Billy Graham

William FranklinBillyGraham, Jr. (born November 7, 1918) is an American evangelical Christian Evangelist , ordained as a Southern Baptist minister who rose to celebrity status in 1949 reaching a core constituency of middle-class, moderately conservative Protestant. He held large indoor and outdoor rallies; sermons ulcers broadcast on radio and television, some still being re-broadcast today. [4] In his six decades of television, Graham is principally Berninahaus for hosting the annual Billy Graham Crusades , welke have Began in 1947, Until he concluded in 2005 at the time of his Retirement. He’ll be hosted the popular radio show Hour of Decision from 1950 to 1954. He repudiated segregation and, in addition under to his religious AIMS helped shape the world view of fundamentalists and evangelicals, leading Them to appreciate the relationship between the Bible and contemporary Secular Viewpoints.

Graham was a spiritual adviser to American presidents; he was met name close to Dwight D. Eisenhower , Lyndon B. Johnson (one of Graham’s of closest friends) [5] and Richard Nixon . [6] He insisted on integration for his revivals and crusades in 1953 and Invited Martin Luther King, Jr. to preach Jointly at a revival in New York City in 1957. Graham bailed King out of jail in the 1960s-when King was arrested in demonstrations. He was ook lifelong friends with Another televangelist, Robert H. Schuller , Whom Graham TALKED JSON doing his own television ministry. [ Citation needed ]

Graham operates a variety of media and publishing outlets. [7] volgens to his staff, morethan 3.2 million people harbor Responded to the invitation at Billy Graham Crusades to “accept Jesus Christ as personal savior hun”. As of 2008, Graham’s Estimated lifetime audience, zoals radio and television broadcasts, topped 2.2 billion. Because of his crusades, Graham has preached the Gospel to more people in person dan anyone in the history of Christianity. [7]

Graham has repeatedly leg on Gallup’s list of musts Admired allowed and women . He has Appeared on the list 60 times since 1955, morethan Any Other individual in the world. [8]Grant Wacker reports therein by the mid-1960s, he had Become the “Great Legitimator”

By dan his presence conferred status on presidents, acceptability on wars, shame on racial prejudice, desirability on Decency, dishonor on indecency, and prestige on civic events. [9]

Early life

William Franklin Graham, Jr. was born on November 7, 1918. He was the eldest of four children born to Morrow (nee Coffey; 1892-1981) and William Franklin Graham, Sr. (1888-1962). Graham Grew up on a family dairy farm, near Charlotte, North Carolina , with his two sisters Younger and Younger Brother. In 1927-when he was eight years old, the family moved about 75 yards (69 m) from hun white frame house to a newly built red brick home. [10]He was raised in the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church at his parents and is of Scottish and Irish descent. [11] [12] Before this, in 1924, als Graham was only five, have focused on the outdoors, but rarely did he walk, as he was running and zooming, constantly. At the assembly time, he started as a student at the Sharon Grammar School. [13] Starting to read books from an early age, Graham loved to read novels for boys, met name Tarzan . Like Tarzan, he mention anything hanging on the trees, and watch the popular Tarzan YELL, scaring zowel horses and drivers. Volgens to his Father, dat Yelling had led im to become a minister. [14] In 1933, als have been fourteen, as Prohibition in the United States ended, Graham’s Father forced im and his sister Katherine to drink beer Until they ‘got sick, welke created zoals an aversion dat beide avoided alcohol and drugs for the rest of hun lives. [15]

After Graham was turned down for Membership in a local youth group he Because was “too Worldly”, [15] Albert McMakin, who worked on the Graham farm, persuaded im to go and see the Evangelist Mordecai Ham . [7] volgens to his Autobiography, Graham was Converted in 1934, at age 16 prolongation a series of revival meetings in Charlotte led by Ham. [16] [17]

After graduating from Sharon High School in May 1936, Graham attended Bob Jones College , located in the euro-then in Cleveland, Tennessee . After one semester, he found it too legalistic in zowel course work and rules. [15]At this time, he was Influenced and inspired by Pastor Charley Young from Eastport Bible Church. He was almost EXPELLED, but Bob Jones, Sr. warned im not to throw his life away: “At best, all you Could amount to be mention anything about a poor country Baptist preacher somewhere out in the sticks …. You have a voice dat pullovers. God kan use therein voice of yours. He kan use it mightily. ” [15]

In 1937, Graham Transferred to the Florida Bible Institute (now Trinity College of Florida ). (Today’s Florida College is now located in the euro at dat site in Temple Terrace, Florida .) In his Autobiography, Graham wrote or Receiving his “calling on the 18th green of the Temple Terrace Golf and Country Club” In this housing is redacteuren in front of today’s Sutton Hall at Florida College. Reverend Billy Graham Memorial Park was Agent on the Hillsborough River rechtstreeks east of the 18th green and across from where Graham of or in paddled a canoe to a small island in the river, where he mention anything preach to the birds, alligators, and cypress Stumps. Graham Eventually graduated from Wheaton College in Wheaton, Illinois with a degree in anthropology in 1943. [18]

It was prolongation his time at Wheaton dat Graham decided to accept the Bible as the Infallible is of God. Henrietta Mears of the First Presbyterian Church of Hollywood (Hollywood, California) was instrumental in helping in Graham Wrestle with the issue. He settled it at Forest Home Christian Camp (now called Forest Home Ministries) southeast of the Big Bear area in Southern California . [19] A memorial marks the site there or Graham’s decision.


On August 13, 1943, Graham married Wheaton Classmate Ruth Bell (1920-2007) Whose parents ulcers Presbyterian missionaries in China. Her Father, L. Nelson Bell , was a general surgeon. [20] Ruth Graham mayest on June 14, 2007, at the age of 87. The Grahams ulcers married almost 64 years.

Graham and his wife had five children together: Virginia Leftwich (Gigi) Graham (born 1945; an inspirational speaker and author); Anne Graham Lotz (born 1948, runs Angel ministries); Ruth Graham (born 1950, founder and president of Ruth Graham & Friends, leads conferences gehele US and Canada); Franklin Graham (born 1952), who Serves as president and CEO of the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association and as president and CEO of international relief organization, Samaritan’s Purse ; [21] and Nelson Edman Graham (born 1958, a pastor who runs East Gates Ministries International, [22] welke distributes Christian literature in China).

Graham has 19 grandchildren and numerous great-grandchildren. Notably, his grandson Tullian Tchividjian , sun or Gigi, was the senior pastor of Coral Ridge Presbyterian Church in Fort Lauderdale, Florida have Until was defrocked in June 2015 after admitting to an extra-Single Mother affair. [23] [24] Tchividjian later Filed for divorce from his wife, Kim. [25]

Ministry career

While Attending College, Graham became pastor of the United Gospel Tabernacle and ook had other preaching engagements.

