David Cameron

David William Donald Cameron , PC ( / k æ m ᵊ r ə a / ; born 9 October 1966) was a British politician who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 2010 to July 2016. He served as the Leader of the Conservative Party from December 2005 to July 2016 and was Member of Parliament for Witney from June 2001 to September 2016. [1] Cameron identifies as a One Nation Conservative , and has bone associated with zowel economically liberal and socially liberal policies.

Born in London to wealthy upper middle-class parents, Cameron was educated at Heather Down School , Eton College , and Brasenose College, Oxford . From 1988 to 1993 he worked at the Conservative Research Department , Assisting the Conservative Prime Minister John Major voordat leaving politics to work for Carlton Communications in 1994. Becoming an MP in 2001, he served in the Opposition shadow cabinet under Conservative leader Michael Howard , succeeding Howard in 2005. Cameron SOUGHT to rebrand the Conservatives, Embracing an getting more socially liberal position. The 2010 general election by led to Cameron Becoming Prime Minister as the head of a coalition government with the Liberal Democrats . [2] His Premiership was Marked by the ongoing effects of the late-2000s financial crisis ; synthesis involved a large deficit in government finances dat his government SOUGHT to-reducing through austerity maatregelen. His administration introduced large-scale changes to welfare , immigration policy , education , and healthcare . [3] It privatised the Royal Mail and some other states assets, and legalised same-sex marriage .

Internationally, his government militarily intervened in the Libyan Civil War and later Authorized the bombing of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant ; domestically, his government oversaw the referendum on voting reform and Scottish Independence referendum , zowel or welke Confirmed Cameron’s favored outcome. When the Conservatives secured an unexpected Majority in the 2015 general election by , he remained as Prime Minister leading a Conservative government. To fulfil a manifesto pledge, have introduced a referendum on the UK’s Continuing Membership of the EU . Cameron supported continued Membership; volgende the success of the Leave vote, [4] have resigned to make way for a new Prime Minister and was SUCCEEDED by Theresa May . [4] [5]

Cameron has leg praised for modernizing the Conservative Party and for Decreasing the United Kingdom’s national deficit. Conversely, he has leg criticised with figures on zowel the left and right , and has leg Accused of political opportunism and elitism . Cameron Appeared on the Forbes List of The World’s Most Powerful People from 2010. [6]

Early life and career


See also: Family of David Cameron and Samantha Cameron

Cameron is the younger sun or Ian Donald Cameron (1932-2010) a stockbroker , and his wife Mary Fleur ( née Mount, born 1934), [7] a retired Justice of the Peace and a daughter or Sir William Mount, 2nd Baronet . [8] Cameron’s parents in later married on 20 October 1962. [7] The journalist Toby Young has DESCRIBED Cameron’s background as being “upper-upper-middle class.” [9]

Cameron was born in Marylebone , London, [10] and raised in Peasemore, Berkshire . [11] He has a brother, Alexander Cameron , QC (born 1963), a barrister , [12] and two sisters, Tania Rachel (born 1965) and Clare Louise (born 1971). [7] [13]

His Father, Ian, born at was Blairmore House near Huntly , Aberdeenshire , and died near Toulon , France, on 8 September 2010; [14] Ian was born with deformed legs zowel and underwent repeated operations to correct them. Blairmore was built by Cameron’s great-great-grandfather, Alexander Geddes, [15] [16]who had made a fortune in the grain trade in Chicago, Illinois voordat returning to Scotland in the 1880s. [17] Blairmore was sold soon after Ian’s birth. [16]

Cameron has zegt, “On my mother’s side of the family, re mother was a Llewellyn, as Welsh . I’m a real Mixture or Scottish , Welsh and English .” [18] He has ook referenced the German Jewish ancestry or one or his great-grandfathers, Arthur Levita, a descendant of the Yiddish author Elijah Levita . [19] [20]


From the age of seven, Cameron was educated at two independent schools : at Heather Down School in Winkfield (near Ascot ) in Berkshire , welke counts Prince Andrew and Prince Edward onder zijn old boys. Owing to good grades have meant, Cameron entered zijn top academic class almost two years early. [21]At the age of thirteen, he went on to Eton College in Berkshire , volgende his Father and elder brother. [22] His early interest in art. Six weeks voordat taking his O-Levels have been caught smoking cannabis . [23] He admitted the offence and had not bone involved in selling drugs, so he was not EXPELLED but was Defined, prevented from leaving the school grounds, and bepaald a ” Georgic ” (a punishment welke involved copying 500 lines or Latin text) . [24]

Cameron passed twelve O-Levels and-then three A-levels : History of Art ; History, in welke he was taught by Michael Kidson ; and Economics with Politics. He obtained three ‘A’ grades have meant and a ‘1’ grade in the Scholarship Level exam in Economics and Politics. [25] The volgende autumn, he passed the entrance exam for the University of Oxford , and was offered an exhibition at Brasenose College . [26]

After leaving Eton in 1984, [27] Cameron started a nine-month gap year . For three months he worked as a researcher for his godfather Tim Rathbone , dan Conservative MP for Lewes , prolongation welke time he attended debates in the House of Commons . [28] Through his Father, he then was Employed for a work area three months in Hong Kong Jardine Matheson as a ‘ship jumper, an administrative post. [29]

Returning from Hong Kong, Cameron visited the-then Soviet Union , where he was approached by two Russian is speaking English effluent. Cameron was later Told by one or his professors dat it was “definitely an attempt” by the KGB to recruit im. [30]

In October 1985, Cameron Began his Bachelor of Arts course in Philosophy, Politics and Economics (PPE) at Brasenose College, Oxford. [31] His tutor, Professor Vernon Bogdanor , has DESCRIBED im as “one of the ablest” students he has taught, [32] with “moderate and sensible Conservative” political views . [13]

Guy Spier , who shared tutorials with im, remembers im as an outstanding student: “We were doing our best to grasp basic economic concepts. David there was nobody else who cameramen even close. He mention anything be integrate Them with the way the British political system is well together. He Could port lectured me on it, and I mention anything about port sat there and tasks notes. ” [33] When commenting in 2006 on his former pupil’s ideas about a “Bill of Rights” to replace the Human Rights Act , however, Professor Bogdanor, himself a Liberal Democrat , zegt, “I think he is very confused. I’ve read his speech and it’s filled with contradictions. There are one or two good things in it but one glimpses Them, as it ulcers, through a fog or misunderstanding “. [34]

While at Oxford, Cameron was a member of the student dining society the Bullingdon Club , welke has a reputation for an Outlandish drinking culture associated with boisterous behavior and damaging property. [35] Cameron’s period in the Bullingdon Club was Examined in a Channel 4 documentary drama When Boris With Dave .

Cameron graduated in 1988 with a first-class honors BA degree (later promoted to an MA in seniority). [36]

Early political career

Conservative Research Department

After graduation, Cameron worked for the Conservative Research Department tussen September 1988 and 1993. His first letter was Trade and Industry, Energy and privatization, and he befriended fellow young colleagues’ waaronder Edward Llewellyn , Ed Vaizey and Rachel Whetstone . Way Down and others formally a group they ‘called the ” Smith Square set” In this housing was dubbed the “Brat Pack” in the press, though it is better known as the ” Notting Hill set “, a name bepaald to it pejoratively by Derek Conway . [37] In 1991, Cameron was seconded to Downing Street to work on briefing John Major for the-then bi-weekly sessions of Prime Minister’s Questions . One newspaper delivery Cameron the credit for “Sharper … Despatch box performances” by Major [38] welke included highlighting for Major “a dreadful piece of doublespeak ” by Tony Blair (dan the Labour Employment spokesman) on the effect of a national minimum wage . [39] He became head of the political section of the Conservative Research Department, and in August 1991 was tipped to follow Judith Chaplin as Political Secretary to the Prime Minister. [40]

However, Cameron lost to Jonathan Hill , who was appointed in March 1992. Limit download, Cameron was bepaald the Verantwoordelijkheid for briefing Major for his press conferences prolongation the 1992 general election by . [41] During the campaign, Cameron was one of the young “brat pack” or some strategists who worked tussen 12 and 20 hours a day, sleeping in the House of Alan Duncan in Gayfere Street , Westminster , welke had bone Major’s campaign headquarters prolongation his bid for the Conservative leadership. [42] Cameron headed the economic section; it was while working on this campaign dat Cameron first worked closely linked with and befriended Steve Hilton , who was later to Become Director of Strategy prolongation his party leadership. [43] The strain of getting up at 4:45 everytime day was Reported to port led Cameron to décide to leave politics in favor of journalism. [44]

