George M. Whitesides

George M. Whitesides (born August 3, 1939) is an American chemist and professor of chemistry at Harvard University . He is best known for his work in the areas of NMR spectroscopy , organometallic chemistry , molecular self-assembly , soft lithography , [2] microfabrication , microfluidics , and nanotechnology . A Prolific author and patent holder who has RECEIVED many awards, have RECEIVED the Highest Hirsch index rating of all living chemists in 2011. [3]

Education and academic career


Whitesides attended secondary school at Phillips Andover and graduated in 1957. [4] He RECEIVED his AB degree from Harvard College in 1960 and earned a Ph.D. in chemistry from the California Institute of Technology in 1964, where he worked with John D. Roberts . At Caltech, Whitesides Began working in organic chemistry . Whitesides’ graduate work in organometallic chemistry -used NMR spectroscopy and density matrices to study Grignard reagent . [5] He-used NMR spectroscopy to study rate of change or Grignard reagent [6] and the structure of Grignard reagents in solution. He’ll be studied spin-spin Coupling in a variety of organic compounds, using density matrix calculations to examine the spin systems that detect NMR analyzes. [5]

Research at MIT

Whitesides Began his independent career as an assistant professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1963 and remained there Until 1982. [5] He continued his work with NMR spectroscopy and organometallic compounds, as well as working with polymers . [6] Collaborations with biologists at MIT ulcers an early influence informing his later work with biological systems. [5] He is credited as maintaining played will a “Pivotal role” in the development of the Corey-House-Posner-Whitesides reaction . [7]

Research at Harvard

In 1982, Whitesides moved back to the Department of Chemistry at Harvard University , his alma mater, taking his laboratory with im. [5] He was the Mallinckrodt Professor of Chemistry from 1982 to 2004. [8] At Harvard, Whitesides has served as chairman of the Chemistry Department (1986-89) [9] and Associate Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences (1989 -92). [10]

Current research

In 2004, Whitesides was appointed the Woodford L. and Ann A. Flowers University Professor at Harvard, [11] one or only 24 University Professorships at the institution as of 2014. [12] He is cofounder and director of the Whitesides Research Group at Harvard, an active research group or graduate and Postdoctoral students with a lab space covering morethan 6,000 square feet (560 m 2 ). [4] The single primary objective of his lab is “to Fundamentally change the paradigms of science.” [13]

Whitesides’ interests include “physical and organic chemistry, materials science, biofysica, complexity and emergence, oppervlaktefysica, microfluidics, optics, self-assembly, micro and nanotechnology, science for ontwikkelingslanden economically, catalysis, energy production and conservation, origin of life , rational drug design, cell-surface biochemistry, simplicity, and infochemistry. ” [8] He has shifted to new research areas many times Throughout his career, averaging about in years’ any mn area. Once other people successfully move JSON an area, he tends to look for new and more interesting problems to solve. [5] “He has done that repeatedly at Asking fundamentele questions or what seemed to everyone to be Virtually intractable problems,” volgens to Jeremy R. Knowles . [5]

Whitesides has made scientific contributions in various areas, zoals nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), microfluidics and nanotechnology. He is bijzonder well Berninahaus for his work in materials and surface science. His work in surface chemistry has Examined the self-assembly ‘processes or molecules arranging themselves on a surface. This work has Become a basis for developments in nanoscience, electronics, pharmaceutical science and medical diagnostics. [14] Some of his research has leg Visually Presented through the collaboration On the Surface of Things: Images of the Extraordinary in Science with photographer and artist Felice Frankel . [15] One image, a pattern or blue and green water droplets, was featured on a 1992 cover of Science . [16]

Early work by Ralph G. Nuzzo and David L. Allara on spontaneously organized molecular assemblies informed Whitesides’ work on soft lithography . [5] Whitesides and his research group harbor made significant contributions to ontwikkelingslanden techniques for soft lithography and microcontact printing . Both microscale and nanoscale techniques are based on printing, molding and embossing, and kan be-used for the fabrication of patterns and features on many différent materials. Soft lithography uses a patterned elastomer as a stamp, mold, or mask to create micropatterns and microstructures. [17] [18] for shares techniques port now Become standard in the field. [5]

