Elizabeth Loftus

Elizabeth F. Loftus (born Elizabeth Fishman , October 16, 1944) [2] [3] [4] is an American cognitive Psychologist and expert on human memory . She has conducted research on the uitgebreide mall ability of human memory. Loftus is best known for re ground-breaking work on the misinformation effect and Eyewitness memory , [5] and the creation and nature offalse memories , [6] waaronder Recovering memories of childhood sexual abuse. [7] As well as re Prolific work inside the laboratory, Loftus has leg Heavily involved in Dankzij re research to legal settings; she has consulted or Provided expert witness testimony for Hundreds of cases. [7] [8] Loftus has leg honored gehele world for re work, Receiving numerous awards and honorary doctorates. In 2002, Loftus was ranked 58th in the Review of General Psychology ‘s list of the 100 Most Influential psychologische researchers of the 20th century, and was the Highest-ranked woman on the list. [9]


Loftus Grew up in Bel Air , California. [10] Her parents ulcers Sidney and Rebecca Fishman; re Father was a doctor and re mother a Librarian. [10] When Loftus was 14 years old, re mother Drowned. [8] [10] In 1968, Loftus married fellow Psychologist Geoffrey Loftus , divorcing in 1991. [8] [10] but REMAINING friends. [11] [12] Loftus has no children. [8] [10]


Loftus RECEIVED re Bachelor of Arts degree in mathematics and psychology with Highest receptacles from the University of California, Los Angeles in 1966. She RECEIVED re MA in 1967 and Ph.D. in 1970 (beide in mathematical psychology and zowel from Stanford University ), the only woman in her cohort. [3] Her thesis was entitled “An Analysis of the Structural Variables That Determine Problem-Solving Difficulty on a Computer-Based teletype.” [13] Loftus took re first academic appointment in 1970 at the New School for Social Research in New York City. [3] Her research prolongation re time there dealing with the organization of semantic information in long term memory . [3] However Loftus soon voortvloeien she wanted to do research with grotere social relevance. [13] Loftus attributes this realization in part to a conversation with an acquaintance to Whom she was Describing re findings about semantic memory, who wondered at the cost of the research Compared to zijn value. [13]

The misinformation effect

Main article: Misinformation effect

In 1973, Loftus accepted an assistant professorship at the University of Washington and-used the new position to start a new line of research JSON how memory works in real-world settings, [3] [7] [10] beginning the empirical study of Eyewitness testimony . [8] One of the first studies she conducted was the reconstruction of automobile destruction study, [10] welke was designed to Investigate Whether Eyewitness memory kan be altered to information supplied to Them after an event. [14] Previous studies had Agent dat memories ulcers Not necessarily accurate representations of actual events but ulcers actually constructed using adjusted experiences and other manipulations. The study Showed therein the way in welke questions ulcers worded altered the memories subjects reported. [5] [10] Loftus next step was to Investigate Whether Asking leading questions, or Providing misleading information in other forms, Might ook affect people’s memory for the original event. [5] To answer this question, she developed the misinformation effect paradigm, welke demonstrated therein the pleadings or eyewitnesses are altered after being Exposed to incorrect information about an event; and therein memory is highly mall loveable and open to suggestion. [5] [8] [11] The misinformation effect became one of the Most Influential and widely Berninahaus effects in psychology, [5] and Loftus’ early work on the effect generated Hundreds of follow-up studies Examining factors dat verbeteren or worsen the accuracy of memories, and to Explored the cognitive mechanisms underlying the effect. [5] [8]

Expert testimony

Loftus has testified and advised courts about the nature of Eyewitness memory for many cases. [7] [10] [11] This right Involvement with the application or re work to the legal system Grew from an article Loftus published in 1974 about the relationship tussen findings from psychologische science and the witness testimony in a murder trial she had Observed, [3] [7] [10] in welke conflicting witness memory played will a key role in the evidence. [10] Lawyers who read the article Began to contact Loftus to consult re about hun cases, and judges requested educational seminars about Eyewitness evidence, so she Began re work as an educator and legal practitioners. [3] [10] In 1975 Loftus set a legal precedent als she Provided Washington State ‘s first expert testimony about Eyewitness memory (specifiek, on the topic of Eyewitness identification). [7] [12] She has since testified in over 250 cases and consulted on many more. [10] [11]