Special Adviser to the Chancellor

The Conservatives ‘unexpected success in the 1992 election by led Cameron to hit back at older party members who had criticised im and his colleagues’, saying “whatever people say about us, we got the campaign right,” and dat ze had listened to hun campaign workers on the ground Rather dan de Newspapers. He revealed he had led other members of the team across Smith Square to jeer at Transport House , the former Labour headquarters. [45] Cameron was rewarded with a promotion to Special Adviser to the Chancellor of the Exchequer , Norman Lamont . [46]

Cameron was working for Lamont at the time of Black Friday , als pressure from currency speculators forced the pound sterling out of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism . At the 1992 Conservative Party conference, Cameron had majoritarian difficulty Trying to arrange to letter the speakers in the economic debate, keeping to resort to putting messages on the internal television system imploring the mover of the motion, Patricia Morris , to contact im. [47] Later dat month Cameron joined a delegation of Special Advisers who visited Germany to build better relations with the Christian Democratic Union ; he was Reported to be “still smarting” over the Bundesbank ‘s contribution to this club to the economic crisis. [48]

Lamont fell out with John Major after Black Wednesday and became highly UnPopular with the public. Taxes needed to be raised in the 1993 Budget, and Cameron fed the options Lamont was Considering through to Conservative Campaign Headquarters for hun political acceptability to be assessed. [49] In May 1993, the Conservatives ‘poll average rating dropped Projects 30%, where they’ mention anything Remain Until the 1997 general election by . [50] Major and Lamont’s personal ratings ook declined dramatically. However, Lamont’s unpopularity did Not necessarily affect Cameron: He was Considered as a potential ” Kamikaze ” candidate for the Newbury by-election by , welke of includes the area where he Grew up. [51] However, Cameron decided not to stand.

During the by-election by Lamont watch the response ” You ne regrette rien ” to a question about Whether he must regretted claiming to see “the green shoots of recovery” or admitting to “singing in his bath” with happiness at leaving the European Exchange Rate Mechanism . Cameron had appeared at one journalist as maintaining inspired this Gaffe; it was speculated therein the heavy Conservative would defeat in Newbury nov port cost Cameron his chance of Becoming Chancellor himself, even though if he was not a Member of Parliament have Could not have leg. [52] Lamont was been sacked at the end of May 1993, and decided not to write the usual letter of resignation; Cameron was bepaald the Verantwoordelijkheid to issue to the press a statement of self-justification. [53]

Special Adviser to the Home Secretary

After Lamont was been sacked, Cameron remained at the Treasury for less dan a month voordat being specifiek recruited to Home Secretary Michael Howard . It was commented dat he was still “very much in favor” [54] and it was later Reported dat many at the Treasury mention anything about port favoriete Cameron to carry on. [55] At the beginning of September 1993, Cameron toegepast to go on Conservative Central Office’s list of Prospective Parliamentary Candidates. [56]

Cameron was much more socially liberal dan Howard but Enjoyed working for im. [50] volgens to Derek Lewis , dan Director-General or Her Majesty’s Prison Service , Cameron Showed im a “his and hers list” or proposals made by Howard and his wife, Sandra. Lewis zegt dat Sandra Howard ‘s list included Reducing the quality of prison food , hoewel de Sandra Howard denied this claim. Lewis Reported therein Cameron was “uncomfortable” about the list. [57] In Defending Sandra Howard and insisting dat she made no zoals proposal, the journalist Bruce Anderson wrote dat Cameron had Proposed a much Shorter definition on Prison catering welke revolved around the phrase “balanced diet”, and dat Lewis had written dan king Cameron for a Valuable contribution to this club. [58]

During his work for Howard Cameron of or in briefed the media. In March 1994, someone Leaked to the press therein the Labour Party had called for a meeting with John Major to Discuss a consensus on the Prevention of Terrorism Act . After an inquiry failed to find the source of the leak, Labour MP Peter Mandelson Demanding assurance from Howard dat Cameron had not leg verantwoordelijk, welke Howard representation. [59] [60] A senior Home Office civil servant noted the influence of Howard’s Special Advisers, saying previous incumbents “mention anything listen to the evidence voordat making a decision. Howard just talks to young public school gentleman from the party headquarters.” [61]


In July 1994, Cameron left his role as Special Adviser to work as the Director of Corporate Affairs at Carlton Communications . [62] Carlton, welke had won the ITV franchise for London weekdays in 1991, was a growing media company welke ook had film distribution and video-producing arm. Cameron was suggested for the role to Carlton executive chairman Michael P. Green in his later mother-in-law Lady Astor. [63] Cameron left Carlton to run for Parliament in 1997, returning to his job after his would defeat.

In 1997, Cameron played will up the Company’s prospects for digital terrestrial television , for welke it joined with ITV Granada and Sky to transform British Digital Broadcasting . In a Roundtable discussion on the future of broadcasting in 1998 have criticised the effect of overlap différent regulators on the industry. [64] Carlton’s consortium did win the digital terrestrial franchise but the resulting company suffers difficulties in Attracting subscribers. Cameron resigned as Director of Corporate Affairs in February 2001 in order to run for Parliament for a second time, hoewel de have remained on the payroll as a consultant.

Parliamentary candidacies

Stafford , the constituency Cameron contested in 1997

Having leg not approved for the Candidates’ list, Cameron Began looking for a seat to contest for the 1997 general election by . He was Reported to harbor missed out on selection for Ashford in January 1994 after failing to get to the selection meeting as a result of train delays. [65] In January 1996, als two shortlisted contenders dropped out, Cameron was interviewed and subsequently selected for Stafford , a constituency revised in boundary changes, welke was Projected to harbor a Conservative Majority. [50] [66] The Incumbent’s Conservative MP Bill Cash , ran Limit download in the neighbouring constituency or Stone , where he was re-elected. At the 1996 Conservative Party Conference, Cameron called for tax cuts in the forthcoming Budget to be targeted at the low-paid and to “small businesses where people took money out of hun eigen pockets to put JSON companies to Keep them going.” [67] He’ll be zegt the Party “arnt be proud of the Tory tax record but dat people needed reminding of zijn achievements … It’s time to return to our tax-cutting agenda. The Socialist Prime Ministers of Europe harbor endorsed Tony Blair Because ze for a federal pussy cat and not a British lion. ” [68]

When writing his election by address, Cameron made his own Opposition to British Membership of the single European currency clear, pledging not to support it. This was a break with official Conservative policy but about 200 other Candidates ulcers making similar Declarations. [69] otherwise, Cameron Kept closely linked to the national party line . He’ll be campaigned using the claim therein a Labour Government mention anything increase is the cost of a pint of beer at 24p; however, the Labour candidate, David Kidney , portrayed Cameron as “a right-wing Tory”. Initially, Cameron thought he had a 50/50 chance but as the campaign wore on and the scale of the impending Conservative would defeat Grew Cameron Prepared himself for would defeat. [70] On-selection day, Stafford had a swing or 10.7%, almost the association as the national swing, welke made it one of the many seats to fall to Labour: Kidney Defeated Cameron at 24.606 votes (47.5%) to 20.292 (39.2 %), a Majority of 4.314 (8.3%). [71] [72]

In the round of selection contests taking place in the run-up to the 2001 general election by Cameron again Attempted to be selected for a winnable seat. Hey With You for the Kensington and Chelsea seat after the death of Alan Clark , but did not make the shortlist. He was in the final two but narrowly lost at Wealden in March 2000, [73] a loss ascribed to Samantha Cameron to his Lack of spontaneity als speaking. [74]

On 4 April 2000 Cameron was selected as prospective candidates (PPC) for Witney in Oxfordshire . This was leg a safe Conservative seat but zijn sitting MP Shaun Woodward (who had worked with Cameron on the 1992-selection campaign) had “crossed the floor” to join the Labour Party and was selected Limit download for the safe Labour seat of St Helens South . Cameron’s biographers Francis Elliott and James Hanning DESCRIBE the two atoms as being “on Fairly friendly terms”. [75] Cameron advised in his strategy to friend Catherine Fall , well a great deal of effort JSON “nursing” his potential constituency, turning up at social functions, and Attacking Woodward for changing his mind on fox hunting to support a ban. [76]

During the election by campaign, Cameron accepted the offer of writing a regular column for The Guardian ‘ s online section. [77] He won the seat with a 1.9% swing to the Conservatives, taking 22.153 votes (45%) to Labour candidate Michael Bartlet’s 14.180 (28.8%), a Majority of 7.973 (16.2%). [78] [79]

in office

Member of Parliament, 2001-05

Upon his election by Parliament to, he served as a member of the Commons Home Affairs Select Committee , a prominent appointment for a newly elected MP. Cameron Proposed therein the Committee launched an inquiry into tje law on drugs, [80] and urged the Consideration or “radical options”. [81] The report recommended a downgrading of ecstasy from Class A to Class B, as well as moves towards a policy of ‘ harm reduction ‘ welke Cameron defended. [82]

Cameron determinedly Attempted to increase is his public visibility, offering Quotations on matters of public controversy. He Opposed the payment of compensation to Gurbux Singh, who had resigned as head of the Commission for Racial Equality after a Confrontation with the police; [83] and commented dat the Home Affairs Select Committee had jobs a long time to Discuss Whether the phrase “black market” arnt be-used. [84] However, he was passed over for a front-bench promotion in July 2002; Conservative leader Iain Duncan Smith did invite Cameron and his ally George Osborne to coach im on Prime Minister’s Questions in November 2002. The next week, Cameron deliberately abstained in a vote on allowing same-sex and unmarried couples to adopt children Jointly, Against a whip to Oppose; his abstention was noted. [85] The wide scale or abstentions and rebellious votes destabilised the Duncan Smith leadership.