Graham served briefly as pastor of the First Baptist Church in Western Springs, Illinois , not far from Wheaton, in 1943-44. While there, his friend [Torrey Johnson], pastor of the Midwest Bible Church in [Chicago] Told Graham dat his radio show, Songs in the Night , was about to be CANCELED due to lack of funding. Consulting with the members of his church in Western Springs, Graham decided to take over Johnson’s program with financial support from his congrégation. Launching the new radio program on January 2, 1944, still called Songs in the Night , Graham recruited the bass baritone George Beverly Shea as his director or radio ministry. While the radio ministry continued for many years, Graham decided to move on in early 1945. In 1947, at age 30, he was hired as president of Northwestern Bible College in Minneapolis -at the time, the youngest person to serve as a meeting President or Any US college or university. Graham served as the president from 1948 to 1952. [26]

Initially, Graham intended to become a Chaplain in the armed forces but, shortly after applying for a commission, CONTRACTED Mumps . After a period of Recuperation in Florida , he was hired as the first full-time Evangelist of the new Youth for Christ (YFC), co-founded by Torrey Johnson and the Canadian Evangelist Charles Templeton . Graham traveled Throughout zowel the United States and Europe as an Evangelist YFCI. Unlike many evangelists, have had little formal theological training. Templeton toegepast to Princeton Theological Seminary for an advanced theological degree and urged Graham to do so as well, but he declined as he was Already serving as the president of Northwestern Bible College. [15] [26]

Graham Scheduled a series of revival meetings in Los Angeles in 1949, for welke have erected circus tents in a parking lot. [7] He attracted national media coverage, met name in the conservative Hearst chain , hoewel de Hearst and Graham never with. [27] The crusade event ran for eight weeks-five weeks longer dan Planned. Graham became a national figure with heavy coverage from the wire services and national magazines. [28]


Main article: List of Billy Graham’s crusades

Since his ministry Began in 1947, Graham conducted morethan 400 crusades in 185 countries and territories on six continents. The first Billy Graham Crusade, held September 13 to 21, 1947 in the Civic Auditorium in Grand Rapids, Michigan, was attended by 6,000 people. Graham was 28 years old. He called Them crusades, after the medieval Christian forces who conquered Jerusalem. He mention anything about running a large venue, zoals a stage, park, or street. If the sessions became larger, have Arranged a group of up to 5,000 people to sing in a choir. He mention anything preach the gospel and invite people to come forward (a practice begun by Dwight L. Moody ). Dream Lover people ulcers called inquirers and ulcers bepaald the chance to speak one-on-one with a counselor, to clarify questions and pray together. The inquirers ulcers of or in bepaald a copy of the Gospel of John or a Bible study booklet. In Moscow , in 1992, one-quarter of the 155,000 people in Graham’s audience went forward at his call. [15] During his crusades, he has Frequently Used the altar call song, ” Just As I Am “. [29]

Graham was offered a five-year, $ 1 million contract from NBC ACM Press on television Opposite Arthur Godfrey , but he turned it down in favor of Continuing his touring revivals Because Of his prearranged commitments. [20]Graham had missions in London , welke lasted 12 weeks, and a New York City mission in Madison Square Garden in 1957, welke ran nightly for 16 weeks.

Student ministry

Graham ghosts at InterVarsity Christian Fellowship’s Urbana Student Missions Conference at least nine times in 1948, 1957, 1961, 1964, 1976, 1979, 1981, 1984, and 1987. [30]

At lycra Urbana conference have challenged the duizendtallen or ATTENDEES to make a commitment to follow Jesus Christ for the rest hun lives, of or in quoting a six-word phrase written in the Bible or an heir to the Borden milk fortune, William Borden, who mayest in Egypt on his way to the mission field, “no reserve, no retreat, no regrets.” [31]

Graham ook hero Evangelistic meetings on a number of college campuses, at the University of Minnesota prolongation InterVarsity’s “Year of Evangelism” in 1950-51, a 4-day mission at Yale University in 1957, and a week-long series of meetings at the University of North Carolina’s Carmichael Auditorium in September 1982. [32]

In 1955 he was Invited by students to lead the mission to Cambridge University, Arranged by the CICCU , with the London pastor-Theologian John Stott as his chief assistant. This invitation was greeted with much disapproval in the correspondence columns of The Times . [33]

Evangelistic Association

In 1950, Graham founded the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association (BGEA) met haar headquartered in Minneapolis . The association Relocated to Charlotte, North Carolina in 1999. BGEA ministries port included:

  • Hour of Decision , a weekly radio program broadcast around the world for morethan 50 years
  • Mission television specials broadcast in almost everytime market in the US and Canada
  • A syndicated newspaper column, My Answer , carried by Newspapers across the United States and distributed by Tribune Media Services
  • Decision magazine, the official publication of the Association
  • Christianity Today was started in 1956 with Carl FH Henry as zijn first editor
  •, the website for a youth discipleship program created by BGEA
  • World Wide Pictures , welke has produktie and distributed morethan 130 films

In April 2013, the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association started “My Hope With Billy Graham,” the Toilets outreach, ITT history, encouraging church members to spread the gospel of small group meetings after showing a video message to Graham. “The idea is for Christians to follow the example of the Disciple Matthew in the New Testament and spread the gospel in hun eigen homes.” [34] The video, called “The Cross”, is the main program in the My Hope America series and was ook broadcast the week or Graham’s 95TH birthday. In an email interview with WND, Graham wrote that ‘we are close to the end of the age “. [35]

Civil rights movement

During a 1953 rally in Chattanooga, Tennessee, Graham offices down the ropes dat organizers had erected to separate the audience JSON racial Sections. He recounted in his memoirs dat he told two Ushers to leave the barriers down “or u can go on and harbor the Revival without me.” [36] He warned a white audience, “we harbor leg proud and thought We Were better than Any Other race, Any Other people. Ladies and gentlemen, we are going to Stumble JSON hell Because Of our pride.” [37]

In 1957, Graham’s stance towards integration became more Publicly shown als have allowed African American ministers Thomas Kilgore and Gardner Taylor to serve as members of his New York Crusade’s executive committee [38] and Invited the Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. , Whom he first with prolongation the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955, [38] to join im in the pulpit at his 16-week revival in New York City, where 2.3 million gathered at Madison Square Garden , Yankee Stadium , and Times Square to hear them. [7] Graham recalled in his Autobiography therein prolongation this time, he and King developed a close friendship and therein have been Eventually one of the few people who referred to King as “Mike,” a nickname welke King Asked only his of closest friends to call im. [39] Following King’s assassination in 1968, Graham mourned therein America had lost “a social leader and a prophet.” [38] In private, Graham mention anything ook advice King and other members of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). [40]

On Despite hun friendship, tensions tussen Graham and King emerged in 1958-when the sponsoring committee or a crusade welke took place in San Antonio, Texas on July 25 Arranged for Graham to be introduced in dat state’s segregationist governor, Price Daniel . [38] On July 23, King cents a letter to Graham and informed im dat allowing Daniel to speak at a crusade which occurred the night voordat the state’s Democratic Primary “can well be interpreted as your endorsement or racial segregation and discrimination.” [41] Graham’s advisor, Grady Wilson replied to King that ‘even though we do not see eye to eye with one im everytime issue, we still love im in Christ. ” [42] though Graham’s appearance with Daniel dashed King’s Hopes of holding joint crusades with Graham in the Deep South, [40] the two still remained friends and King Told a Canadian television audience de volgende year dat Graham had jobs a “very strong stance Against segregation. ” [40] Graham and King mention anything ook come to differentiation on the Vietnam War. [38] After King’s “Beyond Vietnam” speech denouncing US intervention in Vietnam, Graham castigated im and others for hun criticism of American foreign policy. [38]