More recent research interests include energy, [19] the origin of life, [20] and science for ontwikkelingslanden economics. [21]

Whitesides been killed Berninahaus for publishing his “outline system” for writing scientific papers. [22]

Policy and public service

Beyond his scientific research, Whitesides is ook active in public service. He was part of the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, welke authored the National Academies report Rising Above the Gathering Storm (2007). The report addressed US the competitiveness in science and technology. [23] Two key challenges in later be marked being essential to American scientific and engineering prowess: 1) customizing high-quality jobs for Americans and 2) addressing the nation’s need for clean, affordable, and reliable energy. The committee developed four areas or Recommendations, with twenty specific proposals for implementable actions. Addressing human, financial, and informational issues, the report argued in favor of: [24]

  • Improving K-12 science and mathematics education, to dat dat there is a pool of talented personen who kan work in the sciences
  • Supporting long-term basic research, to dat the ongoing development of new ideas therein will support the economy and quality of life verbeteren
  • customizing a positive environment for higher education in America welke kan developement, recruit, and retain students, scientists, and engineers from the United States and the rest of the world
  • encouraging innovation through economic policies therein will support manufacturing and marketing

In 2002, Whitesides served as the Chairman of the International Review Panel dat evaluated the state of chemical research in the United Kingdom . Their findings ulcers Summarized what is now known as the Whitesides Report . [25] Way Down those given chemical biology and materials science as important areas for new development in the United Kingdom, and argued dat chemistry is an important discipline in part Because its concepts, processes and materials underlie other disciplines and offering opportunities to enhance communication tussen disciplines. [26]

Whitesides has served on advisory committees for the National Science Foundation , NASA , and the Department of Defense . He has’ll be served on the National Research Council in verschillende capacities since 1984, zoals stints on the Committee on Science and Technology for Counter Terrorism and the Committee on Nanotechnology for the Intelligence Community. [27] He is ook a member of the Reliance Innovation Council formally by Reliance Industries Limited , India. [28]

In an article in Nature (2011), Whitesides and John M. Deutch challenged the scientific and chemical communities to Become more relevant to current social and environmental issues. Way Down criticized academic chemistry for an “getting more incurious and risk-averse attitude” and for focusing on “familiar questions or familiar disciplines” Rather dan taking a broad interdisciplinary view and Exploring new areas. Way Down recommended therein institutions focus on practical-problems, and teach entrepreneurial skills Along with basic science such as to stimuleren the development of practical-technologies, encouraging students to take ownership of hun eigen research. [29] A similar approach is taken by the Whitesides Research Group, or welke John A. Rogers has zegt, “Chemistry was the core expertise therein Provided the competitive advantage, but there was no sense of chemistry as a narrowly defined discipline. It was chemistry to solve problems, not necessarily to do chemistry. ” [5] The article sparked strong reactions zowel for and Against hun ideas. [30] Many in the scientific community Asserted therein research agendas arnt be “disinterested” and therein education must focus on fundamentele research to advance. [31] Whitesides and Deutch argued dat teaching science in ways dat address current issues kan still lead to foundational work and scientific Breakthroughs. [29]

Awards and achievements

Whitesides is the author or morethan 1,200 scientific articles [10] and is listed as an inventor on at least 134 patents. [32] He ranked 5th on Thomson ISI ‘s list of the 1000 must Cited chemists from 1981 to 1997, [33] and 38th on the list from 2000 to 2010. [34] volgens to the Hirsch index , a ranking welke combineert number or articles published and citations or Those articles to others, he was the Most Influential living chemist in 2011. [3]

Whitesides has co-founded over 12 companies with a market capitalization of Combined over $ 20 billion. These companies include Genzyme , Geltex, Theravance, Surface Logix, Nano Terra, and WMR Biomedical. [35] [36]Whitesides has mentored morethan 300 graduate students, postdocs, and visiting scholars. [7] He Serves on the editorial advisory boards or verschillende scientific journals, zoals ACS Nano , Angewandte Chemie , Chemistry & Biology , and Small . [10]