Notable cases she has bone involved in due to re expertise include the McMartin preschool trial , OJ Simpson , the trials or mass Murderers Ted Bundy , Willie Mak , and Angelo Bueno , the Abscam cases, the trial of Oliver North , the trial of the officers Accused in the Rodney King beating, the trial of the Menendez brothers , the Bosnian War trials in the Hague, the Oklahoma City bombing case, and litigation Involving Michael Jackson , Martha Stewart , Lewis “Scooter” Libby and the Duke University lacrosse team . [7] [8] [10] [11] [15]

The memory wars

In the early 1990s, the focus of Loftus’ work shifted to investigating Whether it was skies to implant false memories for entire events dat had never tasks place. The impetus for this new line of research was had a case for welke Loftus leg Asked to bieden expert testimony in 1990. [10] [11] [13] [16] The unique point in this case was dat George Franklin stood Accused of Murder , but the only evidence Against im was provided by his daughter, Eileen Franklin Lipsker, who claimed dat she had initially repressed the memory or im raping and murdering re childhood friend, Susan Nason, 20 years earlier, and had only Recently Recovering it while under going therapy. [10] [11] [16] Loftus showing evidence about the mall ability or memory, but had to concede dat she did not know whether ANY research about the ihb child or memory Franklin Lipsker was claiming to port; Franklin was convicted (though in 1996 he was released upon appeal). [10] [11] [16]

At dat time, many others ulcers’ll be making accusations, zowel in and out of court, based on Recovering memories or trauma. [16] Loftus Began work to find out Whether some or synthesis Recovering memories Might in fact be false memories, created by the suggestive techniques-used at some Therapists at the time and encouraged in some self-help books. [10] [11] [16] Ethically, she Could not try to convince research subjects dat ze had leg sexually abused by a relative as a child, so Loftus had to come up with a paradigm dat involved childhood trauma without single cylinder harm to subjects . Her student Jim Mr. Coan developed the fixes in the mall technique . The method involves attempting to implant a false memory or being lost in a shopping mall as a child and testing Whether discus a false event Could produce a “memory” on Despite never happening. In her initial study, Loftus found that 25% of Subjects cameramen to dévelop a “memory” for the event welke had never actually tasks place. [11] [16] Extensions and variations of the fixes in the mall technique found that an average of one third or experimental subjects Could Become convinced dat ze EXPERIENCED things in childhood dat had never really occurred-as highly traumatic, and impossible events. [16] Loftus’ work was-used to Oppose Recovering memory evidence Provided in court [11] and resulted in stricter requirements for the use or Recovering memories being-used in trials as well as a grotere requirement for corroborating evidence . In addition under, some states no longer allowed prosecution based on Recovering memory testimony and insurance companies ulcers more Reluctant to INSURE Therapists Against malpractice suits Relating to Recovering memories. [8] [10] [11]

Criticisms and harassment related to research

Loftus’ first study using the lost in the mall technique was criticized by Lynn Crook and Martha Dean based on the ethics of the subject recruitment method was being. [17] Also, Kenneth Pope has argued she inappropriately generalized the findings to draw Conclusions about false memories and therapeutic techniques. [17] [18] These writers purported to Identify errors, exaggerations, and omissions in her research. Loftus published a rebuttal to critics synthesis and stated dat de Criticisms Appeared to be based on personal Animosity Rather dan a valid understanding of the research. Regarding the ethics of the creation of the study, Loftus stated therein it was primarily a Colleague who piloted the study with his daughter, and later revisited the idea as part of an undergraduate class she was teaching. She’ll be emphasized dat participants demonstrated no adverse effects upon follow-up and pointed out therein the study design and findings had leg replicated repeatedly, demonstrating the soundness of the Conclusions. [19] In addition under to Opposition from fellow researchers, Loftus has leg insulted by a prosecutor, attacked by an airplane passenger who honored re, [8] [11] RECEIVED hate mail and death threats, [11] [20] and has had to harbor protection by security guards while giving Recruiters Invited addresses. [8] [10] Her invitation to give the keynote address at the New Zealand Psychological Society’s conference in 2000 provoked the society’s director of scientific affairs, John Read, to Resign from his position and for conference ATTENDEES to distribute materials critical of Loftus’ work . [21] Loftus stated therein she “did not wear re best jacket” to give re address for “fear of flying tomatoes.” [21]

