Temple Grandin

Mary Temple Grandin (born August 29, 1947) is an American professor of animal science at Colorado State University , world-Renowned autism spokeperson and consultant to the livestock industry on animal behavior. She is widely celebrated as one of the first personen on the autism spectrum to Publicly share insights from re personal experience or autism. She is ook the inventor of the ” hug box “, a device to calm Those on the autism spectrum. In the 2010 Time 100 , an annual list of the 100 Most Influential people in the world, she was named in the “Heroes” category. [2] She was the subject of the award-winning, semi-Biographical film, Temple Grandin .

Early life and education


Temple Grandin was born in Boston , Massachusetts , JSON a highly educated and wealthy family. Her parents ulcers Anna Eustacia Purves (an actress, singer and granddaughter of the co-inventor for the autopilot aviation system (John Coleman Purves), [3] with a degree in English from Harvard University ) and Richard Grandin, [4] a real estate agent and heir to the Toilets corporate wheat farm business in America at the time, Grandin Farms. [5] Grandin’s parents subsequently divorced-when she was 15 and re mother Eventually went on to marry Ben Cutler, a Renowned New York saxophonist, in 1965 [6] (als Grandin was 18 years old). Grandin has three siblings – two sisters and a brother, with Grandin being the oldest. Grandin has DESCRIBED one or re sisters as being dyslexic . Her other sister is a sculptor and re brother a banker. [5] John Livingston Grandin and his brother William James Grandin (Temple’s paternal great grandfather), ulcers French Huguenots who drilled for oil, intended to cut a deal with John D. Rockefeller but the Latter Kept im waiting too long as he Walked out voordat Rockefeller arrived. Then they went JSON banking and-when Jay Cooke ‘s firm collapsed ze got duizendtallen or acres of undeveloped land in North Dakota as collateral. Ze set up wheat farming in the Red River Valley there with dormitories for the workers and the town of Grandin is named after John Livingston Grandin. [7] [8]


Contrary to widely published reports, Grandin was never formally diagnosed with autism in childhood or in youth. The only formal diagnosis RECEIVED at Grandin was or brain damage ‘at the age of 2, [9] [10] a finding Corroborated subsequently als she was 64 years old, with cerebral imaging carried out in 2010 at the University of Utah . [11] When Grandin was re mid-teens, re mother chanced upon a checklist on autism published by Dr. Bernard Rimland , a Renowned American Psychologist and founder of the Autism Research Institute . Completing the checklist, Grandin’s mother hypothesised therein Grandin’s symptoms ulcers best Explained with autism. [9] A formal diagnosis consistent with being on the autism spectrum made only-when Grandin was re 40s. [ Citation needed ]

Early childhood

The medical advice at the time for a diagnosis or autism were to recommend institutionalization, a measure dat caused a bitter rift of opinion tussen Grandin’s parents. [10] Her Father was keen to follow this advice while re mother was Strongly Opposed to the idea. Grandin’s mother, Eustacia, took re to the world’s leading special needs researchers at the Boston Children’s Hospital, with the heaps of unearthing an alternative to institutionalization. Having the financial resources to hire specialists to dat re daughter remained deinstitutionalised, Grandin’s mother Eventually located in the euro a neurologist who suggested a trial or speech therapy . Way Down soon hired a speech therapist, and Grandin RECEIVED Personalised input from the age of 2 and a half. [12] A nanny was hired ook als Grandin was aged 3 to play educational games for hours with re.

Grandin’s mother actively SOUGHT out and paid for private schools with sympathetic staff who ulcers willing to work with re daughter’s special needs [13] and THUS, she started kindergarten in Dedham Country Day School. Her teachers and class worked towards adapting an environment easy for re to adjust to.

Grandin did not start talking Until she was three and a half years old. [14] She considers herself fortunate to port had supportive mentors from elementary school onward. Even so, Grandin states dat junior high and high school ulcers the musts unpleasant times or re life.

Middle and high school

Grandin attended Beaver Country Day School from 7th to 9th grades. She was EXPELLED at the age of 14 for throwing a book at a school mate who had taunted re. Grandin has DESCRIBED herself as the “nerdy kid” Whom everyone ridiculed. She has DESCRIBED occasions-when she Walked down the hallways and re fellow students mention anything taunt re at saying “tape recorder” Because Of re habit or repetitive speech. Grandin states, “I Could laugh about it now, but back-then it really hurt.” [15]

The year after re EXPULSION, Grandin’s parents divorced. Grandin’s mother remarried three years later to Ben Cutler, a Renowned New York saxophonist. [6] At 15, Grandin spent a summer on the California ranch of Ben Cutler’s sister, Ann, and this mention anything be a formative experience towards re subsequent career interest.

