump up^ Kopan, Tal. “Edward Snowden pic coming to DC buses” . Politico . Retrieved March 31, 2014 .
  188. Jump up^ Ly, Sherri. “Metro bus ad thanks NSA leaker Edward Snowden” . Archived from the original on November 26, 2013 . Retrieved March 31, 2014 .
  189. Jump up^ Hughes, Sarah Anne. “More Snowden Bus Ads Coming To DC” . DCist . Retrieved March 31, 2014 .
  190. Jump up^ “Yes, Already: Two video games about Edward Snowden and stealthy data” . NBC News . Archived from the original on July 25, 2015 . Retrieved March 31, 2014 .
  191. Jump up^ Sundby, Alex. “Edward Snowden cast as hero in smartphone game” . CNET . Retrieved March 31, 2014 .
  192. Jump up^ “No Secret: Edward Snowden Gets Own Action Figure” . NBC News . Retrieved March 31, 2014 .
  193. Jump up^ Kooser, Amanda. “Edward Snowden action figures makes for toy whistle-blower” . CNET . Retrieved March 31, 2014 .
  194. Jump up^ Flood, Alison. “Edward Snowden gets his own graphic biography” . The Guardian . Retrieved May 20, 2014 .
  195. Jump up^ Feeney, Nolan (May 19, 2014). “Edward Snowden, Comic Book Hero” . TIME . Retrieved May 20, 2014 .
  196. Jump up^ Walker, Shaun. “Oliver Stone to make movie based on fictionalised life of Edward Snowden” . The Guardian . Retrieved June 11, 2014 .
  197. Jump up^ Mesley, Wendy (September 11, 2016). Oliver Stone on Edward Snowden and privacy rights . The National . CBC News .
  198. Jump up^ “Citizenfour film” . filmlinc.com. September 10, 2014 . Retrieved January 2, 2014 .
  199. Jump up^ “Snowden Documentary to Premiere at NY Festival” . ABC News. Associated Press. July 1, 2013 . Retrieved April 11, 2015 .
  200. Jump up^ “Hong Kong cinema spotlight in documentary on Edward Snowden” . South China Morning Post . October 11, 2014.
  201. Jump up^ “Citizenfour (2014): Reviews” . Metacritic . CBS Interactive . Retrieved January 27, 2014 .
  202. Jump up^ “The 87TH Academy Awards” . oscars.org . Retrieved February 22, 2015 .
  203. Jump up^ von Busack, Richard. “Breaking the Internet: Killswitch Screens at Cinequest” . Metro Silicon Valley . Retrieved February 25, 2015 .
  204. Jump up^ “Battle for Internet Control Fuels OC -produced Movie” . Orange County Register . Retrieved April 16, 2015 .
  205. Jump up^ “Killswitch” . International Documentary Film Festival Amsterdam . Retrieved November 18, 2014 .
  206. Jump up^ Petrol, Adam (October 10, 2014). “Exclusive: NDR, DR TV prep” Snowden’s Great Escape ” ” . Real Screen . Brunico Communications . Retrieved October 29, 2014 .
  207. Jump up^ Sharp, Tyler (February 9, 2015). “Rivers Cuomo guests on new Big Data track,” Snowed In ” ” . Alternative Press . Retrieved March 26, 2015 .
  208. Jump up^ Last Week Tonight with John Oliver: Government Surveillance (HBO) . YouTube . April 5, 2015. Event occurs at 15m53s . Retrieved November 20, 2015 .
  209. Jump up^ Greenwald, Glenn (April 6, 2015). “Why john oliver kan not find Americans who know Edward Snowden’s name (it’s not about Snowden)” . Retrieved April 6, 2015 .
  210. Jump up^ Stelter, Brian (April 6, 2015). “John Oliver lands Edward Snowden interview from Russia” . CNN . Retrieved April 6, 2015 .
  211. Jump up^ Yuhas, Alan (April 6, 2015). “Busted: Edward Snowden statue prompts cover-up at Brooklyn Park” . The Guardian . Retrieved April 6, 2015 .
  212. Jump up^ Sifferlin, Alexandra (April 6, 2015). “New York City Takes Down Edward Snowden Statue erected At Guerilla Artists” . Time . Retrieved April 6, 2015 .
  213. Jump up^ Ries, Brian (April 7, 2015). “Hologram Replaces Edward Snowden statue in Brooklyn Park” . Mashable . Retrieved April 7, 2015 .
  214. Jump up^ Fishbein, Rebecca; Depew, Kyle, Photographer (April 7, 2015). “Illicit Edward Snowden Statue Replaced By Illicit Edward Snowden Hologram” . Gothamist . Retrieved April 9, 2015 .
  215. Jump up^ Sanders, Sam (April 7, 2015). “An Edward Snowden Statue Was Replaced By A Hovering Snowden Image Last Night” . National Public Radio . Retrieved April 8, 2015 .
  216. Jump up^ “Artists who displayed Edward Snowden statue in New York park escape charges” . The Guardian . Associated Press . May 6, 2015.
  217. Jump up^ Mullin, Joe. “Ed Snowden joins Twitter, follows only the NSA” . Ars Technica . Retrieved October 5, 2015 .
  218. Jump up^ Haq Husna. “Edward Snowden just joined Twitter. He’s Already customizing a stir (+ video)” . Christian Science Monitor . Retrieved October 2, 2015 .
  219. Jump up^ “Edward Snowden hooked up with a French electronics artist to cut a track about Cybersecurity” . Quartz . Retrieved March 16, 2016 .
  220. Jump up^ Montemarano, Mike. ” ‘ Blood on the Sand: A Conversation With Thrice” . Baeble Music . Retrieved April 25, 2016 .