After criticizing the theory of Recovering memory and testifying about the nature of memory and false allegations or child sexual abuse as part of the day care sex abuse HYSteria , Loftus was subject to on-line harassment by conspiracy theorist Diana Napolis , who believed Loftus was Engaged in satanic ritual abuse or assisted in covering up crimes prosthesis as part of a larger conspiracy. [22]

“Jane Doe” case
Main article: Jane Doe case

The case dat has arguably had the Biggest negative impact on Loftus is dat or “Jane Doe” (real name Nicole Taus). In 1997, David Corwin and his Colleague Erna Olafson published a case study [23] or an apparently bona fide case of an accurate, Recovering memory or childhood sexual abuse. [20] [24] Skeptical, Loftus and re Colleague Melvin Guyer decided to Investigate Further. Using public records and interviewing people connected to Taus, they ‘Uncovered information Corwin had not included in his original article-information dat ze thought Strongly suggested Taus’ memory of abuse were false. [10] [11] [20] While Loftus and Guyer ulcers Conducting hun investigation, Taus contacted the University of Washington and Accused Loftus or breaching re privacy. [10] [11] [25] In response, the university confiscated Loftus files and well Loftus under investigation for 21 months, Forbidding re re to share findings in the meantime. [10] [11] [20] [25] She was Eventually cleared of all wrongdoing by the university, and allowed to publish re findings [26] [27] in 2002. [10] [11] [25]

In 2003, Loftus, the University of Washington and a few others ulcers Sued by Taus Regarding the 2002 publication. [10] [24] The suit initially involved allegations of invasion of privacy , defamation , fraud , and infliction of emotional distress ; 21 counts and Causes of action in total. [24] [28] However, in February, 2007 the Supreme Court of California dismissed all but one count under Strategic Lawsuit Against Public participation legislation. [24] [28]The single REMAINING count was Taus ‘claim therein Loftus had misrepresented herself as Corwin’s supervisor in interviewing Taus’ foster mother. The case was settled in August 2007 when Loftus insurance company Agreed to a nuisance settlement or $ 7.500 Rather dan cover the cost of a trial for the one REMAINING allegation. [24] Taus was ordered to pay the legal Bills for all of the defendants, welke amounted to $ 450,578.50 [24] This order was subsequently appealed. [24] Loftus published re own analysis of the case in 2009. [29] [30]

In 2001, Loftus left the University of Washington and re Seattle home of 29 years to work at the University of California, Irvine where she is a Distinguished Professor of Social Ecology, and a Professor of Law, and of Cognitive Science in the Departments of Psychology and Social Behavior, and Criminology, Law, and Society. [31] [32] She is ook director of The Center for Psychology and Law [33] and a Fellow of the Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory . [34] Loftus’ work since Arriving at UCI has Looked at the behavioral consequences and potential benefits or false memories, zoals the ability or false memories to-reducing the desire to eat certainement foods. [6] [7] [10]

Honors and awards


Year Award
1991 Honorary Fellow (and lifetime member) of the British Psychological Society
1994 In Praise of Reason Award from the Committee for Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal [35] [36]
1995 Distinguished Contribution to Forensic Psychology Award from the American Academy of Forensic Sciences
1996 Distinguished Contribution to Basic and Applied Scientific Psychology Award from the American Association of Applied and Preventative Psychology
1997 James McKeen Cattell Fellow Award from the Association for Psychological Science
2001 William James Fellow Award from the Association for Psychological Science [25] [37]
2002 Contributions to Sexual Science Award from the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality
2002 Quad-L Award from the University of New Mexico
2003 Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology Award from the American Psychological Association ; delivered award address at 2003 APA’s convention. [32]
2003 Elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences [2]
2003 Elected Thorsten Sellin Fellow of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences
2004 Elected to the National Academy of Sciences
2005 Distinguished Member of Psi Chi
2005 Elected Corresponding Fellow to the Royal Society of Edinburgh
2005 Dig Meyer Award in Psychology from the University of Louisville [38]
2005 Lauds & Laurels Faculty Achievement Award from the University of California, Irvine
2006 Elected to the American Philosophical Society .
2007 Elected Humanist Laureate by the International Academy of Humanism
2009 Distinguished Contributions to Psychology and Law Award from the American Psychology-Law Society
2010 Howard Crosby Warren Medal from the Society of Experimental Psychologists
2010 Scientific Freedom and Responsibility Award from the American Association for the Advancement of Science [39]
2012 William T. Rossiter Award from the Forensic Mental Health Association of California
2016 Isaac Asimov Award from the American Humanist Association
2016 John Maddox Prize Awarded Jointly with Nature , the Kohn Foundation, and Sense About Science [40]