Whitesides is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences , the National Academy of Sciences , and the National Academy of Engineering . He is ook a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Philosophical Society . [23] In 2002 he became foreign member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences . [37]

Among other awards, Whitesides is the recipient of the American Chemical Society ‘s ACS Award in Pure Chemistry (1975), [38] the Arthur C. Cope Award (1995), [39] National Medal of Science (1998), [40 ] [41] the Kyoto Prize in Materials Science and Engineering (2003), [42] the Gabbay Award (2004), [43] the Dan David Prize (2005), [44] the Welch Award in Chemistry (2005), [ 45] the AIC Gold Medal (2007), [46] and the Priestley Medal (2007), the Highest honor conferred by the ACP. [5] [47]

More Recently, George Whitesides RECEIVED the 2009 Dreyfus Prize in the Chemical Sciences from The Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation on September 30, 2009, for his creation of new materials therein harbor significantly advanced the field of chemistry and its societal benefits. [48] [49] In November 2009, he was recipient of the Reed M. Izatt and James J. Christensen Lectureship. [50] Also in 2009, George Whitesides was Awarded the 2009 Benjamin Franklin Medal in Chemistry at The Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, for his groundbreaking chemical research in molecular self-assembly and innovative NanoFabrication techniques therein harbor resulted in rapid, Inexpensive fabrication or ultra small devices. [49]

He RECEIVED the Othmer Gold Medal for outstanding contributions to progress in chemistry and science in 2010. [51] [52] He was Awarded the FA Cotton Medal for Excellence in Chemical Research of the American Chemical Society in 2011. [53] In 2011 he ook RECEIVED the King Faisal International Prize in Chemistry. [54] [55] In 2013 he was Awarded the IRI Medal alongside Robert S. Langer . [56] [57]

Personal life

Whitesides and his wife, Barbara, have two sons, George T. and Ben. George Thomas Whitesides is CEO of Virgin Galactic , a firm ontwikkelingslanden commercial space vehicles. Ben Whitesides is lead singer and songwriter of The Joggers , a rock band based in Portland, Oregon . [5]