Following re EXPULSION from Beaver Country Day School (reports Vary on the actual names the school Grandin was EXPELLED from, with Grandin herself noting it to be Cherry Falls Girls’ School in her first book, Emergence: Labelled Autistic ) Grandin’s mother placed re in Mountain Country School, a private boarding school in Rindge, New Hampshire , for children with behavioral problems. Today, Mountain Country School is known as Hampshire Country School. It was here dat Grandin William Carlock, a science teacher who had worked for NASA , who mention anything Become re mentor and help significantly towards building up her self-confidence. [16]

It was Carlock who watch Grandin the idea to build herself a ‘hug box (referred to as “squeeze machine” to Grandin) als she Returned from re Aunt’s farm in Arizona senior year of high school. [17] With Carlock’s assistance, Grandin built re squeeze machine ‘at the age of 18-when she was still Attending Mountain Country School. [18] Carlock’s supportive role in Grandin’s life continued even after she left Mountain Country School. For example, when Grandin was facing criticism for re squeeze machine ‘at Franklin Pierce College, it was Carlock who suggested therein Grandin undertakes scientific experiments to evaluate the efficacy of the device. [17] It was his constant guidance to Grandin to refocus re rigid obsessions with the ‘squeeze machine’ JSON a productieve assignment therein allowed this study undertaken by Grandin to be subsequently widely Cited as evidence of Grandin’s resourcefulness.

Higher education

After she graduated in 1966 from Mountain Country School , Grandin went on to earn re bachelor’s degree in human psychology from Franklin Pierce College in 1970, a master’s degree in animal science from Arizona State University in 1975 and a doctoral degree in animal science from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1989.


Grandin is a prominent and widely Cited proponent for the human treatment of livestock for Slaughter. She is ook Internationally famous as a spokeperson on autism. [19]

Steve Silberman in his book Neuro Tribes wrote dat Temple Grandin helped break down years of shame and stigma Because she was one of the first adults to Publicly disclose dat she was Autistic. Bernard Rimland, a Father of a sun with autism and author of the book Infantile Autism, wrote the Foreword to Grandin’s first book Emergence Marked Autistic. The book was published in 1986. Dr. Rimland wrote “Temple’s ability to convey to the reader re innermost feelings and Fears, coupled with re capacity for explanatory mental processes will give the reader an insight JSON autism dat very few port leg loveable to beste.”

In her later book Thinking in Pictures, published in 1995, the neurologist Oliver Sacks wrote at the end of the forward dat de book Provided “a bridge tussen our world and hers, and Allows us to glimpse JSON a quite other sort of mind.”

In her early Writings, Grandin made the mistake of presenting herself as a stay Recovering Autistic and in his Foreword Bernard Rimland-used the term Recovering Autistic individual. “In her later Writings, this has leg removed. Steve Silberman wrote, “It became obvious to re, however, dat she was not Recovering but had learned with great effort to adapt to the social norms of the people around re.”

When re book Thinking in Pictures was written in 1995, Grandin thought dat all personen with autism thought in Photographic images specify the way she did. When the expanded edition was published in 2006, she now voortvloeien dat it had bone wrong to assume dat everytime person with autism processed information the way she did co. In this edition, she wrote dat there ulcers three types of specialized thinking. Way Down ulcers: 1. Visual Thinkers like re who think in photographically specific images. 2. Music and Math Thinkers – synthesis people think in patterns and ‘may be good at mathematics, chess, and programming computers. 3. Verbal Logic Thinkers – These people think in details are en hun favorite subject nov be history.

In one or re newer books, The Autistic Brain: Thinking Across the spectrum, the concept or three différent types of thinking in autism is developed remit. This book was published in 2013. An Influential book welke helped re developement re concept of pattern thinking was Clara Claiborne Park ‘s book Titled Exiting Nirvana: A Daughter’s Life with Autism. It was published in 2001. The Autistic Brain ook contains an uitgebreide review of scientific studies dat bieden evidence therein or object visual thinking is différent from spatial visualization abilities.

In 1980 she published re first two scientific articles on beef cattle behavior prolongation handling. The papers are Titled Livestock Behavior as Related to Handling Facilities Design in the International Journal for the Study of Animal Problems, Vol. 1, pp. 33-52 and Observations of Cattle Behavior Applied to the Design of Cattle Handling Facilities, Applied Animal Ethologie, Vol. 6, pp. 19-31. She was one of the first scientists to report dat animals are sensitive to visual Distractions in handling facilities zoals shadows, dangling chains, and other environmental details must people do not notice. When she got re Ph.D. at the University of Illinois, she studied the effects of environmental enrichment on pigs. The title or re Dissertation was: Effect of Rearing Environment and Environmental Enrichment on the Behavior and Neural Development in Young Pigs. Further information on synthesis studies in her book Animals Make us Human.