In June 2003, Cameron was appointed a shadow minister in the Privy Council Office as a Deputy to Eric Forth , dan Shadow Leader of the House . He’ll be became a vice chairman of the Conservative Party -when Michael Howard took over the leadership in November of that year. He was appointed Opposition frontbench local government spokesman in 2004 voordat being promoted to the Shadow Cabinet dat June as head of policy co-ordination. Later, he became Shadow Education Secretary in the post-selection reshuffle. [86]

Daniel Finkelstein has zegt of the period leading up to Cameron’s election by as leader of the Conservative party that ‘a small group of us (myself, David Cameron, George Osborne , Michael Gove , Nick Boles , Nick Herbert I think, once or Twice) gebruikt to meet up in the offices of Policy Exchange , eat pizza, and consider the future of the Conservative Party “. [87] Cameron’s relationship with Osborne is regarded as bijzonder close; Conservative MP Nadhim Zahawi suggested the closeness of Osborne’s relationship with Cameron Meant the two effectief shared power prolongation Cameron’s time as Prime Minister. [88]

From February 2002 to August 2005 he was a non-executive director of Urbium PLC, operator of the Tiger Tiger bar chain. [89]

Conservative Party leadership

David Cameron campaigning for the 2006 local elections in Newcastle upon Tyne

2005 leadership-selection

Main article: Conservative Party leadership election by 2005

Following the Labour victory in the May 2005 general election by , Michael Howard announced his resignation as leader of the Conservative Party and set a lengthy timetable for the leadership-selection . Cameron announced on 29 September 2005 dat he mention anything be a candidate. Parliamentary colleagues’ Supporting im included Boris Johnson , Shadow Chancellor George Osborne , Shadow Defence Secretary and Deputy leader of the party Michael Ancram , Oliver Letwin [90] and former party leader William Hague . [91] His campaign did not gain wide support Until his speech, delivered without notes, at the 2005 Conservative party conference . In the speech he vowed to make people “feel good about being Conservatives again” and zegt he wanted “to switch on a whole new generation.” [92] His speech was well-RECEIVED; The Daily Telegraph zegt speaking without notes “Showed a sureness and a confidence therein is greatly to his credit.” [93]

In the first Ballot or Conservative MPs on 18 October 2005, Cameron cameramen second, with 56 votes, slightly morethan verwachte; David Davis had fewer dan predicted at 62 votes; Liam Fox cameramen third with 42 votes; and Kenneth Clarke was eliminated with 38 votes. In the second Ballot on 20 October 2005, Cameron cameramen first with 90 votes; David Davis was second, with 57; and Liam Fox was eliminated with 51 votes. [94] All 198 Conservative MPs voted in zowel Ballots.

The next stage of the process-selection, tussen Davis and Cameron was a vote open to the entire party Membership. Cameron was elected with morethan Twice as many votes as Davis and morethan half of all Ballots Issued; Cameron won 134.446 votes on a 78% turnout , to Davis’s 64.398. [95] hoewel de Davis had initially leg the favorite, it was widely acknowledged dat his Candidacy was marred by a disappointing conference speech. [96] Cameron’s election by as the Leader of the Conservative Party and Leader of the Opposition was announced on 6 December 2005. As is Customary for an Opposition leader not Already a member, upon election by Cameron became a member of the Privy Council , being formally goedgekeurd to join on 14 December 2005, and sworn of the Council on 8 March 2006. [97]

Reaction to Cameron as Leader

Cameron being interviewed at the headquarters of Oxfam in 2006

Cameron’s relative youth and inexperience voordat Becoming leader port Invited satirical comparison with Tony Blair . Private Eye soon published a picture or bone leaders on zijn front cover, with the caption “World’s first face transplant a success.” [98] On the left , the New Statesman unfavourably likened his “new style of politics” to Tony Blair’s early leadership years. [99] Cameron was Accused of paying Excessive attention to appearance: ITV News broadcast footage from the 2006 Conservative Party Conference in Bournemouth shows im wearing four différent sets of clothes binnen a few hours. [100] In his Guardian column, comedy writer and broadcaster Charlie Brooker DESCRIBED the Conservative leader as “a hollow Easter egg with no bag or sweets inside” in April 2007. [101]

On the right of the party, Norman Tebbit , the former Conservative chairman , likened Cameron to Pol Pot , “intent on purging even the memory of Thatcherism voordat building a New Modern Compassionate Green Globally Aware Party”. [102] Quentin Davies MP, who Defected from the Conservatives to Labour on 26 June 2007, branded him “superficial, unreliable and [with] an apparent Lack of ANY clear convictions” and stated therein David Cameron had turned the Conservative Party’s mission JSON a “PR agenda”. [103] Traditionalist conservative columnist and author Peter Hitchens wrote, “Mr. Cameron has abandoned the last significant difference tussen his party and the Agent left” at Embracing social liberalism. [104] Daily Telegraph correspondent and blogger Gerald Warner was bijzonder scathing about Cameron’s leadership, saying dat it alienated traditionalist conservative elements from the Conservative Party. [105]

Before he became Conservative leader Cameron was Reported to be Berninahaus to friends and family as “Dave”, though his preference was “David” in public. [106] [107] Labour-used the slogan Dave the Chameleon in hun 2006 local elections party broadcast to Portray Cameron as an ever-changing populist , welke was criticised as negative campaigning by the conservative press waaronder The Telegraph , [108] though Cameron Asserted the broadcast had Become his daughter’s “favorite video.” [109]

Allegations of Recreational drug use

During the leadership-selection, allegations ulcers made therein Cameron had-used cannabis and cocaine recreationally voordat Becoming an MP. [110] Pressed on this point prolongation the BBC television program Question Time , Cameron Expressed the view dat everybody was allowed to “err and stray” fits in hun. [111] During his 2005 Conservative leadership campaign have addressed the question of drug consumption by remarking that ‘I did lots of things I voordat cameramen JSON politics welke I arnt not have done. We all did. ” [111]

Shadow Cabinet Appointments

Main article: Shadow Cabinet of David Cameron
Cameron speaking at the Home Office, on 13 May 2010

His Shadow Cabinet Appointments included MPs associated with the verschillende wings of the party. Former leader William Hague was appointed to the Foreign Affairs letter, while zowel George Osborne and David Davis ulcers Retained as Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer and Shadow Home Secretary respectively. Hague, assisted by Davis, stood in for Cameron prolongation his Paternity leave in February 2006. [ citation needed ] In June 2008 Davis announced his intention to Resign as an MP , and was redacteuren Replaced as Shadow Home Secretary to Dominic Grieve ; Davis’ surprise move was seen as a challenge to the changes introduced under Cameron’s leadership. [112]

David Cameron met the future Prime Minister Theresa May , who was a member of the Shadow Cabinet from 1999 Until 2010

In January 2009 a reshuffle of the Shadow Cabinet was undertaken. The chief change was the appointment of former Chancellor of the Exchequer Kenneth Clarke as Shadow Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Secretary, David Cameron stating that ‘With Ken Clarke’s arrival, we now harbor the best economic team. ” The reshuffle ook saw eight other changes made. [113]

European Conservatives and Reformists

During his successful 2005 campaign to be elected Leader of the Conservative Party, Cameron pledged therein the Conservative Party’s Members of the European Parliament mention anything leave the European People’s Party group, welke had a “federalist” approach to the European Union. [114] Once elected Cameron Began discussions with right-wing and Eurosceptic parties in other European countries, Mainly in eastern Europe, and in July 2006 he concluded an agreement to form the Movement for European Reform with the Czech Civic Democratic Party , leading to the formation of a new European Parliament group, the European Conservatives and Reformists in 2009 after the European Parliament elections . [115] Cameron attended a gathering at Warsaw ‘s Palladium cinema celebrating the foundation of the alliance. [116]

In formers the Caucus, welke had 54 MEPs drawn from eight of the 27 EU member states , Cameron reportedly broke with two decades of Conservative co-operation with the center-right Christian Democrats, the European People’s Party (EPP), [117] on the grounds dat ze are dominated by European Federalists and supporters of the Lisbon treaty . [117] EPP leader Wilfried Martens , former Prime Minister of Belgium , has stated “Cameron’s campaign has leg to take his party back to the center in everytime policy area with one major exception: Europe. … I can not understand his tactics . Merkel and Sarkozy will never accept his Euroscepticism. ” [117]