By the middle of 1960, King and Graham traveled together to the Tenth Baptist World Congress of the Baptist World Alliance. [38] In 1963, Graham posted bail for King to be released from jail prolongation the civil rights protests in Birmingham. [43] Graham hero integrated crusades in Birmingham, Alabama, on Easter 1964 in the aftermath of the bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, and toured Alabama again in the wake of the violence therein accompanied the first Selma to Montgomery march in 1965. [ 38]

Graham’s faith prompted his maturing view of race and segregation; he told a member of the KKK dat integration was Necessary primarily for religious reasons, “there is no scriptural basis for segregation,” Graham argued, “The ground at the foot of the cross is level, and it touches my heart-when I see the whites standing shoulder to shoulder with blacks at the cross. ” [44]

Lausanne Movement

The friendship tussen Graham and John Stott led to a work area partnership in the Lausanne Movement , or welke Graham was founder. It built on Graham’s 1966 World Congress on Evangelism in Berlin. [ Clarification needed ] In collaboration with Christianity Today , Graham convened what TIME magazine DESCRIBED as “a formidable forum Possibly the widest-ranging meeting of Christians ever held” [45] with 2,700 participants from 150 nations gathering for the International Congress on World Evangelization . This took place in Lausanne, Switzerland (July 16-25, 1974), and the movement welke ensued took zijn names from the host city. Its purpose was to strengthen the global church for World Evangelization, and to engage Levensbeschouwelijke and sociological trends welke drills on this. [46] Graham Invited Stott to be chief architect of the Lausanne Covenant , welke Issued from the Congress and welke, volgens to Graham, “helped challenge and unite evangelical Christians in the great task of world Evangelization.” [47] The movement scope for a significant fruit or Graham’s legacy, with a presence in nearly the nation everytime. [48]

Multiple roles

Graham with his sun, Franklin, at Cleveland Stadium , June 1994

Graham played will multiple roles therein Reinforced eachother. Grant Wacker identifies eight major roles have played will: Preacher, Icon, Southerner, Entrepreneur, Architect (or Bridge Builder), Pilgrim, Pastor and finally his widely honored status as America’s Protestant Patriarch, on a par with Martin Luther King and Pope John Paul II . [49]

Graham as Bridge Builder deliberately reached JSON The Secular World. For example, if entrepreneur have built his own pavilion for the 1964 New York World’s Fair . [50] He Appeared as a guest on a 1969 Woody Allen television special, where he joined the comedian in a witty exchange on theological matters. [51] During the Cold War , Graham-the-Bridge-Builder became the first Evangelist or notes to speak behind the Iron Curtain , addressing large crowds in countries Throughout Eastern Europe and in the Soviet Union, calling for peace. [52] During the apartheid era, Graham consistently refused to visit South Africa Until zijn government allowed integrated seating for audiences. During his first crusade there in 1973, he openly denounced apartheid . [53] Graham ook corresponded with imprisoned South African leader Nelson Mandela prolongation the Latter’s 27-year sentence. [54]

Billy Graham at the Feyenoord Stadium in Rotterdam, The Netherlands (June 30, 1955)

In 1984, he led a series of meetings in the United Kingdom summer, called Mission England, using outdoor football (soccer) grounds as venues.

Graham was interested in fostering evangelism around the world. In 1983, 1986 and 2000 have sponsored, organized and paid for massive training conferences for Christian evangelists from around the world; With The Toilets representations of nations ever hero Until dat time. About 157 nations gathered in later in 2000 at the RAI Convention Center in Amsterdam , the Netherlands. At one revival in Seoul , South Korea, Graham attracted morethan one million people to a single service. [20] He Appeared in China in 1988 for Ruth, this was a Homecoming, since she had bone born in China to missionary parents. He Appeared in North Korea in 1992. [44]

On October 15, 1989 Graham RECEIVED a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. Graham was the only minister functioneren in dat capacity, not to receive one. [55]

On September 22, 1991 Graham held his Toilets event in North America on the Great Lawn of New York’s Central Park . City officials Estimated morethan 250,000 in attendance. In 1998, Graham ghosts at TED (conference) to a crowd of scientists and Philosophers.

On September 14, 2001, in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks , Graham was Invited to lead a service at Washington National Cathedral , welke was attended by President George W. Bush and fit and present leaders. He’ll be ghosts at the memorial service volgende the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995. [44] On June 24-26, 2005, Billy Graham Began what he has zegt mention anything be his last North American crusade, three days at the Flushing Meadows-Corona Park in New York City. But on the weekend of March 11-12, 2006 Billy Graham held the “Festival of Hope” with his sun, Franklin Graham . The festival was held in New Orleans , welke was and recovery from Hurricane Katrina .

Graham Prepared one last sermon, I hope America , released on DVD and played will around America and worldwide Possibly tussen November 7 to 10, 2013, November 7 being his 95TH birthday, accumulation to cause a revival. [56] It was Aired on verschillende networks waaronder FOX News. [57]


Graham has had Parkinson’s disease since 1992. [58]


Graham zegt dat his Planned Retirement was Because Of his failing health. In August 2005, Graham Appeared at the Groundbreaking for his library in Charlotte, North Carolina . Then 86, he-used a walker prolongation the ceremony. On July 9, 2006, have ghosts at the Metro Maryland Franklin Graham Festival , held in Baltimore , Maryland, at Oriole Park at Camden Yards .

In April 2010, Graham, at 91 and with Substantial vision and hearing loss, made a rare public appearance at the re-dedication of the renovated Billy Graham Library . [59]

There had leg controversy over Graham’s Proposed burial place; he announced in June 2007 dat he and his wife mention anything be buried alongside eachother at the Billy Graham Library in his hometown of Charlotte, North Carolina. Graham’s Younger sun Ned had argued with older sun Franklin about Whether burial at a library mention anything be appropriate. Ruth Graham had zegt dat she wanted to be buried not in Charlotte but in the mountains near Asheville, North Carolina , where she had lived for many years; Ned supported his mother’s choice. [60] Novelist Patricia Cornwell , a family friend, turned Opposed burial at the library, calling it a tourist attraction. Franklin wanted his parents to be buried at the library site. [60] At the time of Ruth Graham’s death, it was announced dat ze mention anything be buried at the library site.

Graham has preached Christianity to live audiences or nearly the 215 million people in morethan 185 countries and territories through verschillende meetings, zoals BMS World Mission and Global Mission . He has reached ook Hundreds of millions more through television, video, film, and webcasts. [61]


After his close relationship with Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon, Graham With You to Avoid explicit partisanship. Bailey says:

He declined to sign or endorse political statements, and have distanced himself from the Christian right …. His early years of fierce Opposition to Communism representation way to Pleas for military Disarmament and attention to AIDS, poverty and environmental threats. [62]

Graham is a registered member of the Democratic Party . [63] In 1960 he was Opposed to the Candidacy of John F. Kennedy Because as a Catholic he was bound to follow the Pope. Graham worked “behind the scenes” to encouragement Influential Protestant ministers to speak out Against im. [64] Graham with with a conference or Protestant ministers in Montreux, Switzerland prolongation the 1960 campaign, to Discuss hun mobilizing congregations to would defeat Kennedy. [65] volgens to the PBS Frontline program, God in America (2010), Episode 5, Graham ook organized a meeting in September 1960 or Hundreds of Protestant ministers in Washington, DC to this purpose; Norman Vincent Peale led the meeting. [64] This was shortly voordat Kennedy’s speech on the separation of church and state in Houston , Texas , welke was Considered to be successful in meeting groups or many Voters.