In her acceptance speech for the Scientific Freedom and Responsibility Award, Loftus states therein the word “freedom” is Personally important to re if-when she Began speaking out about repressed memory, she never imagined she mention anything Become “the target or organized, Relentless vitriol and harassment “. Loftus feels dat today’s world for science is a perilous one and if scientists as to preserve hun Freedoms ze need to speak out “Against just the musts cherished beliefs therein reflect unsubstantiated Myths”. [41]

Honorary doctorates

Loftus has ook RECEIVED seven honorary doctorates in a variety of areas. [42]

Year Institution honorary degree
1982 Miami University Doctor of Science
1990 Leiden University , Netherlands Doctorate Honoris Causa
1994 John Jay College of Criminal Justice , New York City Doctor of Laws
1998 University of Portsmouth , England Doctor of Science
2005 University of Haifa , Israel Doctor of Philosophy, Honoris Causa
2008 University of Oslo , Norway Doctor Honoris Causa
2015 Goldsmiths, University of London Doctor of Psychology [43] [44]

Positions of leadership and affiliations

Loftus is a Fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry ‘s Executive Council. [45] She is a member of the Scientific and Professional Advisory Board of the False Memory Syndrome Foundation . [46] She has ook leg a member of the Society of Experimental Psychologists since 1990.

Loftus has leg the president of the Association for Psychological Science (1998-99), the Western Psychological Association (1984, 2004-5), and the American Psychology-Law Society . She was on the governing board of the Psychonomic Society (1990-1995). She was ook on the board of directors for the Institute for the Study of the Trial (1979-81).