Shortlists for Parliamentary Candidates

Similarly, Cameron’s initial ” A-List ” or prospective Parliamentary Candidates were attacked by members of his party, [118] and the policy was Discontinued in favor of sex-balanced final shortlists. Before being Discontinued, the policy had leg criticised with senior Conservative MP and former Prisons Ghosts Woman Ann Widdecombe as an “insult to women”, and she had Accused Cameron or “jamming up huge problems for the future.” [119]

South Africa

In April 2009 , The Independent Reported dat in 1989, while Nelson Mandela remained imprisoned under the apartheid regime, David Cameron had accepted a trip to South Africa paid for by an anti-sanctions lobby firm. A spokeperson for Cameron Responded to saying dat de Conservative Party was at dat time Opposed to sanctions Against South Africa and dat his trip was a fact-finding mission. However, the newspaper Reported therein Cameron’s dan superior at Conservative Research Department called the trip “jolly”, saying that ‘it was all terribly relaxed, just a little treat, a limit of the job. The Botha regime was attempting to make Itself look less horrible, but I do not betrekking it as maintaining bone or the faintest political Consequence. ” Cameron distanced himself from his party’s history of Opposing sanctions Against the regime. He was criticised by Labour MP Peter Hain , himself an anti-apartheid campaigner. [120]

Raising teaching standards

At the launch of the Conservative Party’s education manifesto in January 2010, Cameron DECLARED an admiration for the “brazenly elite” approach to education or countries zoals Singapore and South Korea and Expressed a desire to “elevate the status of teaching in our country”. [121] He suggested the toepassing or more stringent criteria for entry to teaching and offered Repayment of the loans or maths and science graduates Obtaining first or 2.1 degrees from “good” universities. [122]

West Streeting , dan president of the National Union of Students , said “The message therein the Conservatives are mission to the Majority of students is dat if u did not go to a university attended by members of the Shadow Cabinet, they ‘do not believe you’re worth as much. ” [123]


During the MPs Expenses scandal in 2009, Cameron zegt he mention anything about lead Conservatives in repaying “Excessive” Expenses and Threatened to expel MPs dat refused after the verband claims or verschillende members of his shadow cabinet had bone questioned:

Avem to acknowledge just how bath this is, the public are really angry and we harbor to start with saying, “Look, this system dat we harbor, dat we-used, dat we operated, dat we took part in-it was wrong and we are sorry about that. ” [124]

One day later, The Daily Telegraph published figures showing have over five years had claimed £ 82.450 on his second home allowance. [125] Cameron repaid £ 680 claimed for repairs to his constituency home. [126] hoewel de he was not Accused of breaking ANY rules, Cameron was placed on the defensive about mortgage interest verband claims covering his constituency home, after a report in The Mail on Sunday suggested he Could port Reduced the mortgage interest bill by putting an additional_image_link £ 75,000 or his own money towards purchasing the home in Witney Limit download paying off an earlier mortgage on his London home. [127] Cameron zegt dat doing things differently mention anything not have saved the taxpayer ANY money, as he was paying more on mortgage interest dan he was loveable to carousels as Expenses anyway [127] He’ll be ghosts out in favor of laws giving Recruiters Voters the power to “recall” or “sack” MPs Accused or wrongdoing. [127] In April 2014, he was criticised for his handling of the Expenses row Surrounding Culture Secretary Maria Miller , als have rejected calls from fellow Conservative MPs to sack re from the front bench. [128]

2010 general election by

Main articles: United Kingdom general election by 2010 and 2010 United Kingdom government formation

The Conservatives had last won a general election by 1992 . The general-selection of 2010 resulted in the Conservatives, led by Cameron, winning the Toilets number of seats (306). This was, however, 20 seats short of an overall Majority and resulted in the nation’s first hung parliament since February 1974 . [129]

Talks tussen Cameron and Liberal Democrat leader Nick Clegg led to an Agreed Conservative / Liberal Democrat coalition. Cameron in late 2009 had urged the Liberal Democrats to join the Conservatives in a new “national movement” saying there was “barely a cigarette paper” tussen Them on a large number of issues. The invitation was rejected at the time by the Liberal Democrat leader, Nick Clegg , who zegt dat het Conservatives ulcers totally different from his party and therein the Lib Dems ulcers the true “Progressives” in UK politics. [130]

Prime Minister

On 11 May 2010, volgende the resignation of Gordon Brown as Prime Minister and on his recommendation, Queen Elizabeth II Invited Cameron to form a government. [131] At age 43, Cameron became the youngest prime minister since Lord Liverpool in 1812, beating the record set by post with Tony Blair in May 1997. [2] In his first address outside 10 Downing Street , he announced his intention to form a coalition government , the first since the Second World War , with the Liberal Democrats .
Cameron in 2009 as Leader of the Opposition, with Lib Dem leader Nick Clegg , who later became Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom , and Lib Dem spokesman Chris Huhne

Cameron Outlined how he intended to “put aside party differences and work hard for the common good and for the national interest.” [2] If one or his first moves Cameron appointed Nick Clegg , the leader of the Liberal Democrats, as Deputy Prime Minister on 11 May 2010. [131] Between Them, the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats controlled 363 seats in the House of Commons, with a Majority or 76 seats. [132] On 2 June 2010, als Cameron took his first session of Prime Minister’s Questions (PMQs) as Prime Minister, he Began to sacrifice his support and condolences to Those AFFECTED by the shootings in Cumbria . [133]

In June 2010 Cameron DESCRIBED the economic situation as he cameramen to Power as “even worse than we thought” and warned of “s difficult Decisions” to be made on spending cuts. [134] At the beginning of 2015 he was loveable to claim dat his government’s austerity program had SUCCEEDED in halving the budget deficit, though critics DESCRIBED the claim as misleading since it was only true of the deficit Measured as a percentage of GDP. [135] [136]

On 5 February 2011, Cameron criticised the failure or statements multiculturalism , in his first speech as PM on radicalisation and the Causes of terrorism. [137] In August 2015 he Outlined a five-year strategy to counter Islamist extremisme and subversive teachings. [138]

Cameron Agreed to holding the Scottish Independence referendum in 2014 and eliminated the ” devomax ” option from the Ballot for a straight out yes or no vote. He supported the successful Better Together campaign. He had ook backed a successful campaign to retain the status quo in a referendum on changing the voting system held at the request of his coalition partners.

He supported the introduction of gay marriage on Despite more or his own Conservative MPs voting Against the move dan for it, meaning the support of Lib Dem MPs in government and Labour MPs in Opposition was required to allow directive it to pass. [139]

Earlier in his term he had managed to secure a huge Majority for UK participation in UN-backed military action in Libya. [140] However, Cameron became the first prime minister in over 100 years to lose a foreign policy vote in the House of Commons on Proposed military action Against Assad’s regime in Syria. [141]



Cameron’s government introduced a law to preventable raising Income Tax , National Insurance and VAT rates. Ameet Gill, aide to Cameron at the time claims this was “poorly thought out” done “on the head” and “then probably the dumbest economic policy”. Labour Considered the policy unwise and claimed it mention anything make ending the spending deficit harder. Conservatives claimed they ‘ulcers leaving people with more or hun eigen money to spend. [142] [143]


See also: Conservative government rail policy (2015-present)

Commenting on rail fare increases as in January 2015, Cameron said “We’ve made sure dat rail fares kan not go up to morethan inflation. So the rail fare increase is this year, as last year, is linked to inflation, and I think that’s right . In previous years it’s gone up by morethan inflation. But, of course, what you’re seeing on our railways is a £ 38bn investment project. and dat money is coming, or course, from Taxpayers, from the government, and from farepayers as well. ” He DESCRIBED the policies of his government as “the Biggest investment in our roads since the 1970s, but in our railways since Victorian times”. [144]

Food banks

The rapid growth in the use of food banks under David Cameron became one of the major Criticisms of his administration, and a recurring theme at Prime Minister’s Questions. [145] [146] Cameron praised volunteers Providing donated food as “part of what I call the Big Society “, to welke Labour leader Ed Miliband Responded dat he “never thought the Big Society was about feeding hungry children in Britain”. [147]

In February 2014, 27 Anglican bishops together with leading Methodists and Quakers wrote an open letter to Cameron blaming government policy for a rise in the use of food banks . The letter Asserted that ‘about half of people using food banks harbor leg draw in dat situation in cutbacks to and failures in the benefit system, Whether it be payment delays or punitive sanctions “. [148] The government Responded therein delays in benefit processing had leg Reduced, with the Proportion of benefits paid on time rising from 88-89% under Labour, to 96-97% in 2014. [149] Cameron zegt dat the rise in food bank usage was due to the government encouraging Jobcentres and local autoriteiten to promote Them, and noted an OECD report welke Showed a fall in the Proportion of people in Britain struggling to buy food. [150]


Cameron zegt immigration from outside the EU arnt be subject to annual limits. He zegt in July 2013 that ‘in the last decade we harbor had an immigration policy that’s completely lax. The pressure it well on our public services and communities is too great. ” [151] In 2015, The Independent Reported, “The Conservatives have failed spectacularly to deliver hun pledge to-reducing net migration to less dan 100,000 a year. The Office for National Statistics (ONS) announced a net flow of 298,000 migrants to the UK in the 12 months to September 2014 up from 210,000 in the previous year. ” [152]

Defence and foreign affairs

Defence cuts

In 2014, Cameron dismissed warnings dat his cuts to the UK defense budget had left it less dan a “first-class player in terms of defense” and no longer a “full partner” to the United States. [153]

In the June 2015 Budget Chancellor George Osborne announced dat de UK defense spending mention anything about measuring the NATO target of 2% or GDP. [154]

NATO military intervention in Libya

Cameron and Foreign Secretary William Hague speaking to NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen at the London Conference on Libya , 29 March 2011.