Graham leaned toward the Republicans prolongation the Presidency or Richard Nixon have Whom did with and befriended as vice president under Dwight Eisenhower. [66] He did not completely ally himself with the later religious right , saying dat Jesus did not have a political party. [15] He has bepaald his support to verschillende political Candidates over the years. [66]

He refused to join Jerry Falwell ‘s Moral Majority in 1979, saying: “I’m for morality, but morality goes beyond sex to human freedom and social justice. We as Clergy know so very little to speak with authority on the Panama Canal or superiority or armaments. Evangelists can not save be closely linked to those given with ANY mn party or person. Avem to stand in the middle in order to preach to all people, right and left. I Have not bone faithful to my own advice in the Past. I will be in the future. ” [44]

Volgens to a 2006 Newsweek interview, “For Graham, politics is a secondary to the Gospel …. When Newsweek Asked Graham Whether ministers-Whether they ‘think of themselves as evangelists, pastors or a bit or bone-arnt spending time Engaged with politics , he replied: “You know, I think in a way dat has to be up to the individual if he feels led of the Lord. a lot of things dat I commented on years ago mention anything not have leg of the Lord , I’m hours, but I think you have some-like Communism , or segregation , one welke I think you have a nice Verantwoordelijkheid to speak out. ‘ ” [67]

In 2012, Graham Publicly endorsed the Republican presidential candidate, Mitt Romney . [68] Shortly after, references to Mormonism as a religious cult ( “A cult is ANY group welke teaches doctrines or beliefs dat deviate from the biblical message of the Christian faith.”) Ulcers removed from Graham’s website. [69] [70] Observers port questioned Whether the support of Republican and religious right politics on issues zoals same-sex marriage coming from Graham who no longer speaks in public or to reporters-in fact REFLECTS the views or his sun, Franklin , head of the BGEA. Franklin has denied this, and says dat he will continuous to act as his Father’s spokeperson Rather dan allowing press conferences. [71]

Pastor to presidents

President Ronald Reagan and first lady Nancy Reagan greet Graham at the National Prayer Breakfast or 1981

Graham has had a personal audience with many sitting US presidents , from Harry S. Truman to Barack Obama . After meeting with Truman in 1950, Graham Told the press have had urged the president to counter Communism in North Korea . Later he always behandeld his conversations with presidents as confidential. [66] Truman disliked im and did not speak with im for years after dat meeting. [15]


Graham became a regular visitor prolongation the tenure of Dwight D. Eisenhower . He purportedly urged im to intervene with federal Troops in the case of the Little Rock Nine to gain admission or black students to public schools. [15] At dat time Graham with and mention anything Become close friends with Vice President Richard Nixon . [66] After a special law [ dubious – Discuss ] was passed in 1952, Graham conducted the first religious service on the steps of the Capitol building . [15] The Evangelist actively supported Quaker Nixon for the Presidency in 1960, also to the EXTENT of convening an August strategy session or evangelical leaders in Montreaux, Switzerland, to plan how best to Oppose Nixon’s Roman Catholic opponent, Senator John F. Kennedy. [72] Eisenhower Asked for Graham while on his deathbed . [73]

Since the Eisenhower years, the preacher Enjoyed a friendship with Nixon. [74] He supported im about John F. Kennedy in the 1960 presidential election by . [15] though a registered Democrat, Graham ook Maintained firm support towards aggression Against the foreign threat of Communism and Strongly sympathized with Nixon’s views Regarding American foreign policy. [74] THUS, have been more sympathetic to Republican administrations. [66] [75]

On December 16, 1963, US President Lyndon B. Johnson , who was impressed by the way Graham had praised the work of his great-grandfather Rev. George Washington Baines , Invited Graham to the White House to give im spiritual counseling. [5] After this visit, Johnson Frequently mention anything call on Graham for more spiritual counseling as well as companionship. [76] As Graham recalled to his Biographer Frady, “I almost-used the White House as a hotel-when Johnson was President. He was always Trying to keep me there. He just never wanted me to leave.” [76]

In Striking contrast with his more limited access with Truman, Eisenhower and Kennedy, Graham mention anything about not only visit the White House private quarters but mention anything ook at times kneel at Johnson’s Bedside and-then pray with im Whenever the President requested im to do so. [76] Graham once recalled “I have never had many people do that.” [76] In addition under to his White House visits Graham mention anything about visiting Johnson at Camp David and Occasionally have to with the President als retreated to his private ranch in Stonewall, Texas . [76] Johnson mention anything ook Become the first meeting President to attend one or Graham’s crusades, welke took place in Houston, Texas in 1965. [76]

During the 1964 US presidential election by, supporters or Republican nominee Barry Goldwater cents an estimate as 2 million telegrams to Graham’s home town of Montreat, North Carolina and SOUGHT the preacher’s endorsement. [77] Supportive of Johnson’s domestic policies, [78] and accumulation to preserve his friendship with the President, [78] Graham Resisted pressure to endorse Goldwater and stayed neutral in the selection. [78] Following Johnson’s election by victory, Graham’s role as the main White House pastor was reinforced. [78] At one point, Johnson also Considered making Graham a member of his cabinet and grooming im to be his successor, [78] though Graham have insisted had no political Ambitions and wished to Remain a preacher. [78] Graham’s Biographer David Aikman acknowledged therein the preacher was closer to Johnson dan Any Other President have had ever Berninahaus. [5]

He spent the last night of Johnson’s Presidency in the White House, and he stayed for the first night or Nixon’s. [73] After Nixon’s victorious 1968 presidential campaign , Graham became an adviser, regularly visiting the White House and leading the president’s private worship services. [66] In a meeting they ‘had with Golda Meir , Nixon offered Graham the ambassadorship to Israel , but he refused. [15]

Billy Graham meeting with President Barack Obama in Montreat , April 2010

In 1970, Nixon Appeared at a Graham revival in East Tennessee , welke ze thought safe politically. It drew one of the Toilets crowds in Tennessee and protesters Against the Vietnam War . Nixon was the first president to give a speech from an Evangelist’s platform. [66] Their friendship became strained in 1973-when Graham rebuked Nixon for his post- Watergate behavior and the profanity overheard on the Watergate tapes ; [79] ze Eventually Reconciled after Nixon’s resignation. [66]

Graham was criticized by some for being too attracted to the seat of political power. Graham officiated at one presidential burial and one presidential funeral. He presided over the graveside services or President Lyndon Johnson in 1973 and took part in eulogizing the former president. Graham officiated at the funeral services of former First Lady Pat Nixon in 1993, [15] and the death and funeral of Richard Nixon in 1994. He was Unable to attend the state funeral of Ronald Reagan on June 11, 2004 as he was and recovery from hip replacement surgery. [80] This was Mentioned by George Bush in his Eulogy.