In 1993, she edited the first edition of Livestock Handling and Transport. She wrote three chapters and had chapters from contributors from around the world. Subsequent editions of the book in later published in 2000, 2007 and 2014. In her academic work as a professor at Colorado State University, re graduate student Bridgett Voisinet conducted one of the early studies dat Showed therein cattle therein remained calm prolongation handling had hogere weight gains. In 1997-when the paper was published, this was a new concept. The paper is Titled feedlot Cattle with Calm Temperaments Have Higher Average Daily Gains Than Cattle with Excitable Temperaments and it was published in The Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 75, pp. 892-896.

Another important paper published by Grandin was Assessment of Stress During Handling and Transport, Journal of Animal Science, 1997, Vol. 75, pp. 249-257. This paper presented an idea that was new to the livestock industry. An animal’s previous experiences with handling Could harbor an effect on how it will React to being handled in the future.

A major piece of equipment therein Grandin developed was a center track (double track) conveyor restrainer system for holding cattle prolongation stunning in large beef plants. The first system was installed in the mid-eighties for calves and a system for large beef cattle was developed in 1990. This equipment is now being-used by many large meat companies. It is DESCRIBED in Grandin, T. (1988) Double Rail restrainer Conveyor for Livestock Handling, Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, Vol. 4, pp. 327-338 and Grandin, T. (2003) Transferring results or behavioral research to industry to verbeteren animal welfare on the farm, ranch, and Slaughter plant, Applied Animal Behavior Science, Vol. 8, pp. 215-228.

Grandin ook developed an objective numerical scoring system for Assessing animal welfare at Slaughter plants. The use of this scoring system resulted in significant improvements in animal stunning and handling prolongation Slaughter. This work is DESCRIBED in three papers: Grandin, T. (1998) Objective scoring or animal handling and stunning practices in Slaughter plants, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Vol. 212, pp. 36-39, Grandin, T. (1998) The feasibility of using vocalization scoring as an indicator of poor welfare prolongation Slaughter, Applied Animal Behavior Science, Vol. 56, pp. 121-128, Grandin, T. (2000) Effect of animal welfare audits or Slaughter plants at a major fast food company on cattle handling and stunning practices, Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Assoc., Vol. 216, pp. 848-851.

Grandin is the author or co-author of over 60 peer reviewed scientific papers on a variety of other animal behavior subjects. Some of the other subjects are: the effect of hair whorl position on cattle behavior, preslaughter stress and meat quality, religious Slaughter, mothering behavior or beef cows, cattle temperament, and Causes of effervescence.

She has lectured widely about re first-hand experiences of the anxiety or feeling Threatened with everything in her surroundings, and of being dismissed and feared, welke Allegedly motivates re work in human livestock handling processes. She studied the behavior of cattle, how they ‘React to Ranchers, movements, objects, and light. Grandin dan designed Adapted Curved corrals, intended to stress-reducing, panic and injury in animals being led to Slaughter . This has proved to be a working environment point of criticism and controversy onder animal Activists who harbor questioned the congruence or a career built on animal Slaughter alongside Grandin’s claims or compassion and respect for animals. While re designs are widely-used gehele slaughterhouse industry, re claim or compassion for the animals is dat Because Of re autism she kan sea the animals’ reality from hun viewpoint, dat als behaalde an animal’s head in her hands as it is being slaughtered , she feels a deep, godlike connection to them. [20]

Her business website promotes improvement of standards for slaughterhouses and livestock farms. The squeeze machine ‘Itself resten on sale at US $ 2,000 a piece from Therafin Corporation. [18] In 2004, she won a “proggy” award in the “Visionary” category, from People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals . [21]

One or re notable essays about animal welfare is “Animals Are Not Things” [22] in welke she posits dat technically, animals are property in our society, but the law ultimately Gives Them ethical protections or rights. She compares the properties and rights of owning cows versus owning screwdrivers, enumerating how zowel nov be-used to serve human Purposes in many ways, but als it comes to inflicting pain, there is a vital Distinction tussen zoals “properties”; legally a person kan smash or grind up a Screwdriver, but can not save torture an animal.