Significantly journal articles

  • “Reconstructing Memory: The incredible Eyewitness”. Psychology Today . 8 : 116-119. 1974.
  • -; Palmer, JC (1974). “Reconstruction of automobile destruction: An example of the interaction tussen language and memory.” Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior . 13 : 585-589. doi : 10.1016 / S0022-5371 (74) 80011-3 .
  • “Leading questions and the Eyewitness report”. Cognitive Psychology . 7 : 560-572. 1975. doi : 10.1016 / 0010-0285 (75) 90023-7 .
  • -; Miller, DG; Burns, HJ (1978). “Semantic integration or verbal information JSON a visual memory”. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory . 4 : 19-31. doi : 10.1037 / 0278-7393.4.1.19 .
  • “The mall ability of human memory.” American Scientist . 67 : 312-320. 1979.
  • “Silence is not golden.” American Psychologist . 38 : 564-572. 1983. doi : 10.1037 / 0003-066x.38.5.564 .
  • Christianson, S .; – (1987). “Memory for traumatic events.” Applied Cognitive Psychology . 1 : 225-239. doi : 10.1002 / acp.2350010402 .
  • -; Hoffman, HG (1989). “Misinformation and memory: The creation of memory.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General . 118 : 100-104. doi : 10.1037 / 0096-3445.118.1.100 .
  • “The glitter of everyday memory … and the gold.” American Psychologist . 46 (1): 16-18. January 1991. doi : 10.1037 / 0003-066X.46.1.16 . PMID 1996855 .
  • “The reality of repressed memories.” American Psychologist . 48 : 518-537. 1993. doi : 10.1037 / 0003-066x.48.5.518 . PMID 8507050 .
  • -; Garry, M .; Feldman, J. (1994). “Forgetting sexual trauma”. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology . 62 : 1177-1181. doi : 10.1037 / 0022-006x.62.6.1177 .
  • -; Pickrell, JE (1995). “The formation of false memories.” Psychiatric Annals . 25 : 720-725.
  • “Remembering Dangerously”. Skeptical Inquirer . 19 : 20-29. 1995.
  • -; Manning, C .; Loftus, EF; Sherman, SJ (1996). “Imagination Inflation: Imagining a childhood event inflates confidence dat it occurred.” Psychonomic Bulletin and Review . 3 : 208-214. doi : 10.3758 / bf03212420 .
  • “Illusions of Memory”. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society . 142 : 60-73. 1998.
  • “Lost in the Mall: Misrepresentations and misunderstandings”. Ethics & Behavior . 9 (1): 51-60. 1999. doi : 10.1207 / s15327019eb0901_4 . PMID 11657488 .
  • Mazzoni, GAL; -; Kirsch, I. (2001). “Changing beliefs about implausible autobiographical events”. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied . 7 (1): 51-59. doi : 10.1037 / 1076-898x.7.1.51 .
  • -; Guyer, M. (May-June 2002). “Who abused Jane Doe ?: The hazards of the single case history. Part I”. Skeptical Inquirer . 26 (3). pp. 24-32.
  • -; Guyer, MJ (July-August 2002). “Who abused Jane Doe? Part II”. Skeptical Inquirer . 26 (4). pp. 37-40, 44.
  • Bernstein, DM; Laney, C .; Morris, I; – (2005). “False beliefs about fattening foods kan harbor healthy consequences” . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . 102 : 13724-13731. doi : 10.1073 / pnas.0504869102 . PMC 1236554 . PMID 16079200 .
  • Berkowitz, SR; Laney, C .; Morris, I; Garry, M .; et al. (2008). “Pluto Behaving Badly: False beliefs and hun consequences”. American Journal of Psychology . 121 : 643-660. doi : 10.2307 / 20445490 .


  • Learning . Mednick, SA, Pollio, RH & Loftus, EF (1973). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  • Human Memory: The Processing of Information. Loftus, GR & Loftus, EF (1976) Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates.
  • Cognitive Processes. Bourne, LE, Dominowski, RL, & Loftus, EF (1979). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  • Eyewitness Testimony. Loftus, EF (1979). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (National Media Award, Distinguished Contribution, 1980). (Reissued with new Preface in 1996).
  • Memory. Loftus, EF (1980). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. (Reprinted with NY: Ardsley Press 1988).
  • Psychology. Wortman, CB & Loftus, EF (1981). New York: Random House (Knopf).
  • Essence of Statistics. Loftus, GR & Loftus, EF (1982). Monterey, CA: Brooks / Cole.
  • Psychology Today Bootzin, R ., Loftus, E., & Zajonc, R. (1983). (5th ed.). NY: Random House.
  • Mind at Play. Loftus, GR & Loftus, EF (1983). New York: Basic Books.
  • Eyewitness Testimony-Psychological perspectives. Wells, G. & Loftus, EF (Eds.) (1984). NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Psychology (2nd ed.) Wortman, CB & Loftus, EF (1985). NY: Random House (Knopf).
  • Cognitive Processes. Bourne, LE, Dominowski, RL, Loftus, EF, & Healy, A. (1986). Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
  • Eyewitness Testimony: Civil and Criminal. Loftus, EF & Doyle, J. (1987). NY: Kluwer.
  • Statistics. Loftus, GR & Loftus, EF (1988). New York: Random House.
  • Psychology (3rd ed.). Wortman, CB & Loftus, EF (1988). NY: Random House (Knopf).
  • Witness for the Defense; The Accused, the Eyewitness, and the Expert Who Puts Memory on Trial Loftus, EF & Ketcham, K. (1991) NY: St. Martin’s Press.
  • Psychology (4th ed.) Wortman, CB & Loftus, EF (1992) NY: McGraw Hill.
  • Eyewitness Testimony – Civil and Criminal. Loftus, EF & Doyle, JM (1992) Charlottesville VA: The Michie Co.
  • The Myth of repressed memory. Loftus, EF & Ketcham, K. (1994) NY: St. Martin’s Press.
  • Eyewitness testimony: Civil & Criminal, 3rd edition. Loftus, EF & Doyle, JM (1997) Charlottesville; Va: Lexis Law Publishing.
  • Psychology (5th edition). Wortman, CB, Loftus, EF, & Weaver, C. (1999) NY: McGraw Hill.
  • Eyewitness testimony: Civil & Criminal, 4th edition. Loftus, EF, Doyle, JM & Dysert, J. (2008) Charlottesville; Va: Lexis Law Publishing. (482 pages)