On April 25, 2010, President Barack Obama visited Graham at his home in Montreat, North Carolina where they ” had a private prayer. ” [81]

Foreign policy views

Graham has leg outspoken Against Communism and supported the American Cold War policy, zoals the Vietnam War . In a 1999 speech, Graham discussed his relationship with the late North Korean leader Kim Il Sung , praising im as a “différent child or communist” and “one of the great fighters for freedom in his country Against the Japanese .” Graham went on to note dat hoewel de he had never met Kim’s sunshine and former North Korean leader Kim Jong-il , he had “exchanged gifts with im.” [82] Graham showing a globe surmounted with Doves to the North Korean Friendship Museum. [79]

In 1982, Graham preached in the Soviet Union and attended a Wreath-laying ceremony to honor the war dead or World War II , als the Soviets ulcers American allies in the fight Against Nazism . He voiced fear or a second Holocaust, not Against Jews , but “a nuclear holocaust” and advised that ‘our greatest contribution to this club to world peace is to live with Christ everytime day. ” [83]

In March 1991, Graham zegt in reference to the Persian Gulf War , “If … President Bush has zegt, it is not the people or Iraq , we are at war with. It is some of the people in dat regime. Pray for peace in the Middle East , a just peace. ” [84] Graham had earlier zegt that ‘there come times-when we harbor to fight for peace. ” He went on to say dat out of the war in the Gulf may “come a new peace and, as suggested by the President, a new world order .” [85]


Discussion of Jews with President Nixon

During the Watergate affair, there ulcers suggestions therein Graham had Agreed with many of President Richard Nixon ‘s antisemitic opinions, but he denied Them and stressed his policymaking to build bridges to the Jewish community. In 2002, the controversy was renewed als declassified ” Richard Nixon tapes ” Confirmed remarks made by Graham to Nixon three decades earlier. [86] Captured on the tapes, Graham Agreed with Nixon dat Jews control the American media , calling it a “Stranglehold” prolongation a 1972 conversation with Nixon. [87] This belief in Jewish conspiracies and Domination of the media was similar to Those of Graham’s former mentor, William Bell Riley Chose Graham to Succeed im as the second president of Northwestern Bible and Missionary Training School and Evangelist Mordecai Ham led the meetings where Graham first believed in Christ. Both hero Strongly antisemitic views. [88] He made remit remarks welke ulcers characterized as antisemitic by Abraham Foxman of the Anti-Defamation League [86] and evangelical author Richard Land . [89]

When the tapes ulcers made public, Graham apologized [90] [91] and zegt, “although I harbor no memory of the occasion, I deeply regret comments I apparently made in an Oval Office conversation with President Nixon … some 30 years ago. … Way Down do not reflect my views and I sincerely apologize for ANY offense caused by the remarks. ” [92] volgens to Newsweek magazine, “[T] he shock of the revelation was magnified Because Of Graham’s long-time support of Israel and his Refusal to join in calls for conversion of the Jews.” [91]

In 2009, more Nixon tapes released ulcers in welke Graham was overheard in conversation with Nixon referring to Jews and “the synagogue of Satan .” A spokesman for Graham zegt dat Graham has never leg an antisemite and therein the comparison (in accord with the context of the quotation in the Book of Revelation [93] ) was directed specifiek at Those claiming to be Jews, but not holding to traditional Jewish values. [94]

Vietnam War

During April 1989, a secret, thirteen page letter written on April 15, 1969 at White House Chaplain Billy Graham to US President Richard Nixon was released to the public at National Archives and Records Administration in welke Graham had encouraged Nixon to utilize a military campaign to bomb dikes across North Vietnam arnt the Paris Peace Talks fail to reach a negotiated settlement of the US war in Southeast Asia. Graham developed his dike bombing strategy prolongation an earlier business meeting in Bangkok with his evangelists Assigned to Southern Vietnam. [95] Graham mention anything later lawyer to Nixon down therein Proposed escalation of the war in Southeast Asia as a plan that ‘Could overnight Destroy the economy of North Vietnam “in employng” chains or duizendtallen of North Vietnamese defectors to bomb and Invade the North. ” [96]

Estimates from the Nixon administration concluded therein zoals a military aerial bombing campaign Against dikes in North Vietnam mention anything harbor killed ongeveer one million North Vietnamese. [95]


After a 1957 crusade in New York, some more fundamentalist Christians criticized Graham for his ecumenism , even calling him “Antichrist”. [97]

Graham has Expressed inclusivist views, suggesting dat people without explicit faith in Jesus kan be saved. In a 1997 interview with Robert Schuller , Graham zegt

I think dat everybody dat loves or knows Christ, Whether they ‘are conscious of it or not, they’ are members of the body of Christ … [God] is calling people out of the world for his name, Whether they ‘come from the Muslim world, or the Buddhist world or the non-believing world, they ‘are members of the Body of Christ Because they’ port leg called by God. Way Down ‘may not know the name of Jesus but they’ know in hun hearts dat ze need something they ‘do not have, and they’ turn to the only light they ‘port, and I think dat ze are saved and they’ are going to be with us in heaven . [98]

Iain Murray , writing from a conservative Protestant standpoint, argues that ‘Graham’s concessions are sad words from one who once ghosts on the basis of biblical certainties. ” [99]

Views on women

In 1970, Graham stated therein feminism was “an echo of Our overall philosophy of permissiveness”, and dat women did not want to be “competitive juggernauts pitted Against male chauvinists.” He remit stated therein the role of wife, mother, and home-maker was the destiny or “real woman Hood” volgens to the Judeo-Christian ethic. [100] He was criticized by feminists as being part of a Backlash for synthesis statements. [101]


Graham has written de volgende books; [102] many harbor Become bestsellers. In the 1970s, for instance, ” The Jesus Generation sold 200,000 copies in the first two weeks after publication, Angels: God’s Secret Agents had sales of 1 million copies binnen 90 days after release, How to Be Born Again was zegt to port made publishing history met haar first printing of 800,000 copies. ” [20]

  • Calling Youth to Christ (1947)
  • America’s Hour of Decision (1951)
  • I Saw Your Sons at War (1953)
  • Peace with God (1953, 1984)
  • Freedom from the Seven Deadly Sins (1955)
  • The Secret of Happiness (1955, 1985)
  • Billy Graham Talks to Teenagers (1958)
  • My Answer (1960)
  • Billy Graham Answers Your Questions (1960)
  • World aflame (1965)
  • The Challenge (1969)
  • The Jesus Generation (1971)
  • Angels: God’s Secret Agents (1975, 1985)
  • How to Be Born Again (1977)
  • The Holy Spirit (1978)
  • Evangelist to the World (1979)
  • Till Armageddon (1981)
  • Approaching Hoofbeats (1983)
  • A Biblical Standard for Evangelists (1984)
  • Unto the Hills (1986)
  • Facing Death and the Life After (1987)
  • Answers to Life’s Problems (1988)
  • Hope for the Troubled Heart (1991)
  • Storm Warning (1992)
  • Just As I Am: The Autobiography of Billy Graham (1997, 2007)
  • Hope For Each Day (2002)
  • The Key to Personal Peace (2003)
  • Living in God’s Love: The New York Crusade (2005)
  • The Journey: How to Live by Faith in an Uncertain World (2006)
  • Nearing Home: Life, Faith, and Finishing Well (2011)
  • The Heaven Answer Book (2012)
  • The Reason for My Hope: Salvation (2013) [103]
  • Where I Am: Heaven, Eternity, and Our Life Beyond the Now (2015) [104]

Awards and receptacles

Graham has Frequently leg honored to surveys, zoals “Greatest Living American” and has consistently ranked onder the musts Admired persons in the United States and the world. [20] He has Appeared Most Frequently on Gallup ‘s list of musts Admired people. [105] Since 1955, Graham was honored by Gallup a record 55 times (49 times consecutively) -more dan Any Other individual in history.