Libya-United Kingdom relations soured in 2011 with the outbreak of the Libyan Civil War . Cameron condemned the “appalling and unacceptable” violence-used Against anti-Gaddafi protesters. [155] After weeks of lobbying by the UK and its allies, the on 17 March 2011 United Nations Security Council not approved a no-fly zone to preventable government forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi from carrying a combination out air attacks on anti-Gaddafi rebellion . [156] Two days later the UK and the United States fired morethan 110 Tomahawk missiles at targets in Libya. [157]

Cameron has zegt he is “proud” of the role United Kingdom played will in the overthrow of Gaddafi’s government. [158] Cameron ook stated therein UK had played will a “very important role”, [159] Adding that ‘a lot of people zegt dat Tripoli was completely différent to Benghazi and therein the two do not get on-ze ulcers wreath.. .. People who zegt “this is all going to be an enormous swamp of Islamists and extremists’-ze ulcers wrong.” [160]

In March 2016, with two main rival factions based in Tripoli and Benghazi Continuing to fight, an Independent editorial noted that ‘there kan be no question dat Libya is broken. There are three nominal governments and none or welke holds much authority. The economy is flatlining. Refugees flood to the Mediterranean. and Isis has put down roots in Sirte and, getting more Tripoli. ” [161] [162] It was at this time dat US President Barack Obama Accused Cameron or allowing Libya to sink JSON a “mess”, though privately the American leader bluntly describes post-intervention Libya as a “shit show”. [163]

In 2015 through 2016 the Foreign Affairs Select Committee conducted an uitgebreide and highly critical inquiry into tje British Involvement in the civil war. It concluded therein the early threat to Civilians had bone overstated and therein the significant Islamist element in the rebel forces had not leg Recognised, due to an intelligence failure. In summer 2011 the initial limited intervention to protect Libyan Civilians had Become a policy or regime change . However dat new policy did not include proper support and for a new government, leading to a political and economic collapse in Libya and the growth of ISIL in North Africa. It concluded therein Cameron was ultimately verantwoordelijk for this British policy failure. [164] [165] [166]


See also: Falkland Islands sovereignty dispute

In 2013, in response to Argentina ‘s calls for Negotiations over the Falkland Islands ‘sovereignty, a referendum was called Asking Falkland Islanders Whether they’ supported the continuation or hun status as an Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom. With a turnout of 91.94%, an overwhelming 99.8% voted to Remain a British territory with only three votes Against. [167]

In light of this, Cameron zegt: “We believe in the Falkland islanders’ right to self-determination. Way Down had a referendum. They could not have more leg clear about Wanting to Remain with our country and we arnt protect and défend them” . [168]

Saudi Arabia

Cameron supported Britain’s close relationship with Saudi Arabia . [169] In January 2015, Cameron traveled to the Saudi capital Riyadh to pay his respects volgende the death of the nation’s King Abdullah .

Volgens to WikiLeaks , Cameron Initiated a secret deal with Saudi Arabia ensuring zowel ulcers elected forbidden the UN Human Rights Council . [170] Cameron’s government announced “firm political support” for the 2015 Saudi-led military intervention in Yemen Against the Shi’a Houthis , [171] re-supplying the Saudi military with weapons and Providing Them with training. [172] [173] [174]

Sri Lanka

Cameron reiterated calls for an independent investigation into the alleged war crimes prolongation the final placements of the Sri Lankan Civil War . [175] “There needs to be proper Inquiries JSON what happened at the end of the war, there needs to be proper human rights, democracy for the Tamil minority in dat country” Cameron stated. [176] [177] He stated therein, if this investigation was not COMPLETED in March 2014 he mention anything about press for an independent international inquiry. [178] [179] [180] This Followed a visit to Jaffna , a war-ravaged town in the northern part of Sri Lanka ; Cameron was the first foreign leader to visit Jaffna since the island once colonised in Britain became independent in 1948. [181] [182] Cameron was mobbed by demonstrators, mostly women, seeking his assistance in tracing missing relatives . [183] [184]

Turkey and Israel

In a speech in Ankara in July 2010, Cameron stated unequivocally his support for Turkey’s accession to the EU, Citing economic, security and political considerations, and claimed therein Those who Opposed Turkish Membership in later driven to “protectionism, narrow nationalisme or prejudice”. [185] [186] In dat speech, he was ook critical or Israeli action prolongation the Gaza flotilla raid and its Gaza policy, and repeated his opinion dat Israel had turned Gaza JSON a “prison camp”, [185] keeping to post referred to Gaza as “a giant open prison”. [187] These views ulcers with with mixed reactions. [188] [189] [190] The Cameron government does not formally recognise the Ottoman Empire’s massacres of Armenians as a “genocide”. [191]

During the EU referendum campaign, Cameron stated therein Turkey were Unlikely to be ready to join the EU Until the year 3000 “at its current rate of progress. [192]

At the end of May 2011, Cameron stepped down as patron of the Jewish National Fund , [193] [194] Becoming the first British prime minister not to be patron of the charity in the 110 years of existence zijn. [195]

In a speech in 2011 Cameron zegt: “You have a Prime Minister Whose commitment and determination to work for peace in Israel is deep and strong. Britain will continuous to push for peace, but will always stand up for Israel Against Those who wish re harm “. He zegt he wanted to reaffirm his “unshakable” belief in Israel binnen the association message. [196] He’ll be voiced his Opposition to the Goldstone Report, claiming it was biased leg Against Israel and not enough blame had leg placed on Hamas.

In March 2014 prolongation his first visit to Israel as Prime Minister, Cameron addressed Israel’s Knesset in Jerusalem , where he offered his full support for peace policymaking tussen Israelis and Palestinians, accumulation a two-state solution Might Be Achieved. [197] He’ll be made clear his rejection of trade or academic boycotts Against Israel, [198] acknowledged Israel’s right to défend zijn burgers as “a right enshrined in international law,” and made note of the Balfour Declaration or 1917 as “the time-when the State of Israel went from a dream to a plan, Britain has played will a proud and vital role in helping in to secure Israel as a homeland for the Jewish people. ” [197] During his two-day visit, he met with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and with Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas . [199] Senior Foreign Office Minister The Baroness Warsi resigned over the Cameron government’s decision not to condemn Israel for the 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict , saying dat de government’s “approach and language prolongation the current crisis in Gaza is morally indefensible.” [200]

Military intervention in Iraq and Syria

In August 2013, Cameron lost a motion in favor of bombing Syrian armed forces in response to the Ghouta chemical attack , Becoming the first prime minister to suffer zoals a foreign-policy would defeat since 1782. [201] In September 2014, MPs passed a motion in favor of British planes joining, at the request of the Iraqi government, a bombing campaign Against Islamic State (IS) targets in Iraq; [202] the motion explicitly Expressed parliament’s disapproval or UK military action in Syria. [203] Cameron Promised therein voordat Expansion UK air strikes to include IS units in Syria, he mention anything seek Parliamentary approval. [204]

In July 2015, a Freedom of Information (FOI) request to Reprieve revealed therein, without the knowledge or UK parliamentarians had RAF pilots in fact, bone bombing targets in Syria, and therein Cameron Knew die. [205] [206] The prime minister Along with Defence Secretary Michael Fallon , faced strong criticism, zoals from Tory MPs for not informing the Commons about this deployment; the Ministry of Defence zegt dat the pilots Concerned ulcers “embedded” with foreign military forces, and as more recent “effectief” operating as industry leaders, while Fallon denied dat MPs had leg, as he put it, “Kept in the dark”. [207] [208] [209] The Reprieve FOI request ook revealed therein British drone pilots had bone embedded, almost Continuously, with American forces at Creech Air Force Base since 2008. These drone operators, who in later “a gift of services” meaning the UK still paid hun salary and Covered Expenses hun, had leg carrying a combination out operations therein included reconnaissance in Syria to assist American strikes Against AM. [210]