Public appearances

In August of 2000, Loftus was the keynote speaker at the conference of the New Zealand Psychological Society held in Hamilton, New Zealand . [21] Loftus attended and was a speaker at the Beyond Belief symposium in November 2006. [47] She was a keynote speaker at the British Psychological Society Annual Conference 2011, held in Glasgow on May 4-6. [48] She was ook the keynote speaker at The Psychonomic Society Annual Meeting 2013, held in Toronto, Canada on November 14-16. [49]

See also

  • Imagination inflation


  1. Jump up^ Elizabeth Loftus – Psychology History
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b “Book of Members, 1780-2010: Chapter L” (PDF) . American Academy of Arts and Sciences . Retrieved 2011-04-28 .
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g Bower, GH (2007). Tracking the birth of a star. In M. Garry & H. Hayne (Eds.), Do Justice and Let the Sky Fall: Elizabeth F. Loftus and Her Contributions to Science, Law, and Academic Freedom (pp. 15-25). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
  4. Jump up^ Loftus, E .; Jacobsen, SD (22 April 2013). “Dr. Elizabeth Loftus, Distinguished Professor of Social Ecology, and Professor of Law, and Cognitive Science at the University of California, Irvine” . In-Sight (2.A): 24-39.
  5. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Zaragoza, MS, Belli, R. & Payment, KE (2007). Misinformation effects and the suggestibility or Eyewitness memory. In M. Garry & H. Hayne (Eds.), Do Justice and Let the Sky Fall: Elizabeth F. Loftus and Her Contributions to Science, Law, and Academic Freedom (pp. 35-63). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
  6. ^ Jump up to:a b Bernstein, DM; Laney, C .; Morris, I; Loftus, EF (2005). “Inaugural Article: False beliefs about fattening foods kan harbor healthy consequences” . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . 102 (39): 13724-13731. doi : 10.1073 / pnas.0504869102 . PMC 1236554 . PMID 16079200 .
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h Zagorski, N. (2005). “Profile of Elizabeth F. Loftus” . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . 102 (39): 13721-13723. doi : 10.1073 / pnas.0506223102 . PMC 1236565 . PMID 16172386.
  8. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k Neimark, Jill (1996). “The diva or disclosure, memory researcher Elizabeth Loftus” . Psychology Today . 29 (1): 48-53 . Retrieved 2012-06-12 .
  9. Jump up^ Haggbloom, SJ; Warnick R; Warnick JE; Jones UK; Yarbrough GL; Russell TM; Borecky CM; McGahhey R; Powell JL; Beavers J; Monte E (2002). “The 100 must eminent psychologists of the 20th century” (PDF) . Rev. Gen. Psychol . 6 (2): 139-152. doi : 10.1037 / 1089-2680.6.2.139 .
  10. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t you v w x y z Saletan, William (2010-06-04). “The memory Doctor: The future of false memories” . Slate . Retrieved 2012-05-08 .
  11. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Wilson, A. (2002-11-03). “War & herinnering: Controversy is a constant for memory researcher Elizabeth Loftus, newly installed at UCI” . The Orange County Register . Retrieved 2009-01-19 .
  12. ^ Jump up to:a b Loftus G (2007). “Elizabeth F. Loftus: The early years”. In Garry M & Hayne H. Do Justice and Let the Sky Fall: Elizabeth F. Loftus and Her Contributions to Science, Law, and Academic Freedom . Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 27-31 . ISBN 0805852328 .
  13. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Loftus, EF (2007). “Memory distortions: Problems Solved and unsolved”. In Garry M & Hayne H. Do Justice and Let the Sky Fall: Elizabeth F. Loftus and Her Contributions to Science, Law, and Academic Freedom . Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 1-14 . ISBN 0805852328 .
