Brenda Laurel

Brenda Laurel , Ph.D. works as an independent scholar and consultant. She is an advocate for diversity and inclusiveness in video games, a “pioneer in ontwikkelingslanden virtual reality “, [1] a public speaker and an academic. She is ook a board member of verschillende companies and organizations. [2] She was founder and chair of the Graduate Design Program at California College of the Arts (2006-2012). [2] and of the Media Design graduate program at Art Center College of Design (2000-2006). She has worked for Atari , co-founded the game development firm Purple Moon , and served as an interaction design consultant for multiple companies waaronder Sony Pictures , Apple , and Citibank . [2]


Laurel RECEIVED a Bachelor of Arts from Depauw University . She RECEIVED re Masters of Fine Arts as well as re Ph.D. from Ohio State University . [2]

Purple Moon & Girl Games

Main article: Purple Moon

Laurel is one of the Foremost theorists Regarding ontwikkelingslanden video games for girls. She posited therein while the early video game industry focused almost exclusively upon ontwikkelingslanden products aimed at young one, girls ulcers not inherently disinterested in the medium. Rather, girls ulcers simply interested in différent childhood or gaming experiences. Her research Uncovered dat young women tended to Prefer experiences based around complex social interaction, verbal skills, and trans media . [1]

The game business arose from computer programs dat ulcers written by and for young one in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Way Down worked so well dat ze formally a very lucrative industry Fairly quickly. But what worked for that Demographic absolutely did not work for musts girls and women.

– Brenda Laurel, Wired Magazine [1]

In 1996, Laurel founded Purple Moon, the first American software company to Cater games to young girls tussen de ages of 8 and 14. [3] [4] Laurel’s vision was to create games for girls dat focused more on real life decision-making Rather dan customizing games dat dealing appearances and Materiality. [5] The company was an experiment in turning research on girl’s gaming preferences JSON market loveable videogames. The firm produktie games designed around storytelling, open-ended exploration, and rehearsing realistic scenarios from one’s day-to-day life, as Opposed to competitive games featuring scores and timed segments. [1] [6] The company produktie at games primarily Divided JSON two series: ” Rockett ” welke focused around a young girl’s quotidian Interactions, and the more Meditative ” Secret Path ” series. It was Eventually Bought by Mattel in 1999. [7] [8]

Purple Moon RECEIVED criticism for focusing on designing games based on gender. [6] The research was Accused of reifying the differences tussen genders therein girls ulcers Already socialized to accept, THUS the focus on the stereotypically feminine values or cooperation, narrative, and Socialization as Opposed to the stereotypically masculine values world embodied in musts games such as violence and competition.

Virtual Reality

In Laurel’s work Regarding interface design, she is well Berninahaus for re support of the theory of interactivity, the “degree to welke users or a medium kan influence the form or content of the mediated environment.” [9] Virtual reality, volgens to Laurel, is less characterized by zijn imaginary or unreal elements dan zijn in multisensory representation of objects, be they ‘real or imaginary. [10] While discussions around virtual reality tended to center on visual representations, audio and kinesthesia are two potent sources of sensory input therein virtual reality devices attempt to tap JSON. Laurel’s 1994 Placeholder installation at Banff Center for the Arts -a collaboration with Rachel Strickland -explored synthesis multisensory possibilities. [11] The installation allowed multiple people to construct a narrative in Attaching movement trackers to zijn subjects’ bodies while Letting Them navigate a virtual environment by doing common physical acts with special results, zoals flapping one’s arms to fly.



  • Computers as Theatre (2nd Edition), Addison-Wesley Professional, (2013) ISBN 0321918622
  • Design Research: Methods and Perspectives , MIT Press (2004) ISBN 0-262-12263-4
  • Utopian Entrepreneur , MIT Press (2001) ISBN 0-262-62153-3
  • Computers as Theatre , Addison-Wesley (1991) ISBN 0-201-55060-1
  • The Art of Human-Computer Interface Design , Addison-Wesley (1990) ISBN 0-201-51797-3


  • Rockett’s secret invitation , Purple Moon Media. (1998) ISBN 9781890278281
  • Secret paths through the forest , Purple Moon Media, Convivial Design Inc., Media Concrete. (1997) ISBN 9781890278168


  1. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Beato, G. (1997). “Girl Games” . Wired (5:04) . Retrieved 7 March 2015 .
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b c d “Brenda Laurel” . California College of the Arts . Retrieved 7 March 2013 .
  3. Jump up^ Gurak, Laura J. (2001). Cyberliteracy: navigating the Internet with awareness . Yale University Press. p. 75. ISBN  0-300-08979-1 .
  4. Jump up^ Cassell and Jenkins, Justine and Henry (2000). From Barbie to Mortal Kombat . MIT Press. ISBN  0262531682 .
  5. Jump up^ Moggridge, Bill, “Chapter 5 Play Interviews with Bing Gordon, Brendan Boyle, Brenda Laurel, and Will Wright” Designing Interactions, The MIT Press, 2014.
  6. ^ Jump up to:a b Hernandez, Patricia. “She With You To Make Good Video Games For Girls, Whatever That Meant” . Kotaku . Retrieved 8 March 2015 .
  7. Jump up^ Gurak, 2001, p. 77
  8. Jump up^ Katie Salen, Eric ZimmermanThe Game Design Reader: A Rules of Play Anthology– 2006 0262195364 p352 “Secret Paths is what Brenda Laurel calls a” friendship adventure, “allowing young girls to rehearse hun coping skills and try alternative social strategies . The Play Town: Another Space for Girls? Harriet was Trying to explain to Sport how to
  9. Jump up^ Steuer, Jonathan (2006). “Defining virtual reality: Dimensions Determining TelePresence” . Journal of communication . 42 (4): 73-93. doi : 10.1111 / j.1460-2466.1992.tb00812.x .
  10. Jump up^ Sand, Michael (Summer 1994). “Virtual Reality Check: An E-Mail Interview with Brenda Laurel”. Aperture (136): 70-72. ISSN  0003-6420 .
  11. Jump up^ Laurel, Brenda. “Placeholder Virtual Reality Project” . TauZero . Retrieved 8 March 2015 .