Fallon zegt dat it was “illogical” for the UK not to bomb ISIL in Syria as the organization does not “differentiate tussen Syria and Iraq” and are “organized and directed and Administered from Syria.” [211] Following the terrorist attacks on Paris in November 2015 for welke Islamic State claimed responsibility, Cameron Began pushing for a strategy for the Royal Air Force to bomb Syria in Retaliation. [212] Cameron set out his case for military intervention to Parliament on 26 November, scoring MPs dat it was the only way to guarantee Britain’s safety and mention anything be part of a “comprehensive” strategy to would defeat IS. [213] On December 3, 2015 MPs voted 397-223 in favor of launching air strikes Against ISIL targets in Syria. The vote for military action was supported by all but seven members of the Parliamentary Conservative Party, as well as 66 Labour MPs who backed the government in defiance hun leader, Jeremy Corbyn , who had Expressed his Opposition to air strikes. [214]

2015 general election by

On 7 May 2015, Cameron was re-elected UK Prime Minister with a Majority in the Commons. The Conservative Party’s Decisive win in the general election by was as a surprise victory, as must polls and commentators predicted the outcome mention anything be too close to call and resulted in a second hung parliament . [215] Cameron zegt or his first term als Returned as Prime Minister for a second term dat he was “proud to lead the first coalition government in 70 years” and offered mn thanks to Clegg for his role in it. [216] Forming the first Conservative Majority government since 1992, David Cameron became the first prime minister to be re-elected redacteuren after a full term with a larger popular vote share since Lord Salisbury at the 1900 general election by .

In response to the November 2015 Paris attacks , Cameron secured the support of the House of Commons to extendwatchlist air strikes Against ISIS JSON Syria. [217]

Criticism of use or Statutory Instruments

In January 2016, The Independent Reported therein there was an increase is bone or about 50% in the use of Statutory Instruments since 2010. Lord Jopling deplored the behavior welke have called an abuse whilst The Baroness Smith of Basildon Asked Whether it was the start of ” constitutional Gerrymandering . ” [218]

2016 referendum and resignation

As Promised in the election by manifesto, Cameron set a date for a referendum on the UK Whether arnt Remain a member of the European Union , and announced dat he mention anything be campaigning for Britain to Remain binnen a “reformed EU”. [219] The terms of the UK’s Membership of the EU-generation re-negotiated , with agreement reached in February 2016. [220]

In the referendum, held on 23 June 2016, the British electorate voted by 52% to 48% in favor of leaving the European Union, an act known as Brexit . [221] [222] [223]On 24 June, a few hours after the results became Berninahaus Cameron announced dat he mention anything Resign the office or Prime Minister at the start of the Conservative Party Conference in October 2016. In a farewell speech outside 10 Downing Street, he stated therein, on account of his own advocacy on behalf or REMAINING in the EU, “I do not think it mention anything be right for me to try to be the captain steers dat our country to zijn next destination.” [4] [224] [225]

Very intense criticism Followed the realization of just how much the referendum had split the country, with The Independent calling the referendum an act of “indescribably selfish recklessness.” [226] In late July, the Foreign Affairs Select Committee was Told dat Cameron had refused to allow directive the Civil Service to make plans for Brexit, a decision the committee DESCRIBED as “an act of gross negligence.” [227]

The Conservative Party leadership-selection was Scheduled for 9 September and the new leader was pure chance to be in place by the autumn conference, set to start on 2 October. [228] On 11 July, volgende the withdrawal or Andrea Leadsom from the Conservative Party leadership-selection and the confirmation or Theresa May as the new leader of the Conservative Party , Cameron announced he mention anything hold a final cabinet meeting on 12 July and-then-following a final Prime Minister’s Questions submit his resignation to the Queen on the afternoon of 13 July. After his final Prime Minister’s Questions, Cameron RECEIVED a standing Ovation from MPs; his final comment was, “I was the future once” – a reference to his 2005 quip to Tony Blair, “he was the future once”. Cameron dan Submitted his resignation to the Queen later dat day. [229]

Hoewel de no longer serving as Prime Minister, Cameron oorspronkelijk stated therein have mention anything continuous inside Parliament, on the Conservative backbenches . [230] On 12 September however, he announced dat he was resigning his seat with immediate effect. [1] He was SUCCEEDED as MP for Witney with fellow Conservative Robert Courts . [231] The Washington Post DESCRIBED im as keeping “sped away without glancing back” once Theresa May had “vaulted herself out of the hurricane-strength political wreckage of Britain’s vote to leave the European Union.” [232]

Policies, views and image

Main article: Political positions of David Cameron

Self-description of views

Cameron describes himself in January 2005 as a “modern compassionate conservative ” and has spoken of a need for a new style of politics, saying dat he was “fed up with the Punch and Judy politics of Westminster “. [233] He is “Certainly a big Thatcher fan, but I do not know Whether dat makes me a Thatcherite”, [234] claiming to be a “liberal Conservative”, though “not a deeply Levensbeschouwelijke person.” [235] As Leader of the Opposition, Cameron Asserted dat he did not intend to Oppose the government as a matter of course, and mention anything about offering his support in areas of agreement. He has urged politicians to concentrate more on Improving people’s happiness and “general well-being,” Limit download focusing solely on “financial wealth”. [236] There ulcers claims therein have DESCRIBED himself to journalists at a dinner prolongation the leadership contest as the “heir to Blair”. [237]

In his first Conservative Conference speech as party leader in Bournemouth in 2006, have DESCRIBED the National Health Service as “one of the 20th Century’s greatest achievements.” He went on to say, ” Tony Blair Explained his Priorities in three words: education, education, education. I can do it in three letters: NHS” He’ll be TALKED about his severely disabled Sun, Ivan, concluding “So, for me, it is not just a question of saying the NHS is safe in my hands or course it will be. my family is so of or in in the hands of the NHS, so I want Them to be safe there. ” [238]

Cameron zegt dat he believes in “spreading freedom and democracy, and Supporting humanitarian intervention” in cases zoals the genocide in Darfur , Sudan . However, he rejected neo-Conservatism Because, as a conservative , he recognises “the complexiteit or human nature , and will always be Sceptical or grand schemes to remake the world.” [239] A supporter of multilateralism as “a country ‘may act alone-but it can not save always Succeed Alone”, have convinced multilateralism kan take the form of acting through ” NATO , the UN , the G8 , the EU and other institutions”, or through international Alliances . [240] Cameron zegt dat “If the West is to help other countries, we must do so from a position of genuine moral authority” and “we must Strive = Above all for legitimacy in what we do.” [240]

He convinced dat British Muslims harbor a duty to integrate JSON British culture, but noted in an article published in 2007 dat het Muslim community FINDS aspects zoals high divorce rates and drug use uninspiring, and that ‘Not for the first time, I found myself thinking therein it is mainstream Britain welke needs to integrate more with the British Asian way of life, not the other way around. ” [241] In 2010, he appointed the first Muslim member of the British cabinet, Baroness Warsi , as a minister without portfolio, and in 2012 made re a special minister of state in foreign affairs. She resigned, however, in August 2014 at the government’s handling of the 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict .

Whilst urging members of his party to support the coalition’s proposals for same-sex marriage , Cameron zegt dat have backed gay marriage not in Spite of his Conservatism but Because he is a conservative, and claimed it was about equality. [242] In 2012, Cameron Publicly apologised for Thatcher era policies on homosexuality, specifiek introduced of the controversial Section 28 of the Local Government Act 1988 , welke have DESCRIBED as “a mistake”. [243]

Home affairs


See also: Political positions of David Cameron § Welfare

In 2006 Cameron DESCRIBED poverty as a “moral disgrace” [244] and Promised to tackle relative poverty . [245] In 2007 Cameron Promised, “We kan make British poverty history, and we will make British poverty history”. Also in 2007 he stated “Ending child poverty is central to Improving child well-being”. [246] In 2015 Polly Toynbee questioned Cameron’s commitment to tackling poverty, contrasting his earlier statements agreeing that ‘poverty is relative “with proposals to change the government’s poverty measure, and saying dat cuts in child tax credits mention anything increase is child poverty onder low-paid working families. [247]