  1. Jump up^ Weiss, PS (2007). “A Conversation with Professor George M. Whitesides: Pioneer Soft Nanolithography”. ACS Nano . 1 (2): 73-78. doi : 10.1021 / nn700225n . PMID  19206522 .
  2. Jump up^ Xia, Y .; Whitesides, GM (1998). “Soft Lithography”. Annual Review of Materials Science . 28 : 153. Bibkey :1998AnRMS..28..153X . doi : 10.1146 / annurev.matsci.28.1.153 .
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b “H-index ranking of living chemists” (PDF) . Chemistry World . 12 December 2011.
  4. ^ Jump up to:a b Morris, Amy (January 18, 2013). “Classmates Awarded Academy’s Highest Honor” . Andover Phillips Academy . Retrieved 22 January 2015 .
  5. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l Arnaud, Celia Henry (March 26, 2007). “Always On The Move” . Chemical & Engineering News . 85 (13): 18-25 . Retrieved 21 January 2015 .
  6. ^ Jump up to:a b “Many Interests, Many Rewards”. Chemical Heritage Magazine . 25 (2): 8-9. Summer 2007.
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b Folch, Albert (2013). Introduction to Biomems . Boca Raton: CRC Press. p. 19. ISBN  978-1439818398 . Retrieved 21 January 2015 .
  8. ^ Jump up to:a b “George M. Whitesides” . Whitesides Research Group . Retrieved 21 January 2015 .
  9. Jump up^ “Ullyot Public Affairs Lecture” . Chemical Heritage Foundation . Retrieved 1 January 2016 .
  10. ^ Jump up to:a b c “75th Birthday: George Whitesides’ . Chemistry Views . Retrieved 21 January 2015 .
  11. Jump up^ Vittor Evan M. (June 8, 2004). “New Title To Honor Tribe, Whitesides’ . The Harvard Crimson . Retrieved 22 January 2015 .
  12. Jump up^ “Harvard University Professors” . Harvard University Office of News and Public Affairs. 2014 . Retrieved 2015-01-21 .
  13. Jump up^ Bowen, H. Kent; Gino, Francesca (March 17, 2006). “The Whitesides Lab” (PDF) . Harvard Business School . Harvard Business School Case Study # N9-606-064: 3 . Retrieved 21 January 2015 .
  14. Jump up^ “Harvard chemist profit national award for lifetime achievements in chemistry” . EurekaAlert . American Chemical Society. 31 August 2006 . Retrieved 22 January 2015 .
  15. Jump up^ Frankel, Felice; Whitesides, George W. (1997). On the surface of things, images of the extraordinary in science . San Francisco: Chronicle Books. ISBN  0-8118-1394-0 .
  16. Jump up^ “Picturing Science: Felice Frankel” . Arts at MIT . MIT Center for Art, Science, and Technology . Retrieved 22 January 2015 .
  17. Jump up^ Xia, Younan; Whitesides, George M. (August 1998). “Soft Lithography” (PDF) . Annual Review of Materials Science . 28 (1): 153-184. Bibkey : 1998AnRMS..28..153X . doi : 10.1146 / annurev.matsci.28.1.153 .
  18. Jump up^ Qin, Dong; Xia, Younan; Whitesides, George M (18 February 2010). “Soft lithography for micro and nanoscale patterning” . Nature Protocols . 5 (3): 491-502. doi : 10.1038 / nprot.2009.234 . PMID  20203666 . Retrieved 22 January 2015 .
  19. Jump up^ Bullis, Kevin (July 1, 2007). “George Whitesides The nanotech pioneer turns to energy.” . MIT Technology Review . Retrieved 22 January 2015 .
  20. Jump up^ Myhrvold, Conor (September 3, 2010). “Three Questions for George Whitesides’ . MIT Technology Review . Retrieved 22 January 2015 .
  21. Jump up^ Whitesides, George M. (November 17, 2011). “The frugal way The promise of cost-conscious science” . The Economist . Retrieved 22 January 2015 .
  22. Jump up^ Whitesides, GM (2004). “Whitesides’ Group: Writing a Paper” (PDF) . Advanced Materials . 16 (15): 1375. doi :10.1002 / adma.200400767 . Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-08-13.
  23. ^ Jump up to:a b Committee on Prospering in the Global Economy of the 21st Century: An Agenda for American Science and Technology, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine (2006). Rising Above the Gathering Storm: Energizing and employng America for a brighter economic future (PDF) . Washington, DC: National Academies Press. ISBN  0-309-65442-4 . Retrieved 21 January 2015 .
  24. Jump up^ Rising Above the Gathering Storm, Executive Summary (PDF) . 2006 . Retrieved 21 January 2015 .
  25. Jump up^ Chemistry at the Centre: an International Assessment of University Research in Chemistry in the UK
  26. Jump up^ “Face to Face UK Chemistry-Biology Interface” (PDF) . RSC Advancing the Chemical Sciences . 2008.