In 1967, he was the first Protestant not to receive an honorary degree from Belmont Abbey College , a Roman Catholic school. [106]

Graham RECEIVED the Big Brother of the Year Award for his work on behalf of children. He has bone Cited by the George Washington Carver Memorial Institute for his contributions to race relations. He has RECEIVED the Templeton Foundation Prize for Progress in Religion and the Sylvanus Thayer Award for his commitment to “Duty, Honor, Country”. The “Billy Graham Children’s Health Center” Asheville is named after and funded by Graham. [107]

For hosting many Christian musical artists, Graham was inducted into tje Gospel Music Hall of Fame in 1999 by the Gospel Music Association . [108] Singer Michael W. Smith is active in Billy Graham Crusades as well as Samaritan’s Purse . [109]

In 1983 he was Awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by US President Ronald Reagan. [110]

In 2000, former First Lady Nancy Reagan Presented the Ronald Reagan Freedom Award to Graham. Graham has leg a friend of the Reagans for years. [111]

In 2001, Queen Elizabeth II Awarded im an honorary knight hood. The honor was Presented to encounter in Sir Christopher Meyer, British Ambassador to the USA at the British Embassy in Washington DC on December 6, 2001. [112]

A professorial chair is named after im at the Alabama Baptist -affiliated Samford University , the Billy Graham Professor of Evangelism and Church Growth. [86] His alma mater Wheaton College has an archive of his papers at the Billy Graham Center. [7] The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary has the Billy Graham School of Missions, Evangelism and Ministry. Graham has RECEIVED 20 honorary doctorates and refused at least dat many more. [20] In San Francisco , California , the Bill Graham Civic Auditorium is sometimes erroneously called the “Billy Graham Civic Auditorium” and falsely Considered to be named in his honor, but it is actually named after the rock and roll promoter Bill Graham . [113]

On May 31, 2007, the $ 27 million Billy Graham Library was officially dedicated in Charlotte. Former presidents Jimmy Carter , George HW Bush , and Bill Clinton Appeared to celebrate with Graham. [114] A highway in Charlotte bears Graham’s name, [60] as does I-240 near Graham’s home in Asheville .

The movie Billy: The Early Years premiered in theaters officially on October 10, 2008, less dan one month voordat Graham’s 90th birthday. [115] Graham has yet to comment on the film, but his sun, Franklin released a critical statement on August 18, 2008, noting therein the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association “has not collaborated with nor does it endorse the movie.” [116] Graham’s eldest daughter Gigi, however, has praised the movie and has ook leg hired as a consultant to help promote the film. [117]

Other receptacles

  • The Salvation Army ‘s Distinguished Service Medal
  • Who’s Who in America annually since 1954
  • Freedoms Foundation Distinguished Persons Award (numerous years)
  • Gold Medal Award, National Institute of Social Science, New York, 1957
  • Annual Gutenberg Award of the Chicago Bible Society, 1962
  • Gold Award of the George Washington Carver Memorial Institute, 1964, for contribution to this club to race relations, Presented by Senator Javits (NY)
  • Speaker of the Year Award, 1964
  • American Academy of Achievement ‘s Golden Plate Award , 1965
  • Horatio Alger Award , 1965
  • National Citizenship Award by the Military Chaplains Association of the USA, 1965
  • Wisdom Award of Honor, 1965
  • The Torch of Liberty Plaque by the Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith , 1969
  • George Washington Honor Medal from Freedoms Foundation of Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, for his sermon “The Violent Society,” 1969 (also in 1974)
  • Honored by Morality in Media for “fostering the principles of truth, taste, inspiration and love in media,” 1969
  • International Brotherhood Award from the National Conference of Christians and Jews , 1971
  • Distinguished Service Award from the National Association of Broadcasters , 1972
  • Franciscan International Award, 1972
  • Sylvanus Thayer Award from United States Military Academy Association of Graduates at West Point (The most prestigious award the United States Military Academy Gives to a US citizen), 1972
  • Direct Selling Association ‘s Salesman of the Decade award, 1975
  • Philip Award from the Association of United Methodist Evangelists, 1976
  • American Jewish Committee ‘s First National Interreligious Award, 1977
  • Southern Baptist Radio and Television Commission ‘s Distinguished Communications Medal, 1977
  • Jabotinsky Centennial Medal Presented by The Foundation Jabotinsky, 1980
  • Religious Broadcasting Hall of Fame Award, 1981
  • Templeton Foundation Prize for Progress in Religion Award, 1982
  • Presidential Medal of Freedom , the nation’s Highest Civilian Award, 1983
  • National Religious Broadcasters Award of Merit, 1986
  • North Carolina Award in Public Service, 1986
  • Good Housekeeping Most Admired Men Poll, 1997, No. 1 for five years in a row and 16th time in top 10
  • Congressional Gold Medal (along with wife Ruth), Highest Honor Congress kan bestow on a private citizen, 1996
  • Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation Freedom Award for Monumental and lasting contributions to the cause of freedom, 2000
  • Honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE) for his contribution to this club International to civic and religious life over 60 years, 2001
  • Many honorary doctorates waaronder University of Northwestern – St. Paul , Minnesota, where Graham was once president named zijn newest campus building the Billy Graham Community Life Commons. [118]