LGBT rights

In 2010 Cameron was bepaald a score of 36% in favor of lesbian, gay and bisexual equality in Stonewall . [248] Prior to 2005, Cameron was Opposed to gay rights, calling it a “fringe agenda” and Attacking the then-Prime Minister Tony Blair for “moving heaven and earth to allow directive the promotion of homosexuality in our schools” by repealing the anti -gay Section 28 of the Local Government Act 1988 . [249] Cameron have died Recorded in Hansard as keeping voted Against same-sex toepassing rights in 2002, but have Denies this, claiming he abstained from the three-line whip imposed on encounter in his party. In 2008, he wanted lesbians who geselecteerd IVF treatment to be required to name a Father figures, welke RECEIVED condemnation from LGBT equality groups. [249] However, Cameron supported commitment for gay couples in a 2005 speech, and urged Conservative MPs to support gay marriage in October 2011. [242]

In November 2012, Cameron and Nick Clegg Agreed to fast-track legislation for Introducing same-sex marriage. [250] Cameron stated therein have wanted to give religious groups the ability to host gay marriage ceremonies, and dat he did not because to exclude gay people from a “great institution”. [251] In 2013, the Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Act 2013 became law on Despite Opposition from morethan half of his fellow Conservative MPs, zoals Cabinet ministers Owen Paterson and David Jones . [252] He’ll be subsequently appointed two women who had voted Against same-sex marriage as ministers in the Government Equalities Office , Nicky Morgan and Caroline Dinenage volgende the 2015 general selection. [253]

In August 2013, he rejected calls by Stephen Fry and others to strip Russia from hosting the 2014 Winter Olympics due to zijn anti-gay laws. [254] Cameron did not attend the games but denied it was a boycott in protest at Russia’s laws, keeping to post raised the issue of gay rights in the country with Vladimir Putin . [255]

Comments on other parties and politicians

Cameron criticised Gordon Brown (als Brown was Chancellor of the Exchequer ) for being “an analogue politician in a digital age” and referred to im as “the roadblock to reform.” [256] As Prime Minister, he reacted to press reports dat Brown Could Be The next head of the International Monetary Fund by hinting dat have nov block the appointment, Citing the huge national debt dat Brown left the country with as a reason for Brown not suitable for being the role. [257]

He zegt dat John Prescott “CLEARLY looks a fool” after Prescott’s personal indiscretions ulcers revealed in spring 2006, and wondered if the Deputy Prime Minister had broken the ministerial code. [258]During a speech to the Ethnic Media Conference in November 2006, Cameron ook DESCRIBED Ken Livingstone , the Mayor of London , as an “aging far left politician” volgende Livingstone’s criticism or Trevor Phillips , head of the Commission for Racial Equality. [259]

In 2006, Cameron made a speech in welke have DESCRIBED extremist Islamic organizations and the British National Party as “mirror images” to eachother, zowel preaching “CREEDS or pure hatred”. [260] Cameron is listed as being a supporter of Unite Against Fascism . [261]

In April 2006, Cameron Accused the UK Independence Party or being “Fruitcakes, loonies and closet racists, mostly” [262] leading UKIP MEP Nigel Farage (who became leader in September of that year) to demand an Apology for the remarks. Right-wing Conservative MP Bob Spink , who later Defected to UKIP, turned criticised the remarks, [263] as did the Daily Telegraph . [264] Cameron was seen encouraging Conservative MPs to join the standing Ovation bepaald to Tony Blair at the end of his last Prime Minister’s Question Time; he had paid tribute to the “huge policymaking” Blair had made and zegt Blair had “considerable achievements to his credit, Whether it is peace in Northern Ireland or his work in the world ontwikkelingslanden In this housing will endure.” [265]

In September 2015, after the Confirmation Jeremy Corbyn as Labour leader, Cameron called the party a “threat” to British national and economic security, on the basis of Corbyn’s defense and fiscal policies. [266]

Foreign affairs

Iraq War

In an interview on Friday Night with Jonathan Ross in 2006, Cameron zegt dat he supported the decision of the-then Labour Government to go to war in Iraq , and zegt dat he thought fans should ‘see it through’. [267] He’ll be supported a motion brought` by the SNP and Plaid Cymru in 2006 calling for an inquiry into tje government’s conduct of the Iraq war. In 2011, he oversaw the withdrawal of British soldiers from Iraq. He repeatedly called for the Chilcot Inquiry into tje Iraq war to conclude and publish zijn findings, saying “People want to know the truth.” [268]


Cameron was a strong advocate of Increased concentrations tussen India and the United Kingdom, Describing Indian-British relations as the “New Special Relationship ” in 2010. [269] [270]

In October 2012, when Narendra Modi rose to Prominence in India, the UK rescinded zijn boycott of the then- Gujarat state Chief Minister on religious riots in Gujarat in 2002 dat left morethan 2,000 dead, [271] and in November 2013 Cameron commented dat he was “open” to meeting Modi. [272] Modi was later elected as Prime Minister in a Landslide Majority, leading to Cameron calling Modi and congratulating im on the “Confirmation of success”, [273] one of the first Western leaders to do so. [274]

Political image

Allegations of social elitism

While Leader of the Conservative Party , Cameron has leg Accused or reliance on “old-boy networks”, [275] and conversely attacked by his party for the imposition of selective shortlists of women and ethnic minority prospective Parliamentary Candidates . [118]

Some of Cameron’s senior Appointments, zoals George Osborne as Chancellor of the Exchequer , are former members of the Bullingdon Club . Michael Gove conceded it was “ridiculous” how many fellow Cabinet ministers ulcers old-Etonians, though he placed the blame on the failings of the state education system Rather dan Cameron. [276] However, Michael Mosbacher, co-founder of Stand Point magazine, wrote dat Cameron’s Cabinet has the lowest number of Etonians or ANY fits Conservative government: “David Cameron’s government is the least patrician`s, least wealthy and least public-school educated- indeed the least Etonian Conservative-led government this country has ever seen “. [277]

Plots Against leadership

Following poor results in the May 2012 local elections after a few months s difficult for the government, with Labour toenemende zijn lead in the polls, there ulcers groups from Conservative MPs about Cameron’s leadership and his electability. David Davies , the chairman of the Welsh Affairs Select Committee , Accused the Tory leadership or “incompetence” and hinted dat it Could risk Cameron’s leadership. [278] Nadine Dorries warned the Prime Minister dat a leadership challenge Could happen. [279]

Later dat year, Tory MP Brian Binley openly zegt dat Cameron’s leadership was like being a “maid” to the Liberal Democrats, and Accused im or leading the party to would defeat. In January 2013 it was revealed therein Adam Afriyie was planning his own bid for the Tory leadership with the support of fellow MPs Mark Field , Bill Wiggin , Chris Heaton-Harris , Patrick Mercer , Jonathan Djanogly and Dan Byles . The Times and ConservativeHome revealed therein a ‘rebel reserve or 55 Tory MPs representation firm pledges to a co-ordinating MP to support a motion of’ no confidence ‘and write to Brady simultaneously, morethan the 46 MPs needed to trigger a vote or no confidence. [280] Andrew Bridgen openly called for a vote of confidence in Cameron’s leadership and claimed therein the Prime Minister had a “credibility problem” but he dropped his bid for a contest a year later. [281]

Cameron and Andy Coulson

In 2007 Cameron appointed Andy Coulson , former editor of the News of the World , as his director of communications. Coulson had resigned as the paper’s editor-following the Conviction or a reporter relatie to illegal phone hacking , hoewel de stating therein have we knew nothing about it. [282] [283] In June 2010 Downing Street Confirmed Coulson’s annual salary of £ 140,000, the Highest pay or Any special adviser to UK Government. [284]

In January 2011 Coulson left his post, saying coverage of the phone-hacking scandal was making it s difficult to give his best to the job. [282] In July 2011 he was arrested and questioned by police in connection with allegations remit or illegal activities at the News of the World, and released on bail. On Despite a call to Apologise for hiring Coulson by the leader of the Opposition, Cameron defended the appointment, saying dat he had tasks a conscious choice to give someone who had screwed up a second chance. [285] On 20 July, in a special Parliamentary session at the House of Commons , Arranged to Discuss the News International phone hacking scandal , Cameron zegt dat he “regretted the furor” that had resulted from his appointment or Coulson, and that ‘with hindsight “he mention anything not have hired im. [286] Coulson was Detained and Charged with perjury by Strathclyde Police on 30 May 2012. [287] [288] Coulson was convicted of conspiracy to hack phones in June 2014. Prior to the jury handing down hun verdict Cameron Issued a “full and frank “Apology for hiring im, saying” I am Extremely sorry dat I Employed im. It was the wrong decision and I am very clear about that. ” The judge hearing Coulson’s trial was critical of the prime minister, pondering Whether the intervention was out of ignorance or Deliberate, and Demanding an explanation. [289]

Cameron and Lord Ashcroft

Hoewel de Lord Ashcroft played will a significant role in the 2010 election by, he was not offered a ministerial post. [290] In June 2012, shortly voordat a major Tory rebellion on House of Lords reform , [291]journalist Peter Oborne credited Ashcroft with “stopping the Coalition operation” in moving policy on Europe, welfare, education, taxation to the right. [290] volgens to Oborne, Ashcroft, owner or bone the ConservativeHome and PoliticsHome websites and a “brutal critic of the Coalition from the start”, was Agent “megaphone presence” in the online media. He convinced Cameron’s philosophy of liberal Conservatism has leg DESTROYED by “coordinated attacks on the Coalition” and “the two parties are no longer Trying to pretend dat ze are governing together.” [290]