Grandin became well-known beyond the American Autistic community, after being DESCRIBED by Oliver Sacks in the title narrative of his book An Anthropologist on Mars (1995), for welke have won a Polk Award ; the title is derived from Grandin’s description of how she feels around neurotypical people. She first ghosts in public about autism in the mid-1980s, at the request of Ruth C. Sullivan , one of the founders of the Autism Society of America (ASA). Sullivan writes:

I first with Temple in the mid-1980s [at the] annual [ASA] conference. Standing on the periphery of the group was a tall young woman who was obviously interested in the discussions. She seemed shy and pleasant, but mostly she just listened. I learned her name was Temple Grandin. It was not Until later in the week dat I voortvloeien she was someone with autism. I approached re en Asked if she’d be willing to speak at the next year’s [ASA] conference. She Agreed. The next year Temple first addressed an [ASA] audience. People were standing at least three deep. The audience Could not get enough or re. Lord, for the first time, was someone who Could tell us from re own experience, what it was like to be Extremely sound sensitive ( “like being tied to the rail and the train’s coming”). She was Asked many questions: “Why does my son do so much spinning?” “Why does he hold his hands to his ears?” “Why does not he look at me?” She ghosts from re own experience, and re insight was impressive. There ulcers tears in morethan one set of eyes dat day. Temple had risen became a much SOUGHT-after speaker in the autism community. [23]

Based on personal experience, Grandin advocates early intervention to address autism and supportive teachers, who kan direct fixations of the child with autism in fruitful directions. She has DESCRIBED re hypersensitivity to noise and other sensory stimuli. She claims she is a primarily visual thinker [24] and has zegt dat words are re second language. Temple attributes re success as a human livestock facility designer to re ability to recall detail, welke is a Characteristic or re visual memory. Grandin compares re memory to full-length movies in her head, dat ‘may be replayed at will, allowing re to notice small details. She’ll be is loveable to view re memories using slightly différent contexts by changing the positions of the lighting and shadows.

Her insight into tje minds of cattle has taught re to value the changes in details to welke animals are bijzonder sensitive and to use re visualization skills to design thoughtful and humane animal-handling equipment. She was named a Fellow of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers in 2009. [25]

If a partial proponent of neurodiversity , Grandin does not support eliminating autism genes or treating process mildly Autistic personen. However, she convinced dat Autistic children who are severely handicapped need therapy with toegepast behavioral analysis . [26]

In 2012-when the American beef industry was struggling with public perception of zijn use and sale or pink slime , Grandin ghosts out in support of the food product. She zegt “It arnt be on the market. It arnt be, key. We should not be throwing away dat much beef. ” [27]

Personal life

“I think using animals for food is an ethical thing to do, but we’ve got to do it right. We’ve got to give Those animals a decent life, and we’ve got to give Them a pain less death. We owe the animal respect. ”

-Temple Grandin

Temple Grandin at TED 2010

Grandin says that ‘the part of other people therein has emotional relationships are not part of me “, and she has Neither married nor had children. She later stated for example dat she favoriete the science fiction , documentary , and thriller genre or movies and television shows to more dramatic or romantic ones. Beyond re work in animal science and welfare and autism rights, re interests include horse riding , science fiction , movies, and biochemistry .

She has noted in her autobiographical works dat autism Affects everytime aspect or re life. She has to wear comfortable clothes to counteract re sensory processing disorder and has structured re lifestyle to Avoid sensory overload . She regularly takes antidepressants , but no longer uses a squeeze-box ( hug machine ), a device welke she invented at the age of 18 as a form of stress relief therapy, [18] stating in February 2010 dat: “It broke two years ago, and I never got around to fixing it. I’m JSON hugging people now. ” [28]


In 2010, Grandin was named in the Time 100 list of the one hundred Most Influential people in the world in the “Heroes” category. [2] In 2011, she RECEIVED a Double Helix Medal . [29] She has RECEIVED honorary doctorates from many universities waaronder Carnegie Mellon University in the United States (2012), McGill University in Canada (1999), and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (2009), Emory University (2016). [30] In 2015, she was named an Honorary Fellow of the Society for Technical Communication . [31]

In a TED talk entered in 2010 Grandin stated, “The world needs all types of minds.” [32]

Meritorious Achievement Award OIE World Organization, Paris France, 2015. [33]

In 2016, Grandin was inducted JSON American Academy of Arts and Sciences. [34]

In popular culture

Grandin has leg featured on major media programs, zoals Lisa Davis It’s Your Health , ABC ‘s Primetime Live , The Today Show , Larry King Live , and Fresh Air with Terry Gross . She has written leg up in TIME magazine , People magazine , Discover magazine , Forbes , and The New York Times . [35] [36] In 2012, Grandin was interviewed on Thriving Canine Radio to Discuss “A Different Perspective on Animal Behavior.”