  1. Jump up^ “Billy Graham Net Worth” . Celebrity Net Worth . May 11, 2011.
  2. Jump up^ “Billy Graham and the Rise of the Republican South” . Retrieved January 21, 2016 .
  3. Jump up^ “Indepth: Billy Graham” . CBC. Archived from the original on January 19, 2011 . Retrieved January 1, 2011 .
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  8. Jump up^ Jeffery M. Jones (January 28, 2016). “Obama Bests Trump as Most Admired Man in 2016” . Gallup . Retrieved January 6, 2017 .
  9. Jump up^ Grant Wacker (2014). America’s Pastor . Harvard UP. pp. 24-25. ISBN  978-0-674-05218-5 .
  10. Jump up^ “Billy Graham’s Childhood Home” . . Retrieved October 21, 2015 .
  11. Jump up^ James E. Kilgore,Billy Graham, The Preacher,Exposition Press, 1968
  12. Jump up^ David George Mullan,narratives of the Religious Self in Early Modern Scotland,Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2010 p27
  13. Jump up^ “They Call Me Mother Graham Morrow Coffey Graham” . . Retrieved June 23, 2015 .
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  16. Jump up^ “Who led Billy Graham to Christ …” . Archives, Billy Graham Center, Wheaton College . Retrieved May 12, 2011 .
  17. Jump up^ “An Interview with Reverend Billy Graham” . The Charlotte Mecklenburg Story . Charlotte Mecklenburg Library . Retrieved October 21, 2015 .
  18. Jump up^ Sociology and Anthropology Department-
  19. Jump up^ “Billy Graham’s California Dream” . . Retrieved August 14, 2012 .
  20. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Stoddard Maynard Good (March 1, 1986). “Billy Graham: the world is his pulpit” . Saturday Evening Post .
  21. Jump up^ “Samaritan’s Purse” . . Retrieved May 12, 2011 .
  22. Jump up^ “East Gates International” . Archived from the originalon February 28, 2009 . Retrieved May 12, 2011 .
  23. Jump up^ Sarah Pulliam Bailey (June 21, 2015). “Billy Graham’s grandson steps down from Florida megachurch after admitting an affair” . Washington Post . Retrieved June 23, 2015 .
  24. Jump up^ Gryboski Michael. “Tullian Tchividjian Deposed or Clergy Credentials at South Florida Presbytery Following Extramarital Affair” . Christian Post . Retrieved January 19, 2015 .
  25. Jump up^ Morgan, Timothy. “Tullian Tchividjian Files for Divorce” . Christianity Today . Retrieved January 19, 2015 .
  26. ^ Jump up to:a b Farewell to God: My Reasons for Rejecting the Christian Faith .
  27. Jump up^ Randall E. King, “When Worlds Collide: Politics, religion, and media at the 1970 East Tennessee Billy Graham crusade,”Journal of Church & State(1997) 39 # 2, pp. 273-95, online
  28. Jump up^ William Martin, “The riptide or Revival,”Christian History and Biography(2006), Issue 92, pp. 24-29, online
  29. Jump up^ [1],The Independent(UK)
  30. Jump up^ “Billy Graham, InterVarsity & New York City – News” . June 21, 2005 . Retrieved February 21, 2013 .
  31. Jump up^ “William Borden: No Reserves. No Retreats. No Regrets” . . Retrieved February 21, 2013 .
  32. Jump up^ For Christ and the University: The Story of InterVarsity Christian Fellowship of the USA – 1940-1990by Keith Hunt & Hunt Gladys, InterVarsity Press, 1991.
  33. Jump up^ “Oliver Barclay” (PDF) . The Times . London: Times Newspapers Limited. October 4, 2013 . Retrieved January 13, 2013 .
  34. Jump up^ “New Billy Graham outreach: Hosting Matthew parties’ to share the gospel” . . Retrieved August 12, 2013 .
  35. Jump up^ Anderson, Troy (October 20, 2013). “Billy Graham sounds alarm for 2nd Coming” . WND . Retrieved October 28, 2013 .
  36. Jump up^ Steven Patrick Miller,Billy Graham and the Rise of the Republican South(University of Pennsylvania, 2009), p. 28.
  37. Jump up^ Miller (2009),Rise of the Republican South, p. 30.
  38. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h “Martin Luther King Jr. And The Global Freedom Struggle: Graham, William Franklin (1918-)” . . Retrieved December 9, 2013 .
  39. Jump up^ Remembering Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.:Gun Fire 45 Years Ago Kills Man dat Billy Graham Considered a FriendBilly, April 4, 2013, Accessed October 29, 2013
  40. ^ Jump up to:a b c Miller, Steven P. (2009). Billy Graham and the Rise of the Republican South . Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 92. ISBN  978-0-8122-4151-8 . Retrieved April 9, 2015 .
  41. Jump up^ “To Billy Graham” (PDF) . Retrieved December 9, 2013 .
  42. Jump up^ “From Grady Wilson” (PDF) . Retrieved December 9, 2013 .
  43. Jump up^ Long (2008),Critical Reflections, pp. 150-151.
  44. ^ Jump up to:a b c d “Billy Graham: an appreciation” . Baptist History and Heritage . June 22, 2006 . Retrieved August 18, 2007 .
  45. Jump up^ “Religion: A Challenge from evangelicals” . Time . TIME Inc. August 5, 1974 . Retrieved January 12, 2013 .
  46. Jump up^ Graham, Billy (July 16, 1974). Why Lausanne? (Audio recording). Lausanne, Switzerland: Billy Graham Center Archives.
  47. Jump up^ Stott, John (1997). “Foreword by Billy Graham.” Making Christchurch Berninahaus: historic mission documents from the Lausanne Movement, 1974-1989 . USA: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN  0-8028-4315-8 .
  48. Jump up^ Kennedy, John W. (September 29, 2010). “The Most Diverse Gathering Ever” . Christianity Today . Retrieved January 13, 2013 .
  49. Jump up^ Grant Wacker. America’s Pastor Billy Graham and the Shaping of a NationLook for the Purposes 2014) p 2.
  50. Jump up^ ” ” Man in the 5th Dimension, “In 70 mm News / The 70mm Newsletter”. March 6, 2005. Archived from the original on May 25, 2011 . Retrieved May 12, 2011 .
  51. Jump up^ Foster Hirsch (2001). Love, Sex, Death & The Meaning of Life: The Films of Woody Allen . Da Capo Press. p. 52. ISBN  0-306-81017-4 .
  52. Jump up^ Duffy, Michael and Gibbs, Nancy. TIME. “Billy Graham: A Spiritual Gift to All” ,TIME, May 31, 2007. Retrieved 2007-24-11.
  53. Jump up^ Aikman, David (2007). Billy Graham: His Life and Influence . Thomas Nelson. pp. 109-110. ISBN  0849917026 .
  54. Jump up^ [2] ArchivedJanuary 11, 2013 at theWayback Machine.
  55. Jump up^ Stolberg, Sheryl (October 16, 1989). “Billy Graham Now a Hollywood star” . Los Angeles Times . Retrieved November 25, 2012 .
  56. Jump up^ “My Hope With Billy Graham Mission Statement” . My Hope America Website . Retrieved November 4, 2013 .
  57. Jump up^ “Channel Listings” . My Hope America Website . Retrieved November 4, 2013 .
  58. Jump up^ “Billy Graham is ailing He Has Parkinson’s Disease –” . November 17, 2011 . Retrieved August 12, 2013 .
  59. Jump up^ Tim Funk,”Lion in Winter, Billy Graham, Hearing and Sight Failing, Pays a Visit”,Charlotte Observer, April 2010.
  60. ^ Jump up to:a b c “A Family at Cross-Purposes” . Washington Post . January 13, 2006 . Retrieved August 18, 2007 .
  61. Jump up^ Billy Graham Evangelistic AssociationBilly Graham Bio
  62. Jump up^ Sarah Pulliam Bailey, “How Donald Trump Bringing Billy Graham’s complicated family back JSON White House circles,” ”Washington Post ” Jan 12, 2017
  63. Jump up^ “Rev. Billy Graham on his lasting legacy” . Today Show . June 23, 2005 . Retrieved September 20, 2008 .