  14. Jump up^ Loftus, EF; Palmer JC (1974). “Reconstruction of Automobile Destruction: An Example of the Interaction Between Language and Memory” (pdf) . Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior . 13 : 585-9. doi : 10.1016 / S0022-5371 (74) 80011-3 .
  15. Jump up^ “Memory Expert Pressed In CIA Leak Case.” . Associated Press in New York Times . 2006-10-27 . Retrieved 2012-06-12 .
  16. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g Strange, D; Clifasefi S; Garry M (2007). “False memories.”. In Garry M & Hayne H. Do Justice and Let the Sky Fall: Elizabeth F. Loftus and Her Contributions to Science, Law, and Academic Freedom . Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 137-68 . ISBN 0805852328 .
  17. ^ Jump up to:a b Crook, L .; Dean, Martha (1999). “Lost in a Shopping Mall – A Breach of Professional Ethics” . Ethics & Behavior . 9 (1): 39-50. doi : 10.1207 / s15327019eb0901_3 . PMID 11657487 . Retrieved 2008-01-18 .
  18. Jump up^ Pope, K. (1996). “Memory, Abuse, and Science: Questioning Claims about the False Memory Syndrome Epidemic” . American Psychologist . 51 (9): 957-974. doi : 10.1037 / 0003-066X.51.9.957 . PMID 8819364 . Retrieved 2008-01-31 .
  19. Jump up^ Loftus, E (1999). “Lost in the Mall: Misrepresentations and misunderstandings” (PDF) . Ethics & Behavior . 9 (1): 51-60. doi :10.1207 / s15327019eb0901_4 . PMID 11657488 .
  20. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Abramsky, S (2004-08-19). “Memory Manipulation: The trials of Elizabeth Loftus, defender of the wrongly Accused” . LA Weekly . Retrieved 2012-06-10 .
  21. ^ Jump up to:a b c Taylor, Annette (1 November 2000). “A Good Time Was Had By All”. NZ Skeptics . Archived from the original on 6 March 2016 . Retrieved 11 November 2016 .
  22. Jump up^ Bocij, Paul (2004). Cyber Stalking: harassment in the Internet age and how to protect your family . New York: Praeger Publishers . pp. 34 . ISBN 0-275-98118-5 .
  23. Jump up^ Corwin, D .; Olafson E. (1997). “Videotaped Discovery of a Reportedly Unrecallable Memory of Child Sexual Abuse: Comparison with a Childhood Interview videotaped 11 Years Before” . Kindermishandeling . 2 (2): 91-112. doi : 10.1177 / 1077559597002002001 . Retrieved 2008-01-09 .
  24. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g Tavris, Carol (2008). “Whatever Happened to ‘Jane Doe’?” . Skeptical Inquirer . Amherst, New York : Committee for Skeptical Inquiry . 32 (1): 28-30. ISSN 0194-6730 . Retrieved 2010-02-23 .
  25. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Tavris, C (2002). “The high cost of skepticism” . Skeptical Inquirer . 26 (4): 41-44.
  26. Jump up^ Loftus & Guyer 2002a.
  27. Jump up^ Loftus & Guyer 2002b.
  28. ^ Jump up to:a b Taus v. Loftus , 683 3d 54 , 775 ( Cal. 4th 2007).
  29. Jump up^ Loftus, Elizabeth (May 2008). “Perils of Provocative Scholarship” . Observer . Washington, DC : Association for Psychological Science . 21 (5): 13-15. ISSN 1050-4672 .
  30. Jump up^ Loftus, E; Geis G (2009). “ Taus v. Loftus : Determining the Legal Ground Rules for Scholarly Inquiry”. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice . 9 (2): 147-62. doi : 10.1080 / 15228930802575524 .
  31. Jump up^ “Elizabeth F. Loftus faculty page” . University of California, Irvine . d . Retrieved 2012-06-12 .
  32. ^ Jump up to:a b No Authorship Indicated (2003). “Award for Distinguished Scientific Psychology” (PDF) . American Psychologist . American Psychologist . 58 (11): 864-73. doi : 10.1037 / 0003-066X.58.11.864 . PMID 14609373 .
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