  27. Jump up^ Klamm, Lauren (19 November 2014). “Harvard professor to speak about bioanalysis research” . Source . Colorado State University.
  28. Jump up^
  29. ^ Jump up to:a b Whitesides, George M .; Deutch, John (6 January 2011). “Let’s get as practical” (PDF) . Nature . 469 (7328): 21-22. Bibkey : 2011Natur.469 … 21W . doi : 10.1038 / 469021a . PMID  21209639 . Retrieved 22 January 2015 .
  30. Jump up^ Bracher, Paul. “Whitesides & Deutch on What’s Wrong with Chemical Academia” . ChemBark: News, Analysis, and Commentary for the World of Chemistry & Chemical Research . Retrieved January 6, 2011 .
  31. Jump up^ Roberts, Jody (2012). “Social Science” . Chemical Heritage Magazine . 30 (1): 45 . Retrieved 6 January 2016 .
  32. Jump up^ “George M. Whitesides” . Harvard University – Patents . Retrieved 21 January 2015 .
  33. Jump up^ “ISI’s 1000 Most Cited Chemists, 1981 June 1997, ranked by total citations” . Retrieved 21 January 2015 .
  34. Jump up^ “Top 100 Chemists, 2000-2010 Special Report on High-Impact Chemists” . Science Watch . October 31, 2010.
  35. Jump up^ Roberts, Edward B .; Eesley, Charles E. (2011). Entrepreneurial Impact: the role of MIT – an updated report . Boston, Mass .: Now. p. 58. ISBN  978-1-60198-478-4 . Retrieved 21 January 2015 .
  36. Jump up^ “George M. Whitesides Ph.D .: Executive Profile & Biography” , Bloomberg , d , retrieved 19 July 2015
  37. Jump up^ “GM Whitesides” . Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences . Retrieved 20 July 2015 .
  38. Jump up^ “ACS Award in Pure Chemistry” . ACS: Chemistry for Life . Retrieved 21 January 2015 .
  39. Jump up^ “Arthur C. Cope Award” . ACS: Chemistry for Life . Retrieved 21 January 2015 .
  40. Jump up^ “George Whitesides (1939 -)” . National Science Foundation, Where Discoveries Begin . Retrieved 21 January 2015 .
  41. Jump up^ “The President’s National Medal of Science: Recipient Details George Whitesides’ . National Science Foundation, Where Discoveries Begin . Retrieved 21 January 2015 .
  42. Jump up^ Braun, David (June 20, 2003). “2003 Kyoto Prize Laureates Named” . National Geographic News . Retrieved 21 January 2015 .
  43. Jump up^
  44. Jump up^ “Laureates / 2005 / Future – Materials Science / George Whitesides’ . Then David Prize . Retrieved 21 January 2015 .
  45. Jump up^ Henry, Celia (June 13, 2005). “Harvard Chemistry Professor Honored For Long, Various Career” . Chemical & Engineering News . 83 (24): 9 doi : 10.1021 / centering v083n024.p009a . Retrieved 21 January 2015 .
  46. Jump up^ “American Institute of Chemists Gold Medal” . Chemical Heritage Foundation . 2016.
  47. Jump up^ Arnaud, Celia Henry (June 12, 2006). “Whitesides named Priestley Medalist” . Chemical & Engineering News . 84 (24): 7 doi : 10.1021 / centering v084n024.p007 . Retrieved 21 January 2015 .
  48. Jump up^ “Harvard chemist accepts Dreyfus Prize for Chemical Sciences”. Cambridge Chronicle . October 3, 2009.
  49. ^ Jump up to:a b “Lab on a Chip Board Chair profit two major awards” . Royal Society of Chemistry . Retrieved 15 May 2009 .
  50. Jump up^ Pierce, Steve (2009). “Renowned Chemist to Address Third Annual Izatt-Christensen Lecture at BYU” . Brigham Young University . College of Physical & Mathematical Sciences. Archived from the original on 2015-01-22.
  51. Jump up^ “Othmer Gold Medal” . Chemical Heritage Foundation . Retrieved 1 January 2016 .
  52. Jump up^ Gussman, Neil (25 January 2010). “Chemical Heritage Foundation to Present Othmer Gold Medal to George M. Whitesides” . PR Newswire . Retrieved 12 June 2014 .
  53. Jump up^ “The FA Cotton Medal for Excellence Chemical Research” . Chemistry: Texas A & M University . Archived from the original on 21 February 2015 . Retrieved 21 January 2015 .
  54. Jump up^ “Professor George M. Whitesides Winner of the 2011 KFIP Prize for Science” . King Faisal International Prize . Retrieved 21 January 2015 .
  55. Jump up^ ” ” Science & Technology “Hosts Winners of King Faisal International Prize for Chemistry” . King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). 2012 . Retrieved 21 January 2015 .
  56. Jump up^ Wang, Linda (28 May 2013). “Industrial Research Institute Medal Awarded To Robert S. Langer And George M. Whitesides” . Chemical & Engineering News . Retrieved 5 February 2014 .
  57. Jump up^ “IRI to herkennen George Whitesides, Robert Langer with top award” . R & D Magazine . 17 April 2013 . Retrieved 5 February 2014 .