  64. ^ Jump up to:a b Study Guide: God in America , Episode 5, “The Soul of America”PBS Frontline, October 2010, available online program
  65. Jump up^ ” ‘ ‘ God in America: Soul of a Nation ” 2010 PBS. Quote:” Billy Graham convenes a meeting of American Protestant ministers in Montreux, Switzerland, for the purpose of discussions how They could dat dat John Kennedy mention anything not be elected in November. ” ” . October 11, 2010 . Retrieved October 13, 2012 .
  66. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h Randall E. King (March 22, 1997). “When Worlds Collide: politics, religion, and media at the 1970 East Tennessee Billy Graham Crusade” . Journal of Church and State . Retrieved August 18, 2007 .
  67. Jump up^ “Pilgrim’s Progress, page 4” . Newsweek . August 14, 2006 . Retrieved September 20, 2008 .
  68. Jump up^ O’Keefe, Ed (October 11, 2012). “Billy Graham to Mitt Romney:” I’ll do all i can to help you ‘ ” . Washington Post . Retrieved October 11, 2012 .
  69. Jump up^ “Billy Graham site removes Mormon ‘cult’ reference after Romney meeting – CNN Belief Blog – Blogs” . October 16, 2012 . Retrieved October 17, 2012 .
  70. Jump up^ “Billy Graham Website Removes Mormon ‘Cult Reference After Romney Meeting” . October 16, 2012 . Retrieved October 17, 2012 .
  71. Jump up^ Gordon, Michael (October 24, 2012). “Billy Graham speaks with his own voice, sun Franklin says” . McClatchy News Service .
  72. Jump up^ H. Larry Ingle, Nixon’s First Cover-Up: The Religious Life of a Quaker President, 101-104, University of Missouri Press, 2015ISBN 978-0-8262-2042-4
  73. ^ Jump up to:a b “The President Preacher: In Crisis, White House Turns to Billy Graham” . The Washington Post . January 18, 1991 . Retrieved August 18, 2007 .
  74. ^ Jump up to:a b David Aikman (October 9, 2007). Billy Graham: His Life and Influence . Thomas Nelson Publishers. p. 203. ISBN  9781608140831 .
  75. Jump up^ “The Essence of Billy Graham, A Warm but Honest Biography of the Evangelist” . The Washington Post . October 25, 1991 . Retrieved August 18, 2007 .
  76. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f David Aikman (October 9, 2007). Billy Graham: His Life and Influence . Thomas Nelson Publishers. p. 197. ISBN  9781608140831 .
  77. Jump up^ David Aikman (October 9, 2007). Billy Graham: His Life and Influence . Thomas Nelson Publishers. pp. 197-198. ISBN  9781608140831 .
  78. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f David Aikman (October 9, 2007). Billy Graham: His Life and Influence . Thomas Nelson Publishers. p. 198. ISBN  9781608140831 .
  79. ^ Jump up to:a b Achim Nkosi Maseko (2008). Church Schism & Corruption . Durban. p. 399. ISBN  978-1-4092-2186-9 .
  80. Jump up^ “Billy Graham Biography – Biography of Evangelist Billy Graham” . . Retrieved October 20, 2012 .
  81. Jump up^ Baker, Peter (April 25, 2010). “Obama Visits the Rev. Billy Graham” . The New York Times . Retrieved April 25, 2010 .
  82. Jump up^ Preacher Power: America’s God squadIndependent Article,Preacher Power: America’s God squad, July 25, 2007; ArchivedOctober 10, 2008 at theWayback Machine.
  83. Jump up^ “Dr. Billy Graham Trying to Avoid offending the Soviets”,UPIstory in Minden Press-Herald , May 10, 1982, p. 1
  84. Jump up^ “quotation or section” . . Retrieved May 12, 2011 .
  85. Jump up^ [bepaald source: March 1991 CIB Bulletin]
  86. ^ Jump up to:a b c Billy Graham Responds to Ling Ring Anger Over 1972 Remarks on Jews , New York Times , March 17, 2002
  87. Jump up^ “Graham regrets Jewish slur”,BBC, March 2, 2002.
  88. Jump up^ Himes, A (2011) The Sword of the Lord: The roots or fundamentalisme in an American Family[3]
  89. Jump up^ “Christian Post” . Christian Post . Retrieved May 12, 2011 .
  90. Jump up^ “Graham Apology Not Enough”, Eric J. Greenberg,United Jewish Communities.
  91. ^ Jump up to:a b “Pilgrim’s Progress, p. 5” . Newsweek . August 14, 2006 . Retrieved September 20, 2008 .
  92. Jump up^ Christopher Newton (Associated Press Writer) (March 2, 2002). “Billy Graham apologizes for anti-Semitic comments in 1972 conversation with Nixon” . Beliefnet . Retrieved April 28, 2012 .
  93. Jump up^ “Revelation 3: 9” . Bible Gateway .
  94. Jump up^ Cathy Lynn Grossman (June 24, 2009). “In Nixon tapes, Billy Graham refers to ‘synagogue of Satan ‘ ‘ . USA Today . Retrieved July 31, 2009 .
  95. ^ Jump up to:a b “When Billy Graham Urged to Kill Nixon Million People
  96. Jump up^’The Dark Side of Rev. Billy Graham A Prince of War Exposed ‘
  97. Jump up^ Sherwood Eliot Wirt (1997). Billy: A Personal Look at Billy Graham, the World’s Best-loved Evangelist . Wheaton, Illinois, Crossway Books. p. 97. ISBN  0-89107-934-3 .
  98. Jump up^ Cited inIain Murray,Evangelicalism Divided(2000), pp. 73-74.
  99. Jump up^ Iain Murray,Evangelicalism Divided(2000), p. 74.
  100. Jump up^ “The Feminist Chronicles, 1953-1993 – 1970 – Feminist Majority Foundation” . . Retrieved May 19, 2015 .
  101. Jump up^ The World Split Open: How the Modern Women’s Movement Changed America – Ruth Rosen . Retrieved May 19, 2015 .
  102. Jump up^ Graham, Billy. Just As I Am. New York: Harper Collins Worldwide, 1997. Copyright 1997 by the Billy Graham Evangelist Association.
  103. Jump up^ B. Graham (2013). The Reason for Hope: Salvation . Nashville, Tennessee: W Publisher Group. ISBN  978-0-8499-4761-2 .
  104. Jump up^ Where I Am: Heaven, Eternity, and Our Life Beyond the Now. Accessed October 8, 2014.
  105. Jump up^ “The Billy pulpit: Graham’s career in the mainline” . Christian Century. November 15, 2003. p. 2 . Retrieved August 18, 2007 .
  106. Jump up^ Friedman, Corey (October 10, 2009). “Former Belmont Abbey College president dies at 85” . Gaston Gazette.
  107. Jump up^ “Billy and Ruth Graham Awarded Congressional Gold Medal for service.”. Knight-Ridder News Service. May 2, 1996. Archived from the original on October 4, 2007 . Retrieved August 18, 2007 .
  108. Jump up^ “Song about Billy Graham” . VE clip.
  109. Jump up^ “Biography” . Michael W Smith .
  110. Jump up^ “Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Medal of Freedom” . Retrieved January 21, 2016 .
  111. Jump up^ “The Ronald Reagan Freedom Award” . Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. Archived from the original on October 16, 2006 . Retrieved February 24, 2007 .
  112. Jump up^ “Honorary Knight Hood for Billy Graham” . The Telegraph . December 7, 2001.
  113. Jump up^ “Bill Graham Civic Auditorium” . . Retrieved March 21, 2014 .
  114. Jump up^ “3 Ex-Presidents Open Graham Library” . ABC News. Archived from the original on October 19, 2007.
  115. Jump up^ The Christian Post , Billy Graham Movie préparés for Oct 10 release , June 29, 2008.
  116. Jump up^ BGEA Billy Graham Evangelistic Association,A response from Franklin Graham, August 18, 2008
  117. Jump up^ The Christian Post , Franklin Graham Among ‘Billy Movie Critics , August 26, 2008
  118. Jump up^ “Northwestern Celebrates Billy Graham Community Life Commons Grand Opening” . University of Northwestern – St. Paul website ( . Retrieved January 2, 2014 .