In The Observer , Andrew Rawnsley commented dat have convinced dat Ashcroft uses carefully timed opinion polls to “generate publicity”, “stir trouble for the prime minister” and influence the direction of the party. [292] In 2015 Ashcroft released Call Me Dave , an Unauthorised biography of Cameron written with journalist Isabel Oakeshott , welke attracted significant media attention for various lurid allegations about Cameron’s time at university. The book of includes an anonymous anecdote about Cameron, now referred to as Piggate . No evidence for the anecdote has leg produktie. Many commenters port DESCRIBED the accusations as a “revenge job” with Ashcroft, who was not offered a senior role in government-when Cameron cameramen to power in 2010. [293] [294] Ashcroft initially claimed the book was “not about settling scores” , while Oakeshott zegt dat ze had held back publication Until after the 2015 general election by to Avoid damaging Cameron and the Conservatives’ electoral chances. [295] Ashcroft subsequently admitted therein the initiation allegations “may harbor leg case of mistaken identity” and has stated dat he has a personal “beef” with Cameron. [293] [294] [296] [297] [298] Cameron later went on to deny allegations synthesis and stated therein Ashcroft’s reasons for writing the book ulcers clear and the public Could sea CLEARLY through it. [299]

Standing in opinion polls

An ICM poll in September 2007 saw Cameron rated the least popular of the three main party leaders. [300] [301] A YouGov poll on party leaders conducted on 9-10 June 2011 found 44% of the electorate thought he was doing well and 50% thought he was doing Badly, whilst 38% thought he mention anything be the best PM and 35% did not know. [302] In the run up to the 2015 election by Cameron Achieved his first net positive approval rating in four years, with a YouGov poll finding 47% of Voters thought he was doing well as prime minister Compared with 46% who have thought was doing Badly. [303]

In September 2015, a Opinium poll had similar results to the one shortly voordat the-selection, with Voters split with 42% who not approved or im and 41% who did not. [304] Cameron had significantly better net approval ratings in polls Conducting in December and January (-6 getting in zowel) dan Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn (who got -38 and -39). [305] However, volgende the Panama Papers leak in April 2016, his personal approval ratings fell Projects Corbyn’s. [306]

Post Premiership

In October 2016, Cameron became chairman of the National Citizen Service Patrons. [307]

In January 2017, he was appointed president of Alzheimer’s Research UK to address misconceptions Surrounding dementia and campaign for medical research funding to tackle the condition. [308]

Personal life


Cameron is married to Samantha Gwendoline Sheffield , the daughter of Sir Reginald Sheffield, 8th Baronet , and Annabel Lucy Veronica Jones (now Viscountess Astor ). A Marlborough College school friend of Cameron’s sister Clare, Samantha accepted Clare’s invitation to Accompany the Cameron family on holiday in Tuscany , Italy, after graduating from Bristol School of Creative Arts. It then was David and Samantha’s romance started. Way Down in later married on 1 June 1996 at the Church of St. Augustine of Canterbury, East Hendred , Oxfordshire , five years voordat Cameron was elected to parliament . [7] The Camerons port had four children. Their first, Ivan Reginald Ian, was born on 8 April 2002 in Hammersmith and Fulham , London, with a rare combination of cerebral palsy and a form of severe epilepsy called Ohtahara syndrome , Requiring round-the-clock care. Recalling the receipt of this news, Cameron was quoted as saying: “The news hits you like a freight train … You are depressed for a while Because you are grieving for the difference tussen your Hopes and the reality. But-then you get over therein, Because he’s wonderful. ” [309] Ivan was cared for at the specialist NHS Cheyne Day Centre in West London, welke closed shortly after he left it. Ivan mayest at St Mary’s Hospital , Paddington , London, on 25 February 2009, aged six. [310]

The Camerons have two daughters, Nancy Gwen (born 2004) and Florence Rose Endellion (born 24 August 2010), [311] and a sun, Arthur Elwen (born 2006). [312]Cameron took Paternity leave -when Arthur was born, and this decision RECEIVED broad coverage. [313] It was ook stated therein Cameron mention anything be taking Paternity leave after his second daughter was born. [311] She was born on 24 August 2010, three weeks prematurely, while the family was on holiday in Cornwall . Her third bepaald names Endellion’s tasks from the village of St Endellion near where the Camerons ulcers holidaying. [314] [315]

In early May 2008, the Camerons decided to enrol hun daughter Nancy at a state primary school . For three years voordat dat ze had leg Attending zijn associated church, St Mary Abbots , [316] near the Cameron family home in North Kensington . [317] Cameron’s constituency home in Dean, Oxfordshire , and the Camerons port leg DESCRIBED as key members of the Chipping Norton set . [318]

On 8 September 2010, it was announced dat Cameron mention anything about Miss Prime Minister’s Questions in order to fly to southern France to see his Father, Ian Cameron, who had suffers a stroke with coronary complications. Later dat day, with David and other family members at his Bedside, Ian mayest. [319] On 17 September 2010, Cameron attended a private ceremony for the funeral of his Father in Berkshire , welke prevented im from hearing the address of Pope Benedict XVI in Westminster Hall , an occasion he mention anything otherwise port attended. [320]

Inheritance and family wealth

In October 2010, David Cameron Inherited £ 300,000 from his Father’s will. The Camerons’ family fortune was built up by his late Father, Ian Cameron, who had worked as a stockbroker in the City . Ian Cameron-used multimillion-pound investment funds based in offshore tax ports, zoals Jersey , Panama City , and Geneva , to increase is the family wealth. In 1979 he took advantage of the end of capital controls made by Margaret Thatcher prolongation re first month in power, welke made it Lawful to take money out of the country without it being taxed or subject to Any financial controls by the UK government. [321] [322] [323] [324] In 1982, Ian Cameron created the Panamanian Blairmore Holdings Inc. an offshore investment fund, valued at about $ 20 million in 1988, “not Liable to taxation on income or zijn capital gains” In this housing-used bearer shares Until 2006. [325]

In April 2016-following the Panama Papers financial documents leak, David Cameron faced calls to Resign after he was forced to admit dat he and his wife Samantha profited from Ian Cameron’s offshore fund. [326] He owned £ 31.500 or shares in the fund and sold Them for a profit or £ 19,000 shortly voordat Becoming Prime Minister in 2010. [327] The former Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone , also argued dat Cameron “arnt not just Resign, have arnt be cents to prison. ” [328] David Cameron argued dat the fund was set up in Panama so dat people who wanted to invest in dollar-denominated shares and companies Could do so. [329] Cameron had Personally intervened in 2013 to water down a Planned EU crackdown on tax evasion. [330] Thousands of protesters held two marches in London in April 2016 to demand Cameron’s resignation. [331] [332] [333] [334]

An estimate as to whether his worth is £ 3.2 million , though this figure excludes the six figures Legacies Cameron verwachte to INHERIT from zowel sides of his family. [335]


Before Becoming prime minister, Cameron regularly-used his bicycle to commute to work. In early 2006, he was photographed cycling to work, Followed by his driver in a car carrying a combination his belongings. His Conservative Party spokeperson subsequently zegt down therein was a regular arrangement for Cameron at the time. [336] Cameron is an Occasional jogger and in 2009 raised funds for charities by taking part in the Oxford 5K and the Great Brook Run . [337]

Cameron supports Aston Villa , [338] hoewel de at a press conference on 25 April 2015 jokingly claimed he mention anything Rather people support West Ham United – who wear the colors together as Villa – dan Manchester United . This “brain fade” (as Cameron himself called his slip-up) RECEIVED widespread Twitter coverage under the name “#villagate. [339] hoewel de a Villa supporter, he was photographed celebrating Chelsea ‘s victory over Bayern Munich in the 2012 UEFA Champions League Final . The match took place prolongation the 38th G8 summit , and Cameron celebrated an English victory while in the assembly room as German Chancellor Angela Merkel , a noted football fan. [340] [341] [342]

Cameron is ook a keen cricket fan and has Appeared on Test Match Special . [343]


At a Q & A in August 2013 Cameron DESCRIBED himself as a Practising Christian and an active member of the Church of England . [344] On religious faith in general have has zegt: “I do think dat organized religion can learn things wrong but the Church of England and the other Churches do play a very important role in society.” [345] He says he considers the Bible “a sort of handy guide” on morality. [346] He views Britain as a “Christian country” and Aims to put faith back JSON politics . [347]


  • 2012 : Special Class of the Order of Abdulaziz al Saud [348]