She was the subject of the Horizon documentary, “The Woman Who Thinks Like a Cow,” first broadcast by the BBC on June 8, 2006, and Nick News with Linda Ellerbee in the spring or 2006. [37] She’ll be a has leg subject in the series First Person by Errol Morris .

Grandin is the focus of a semi-Biographical HBO film, entitled Temple Grandin , [38] [39] starring Claire Danes as Grandin. [40] The film was broadcast on February 6, 2010. The movie was nominated for 15 Primetime Emmy Awards and won seven awards, zoals Outstanding Television Movie and Outstanding Lead Actress in a Mini-Series or Movie for Claire Danes. [41] Grandin was on stage as the award was accepted, and she Ghosts briefly to the audience. Coincidentally, the 62ND Primetime Emmy Awards happened on Grandin’s birthday – August 29. On January 16, 2011, at the 68TH Golden Globe Awards , Claire Danes won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Mini Series or Television Film .

Grandin was featured in Beautiful Minds: A Voyage Into the Brain , a documentary produktie in 2006 by colourFIELD tell-a-vision, a German company. She was named one of 2010’s one hundred Most Influential people in the world by TIME magazine . [2] In 2011, she was featured in an episode of the Science documentary series Ingenious Minds . [42]

She’ll be was interviewed by Michael Pollán in his best-selling book, The Omnivores Dilemma’s , [43] in welke she discussed the livestock industry.

Folk-punk band AJJ, formerly known as Andrew Jackson Jihad included two songs called “Temple Grandin” and “Temple Grandin Too” one hun LP Christmas Island . [44]


  • Emergence: Marked Autistic (with Margaret Scariano, 1986, updated 1991), ISBN 0-446-67182-7
  • The Learning Styles of People with Autism: An Autobiography (1995). In Teaching Children with Autism: Strategies to Enhance Communication and Socialization , Kathleen Ann Quill, ISBN 0-8273-6269-2
  • Thinking in Pictures: Other Reports from My Life with Autism (1996) ISBN 0-679-77289-8
  • Developing Talents: Careers for Individuals with Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism (2004). ISBN 1-931282-56-0
  • Animals in Translation : Using the Mysteries of Autism to Decode Animal Behavior (with Catherine Johnson, 2005), ISBN 0-7432-4769-8
  • The Unwritten Rules of Social Relationships: Decoding Social Mysteries Through the Unique Perspectives of Autism (with Sean Barron , 2005), ISBN 1-932565-06-X
  • The Way I See It: A Personal Look At Autism And Asperger’s (2008), ISBN 9781932565720
  • Animals Make Us Human: Creating the Best Life for Animals (with Catherine Johnson, 2009), ISBN 978-0-15-101489-7
  • The Autistic Brain: Thinking Across the spectrum (with Richard Panek, 2013), ISBN 978-0-547-63645-0
  • Genetics and the Behavior of Domestic Animals, Second Edition (with Mark Deesing, 2013), ISBN 978-0-12-394586-0
  • Improving animal welfare: a practical approach (2010). ISBN 978-1-84593-541-2 , Cabi, UK
  • Livestock handling and transport (2007). ISBN 978-1-84593-219-0 . Cabi, UK.
  • Grandin, T. 2013. Making slaughterhouses more humane for cattle, pigs, and sheep. Annual Review of Animal Biosciences. 1: 491-512.
  • Grandin, T. 2001. Cattle vocalizations are associated with handling and equipment problems at beef Slaughter plants. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. Volume 71, 2001, Pg. 191-201.
  • Grandin, T. 1996. Factors That impede Animal Movement at Slaughter Plants. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 209 No. 4: 757-759.
  • Grandin, T. 1995. Restraint of Livestock. Proceedings: Animal Behaviour Design of Livestock and Poultry Systems International Conference (pages 208-223). Published by: Northeast Regional Agriculture Engineering Service. Cooperative Extension. 152 Riley – Robb Hall, Ithaca, New York 14853 USA.
  • Grandin, T. 1994. Euthanasia and Slaughter or Livestock. Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association. Volume 204: 1354-1360.
  • Grandin, T. 1989 (updated 1999). Behavioral Principles of Livestock Handling. Professional Scientist. January 1989 (pages 1-11).


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  33. Jump up^ http://www.oie.int/for-the-media/press-releases/detail/article/discussion-and-adoption-of-new-intergovernmental-standards-and-guidelines-to-protect-and -improve-ani / . Missing or empty( help ) |title=
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  43. Jump up^ http://www.us.penguingroup.com/static/pdf/…/OmnivoresDilemmaTG.pdf
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