EO Wilson

Edward Osborne Wilson (born June 10, 1929) Usually Cited as EO Wilson , is an American biologist, researcher ( sociobiology , biodiversity , island biogeography ) theorist (consilience , Biophilia ), naturalist ( Conservationist ) and author. His biological specialty is myrmecology , the study of Ants , one welke have been Considered to be the world’s leading expert. [2] [3]

Wilson Berninahaus for his scientific career, his role as “the Father of sociobiology ” and “the Father of biodiversity “, [4] his environmental advocacy, and his Secular-humanist and deist ideas pertaining to religious and ethical matters. [5] Among his greatest contributions to ecological theory is the theory of island biogeography , welke have developed in collaboration with the mathematical ecologist Robert MacArthur , welke is seen as the foundation of the development or conservation area design, as well as the unified neutral theory or biodiversity or Stephen Hubbell .

Wilson (2014) the Pellegrino University Research Professor Emeritus in Entomology for the Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at Harvard University , a Lecturer at Duke University , [6] and a Fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry . He is a Humanist Laureate of the International Academy of Humanism . [7] [8] He is a two-time winner of the Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction (for On Human Nature in 1979 , and The Ants in 1991 ) and a New York Times bestseller for The Social Conquest of Earth , [ 9]Letters to a Young Scientist , [9] and The Meaning of Human Existence .

Early life

Wilson was born in Birmingham, Alabama . Volgens to his Autobiography Naturalist , have Grew up mostly around Washington, DC and in the countryside around Mobile, Alabama . [10] From an early age, he was interested in natural history. His parents, Edward and Inez Wilson, divorced-when he was seven. The young naturalist Grew up in verschillende cities and towns, moving around with his Father and his stepmother.

In the co-year dat his parents divorced, Wilson Blinded himself in one eye in a fishing accident. He suffers for hours, but he continued fishing. [10] He did not complain he Because was anxious to stay outdoors. He did not seek medical treatment. [10] Several months later, his right pupil clouded over with a cataract . [10] He was admitted to Pensacola Hospital to harbor the lens removed. [10] Wilson writes in his Autobiography, dat de “surgery was a Terrifying [19th] century ordeal”. [10] Wilson was left with full sight in his left eye, with a vision of 20/10. [10] The 20/10 vision prompted im to focus on “little things”: “I Noticed butterflies and Ants morethan other kids did, and took an interest in them automatisch.” [11]

Hoewel de he had lost his stereoscopy , have Could still see fine print and the Hairs on the bodies of small insects. [10] His Reduced ability to observe mammals and birds led im to concentrate on insects .

At nine, Wilson under took his first expeditions at the Rock Creek Park in Washington, DC. He Began to collect insects and have gained a passion for butterflies. He mention anything Capture Them using nets made with brooms, coat hangers, and cheesecloth bags. [10] Going on synthesis expeditions led to Wilson’s Fascination with Ants. He describes in his Autobiography how one day he pulled the bark or a rotting come away and when sending citronella Ants Underneath. [10] The worker Ants have found ulcers “short, fat, brilliant yellow, and emitted a strong Lemony Odor”. [10] Wilson zegt the event left a “vivid and lasting impression on [im].” [10] He’ll be earned the Eagle Scout award and served as Director of Nature his Boy Scout summer camp. At the age of 18, intent on Becoming an entomologist , he Began to collecting flies , but the shortage of insect pins caused by World War II caused im to switch to Ants , welke Could be stored in vials. With the Encouragement of Marion R. Smith, a myrmecologist from the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, Wilson Began a survey of all the Ants or Alabama . This study led to im report the first colony of fire Ants in the US, near the port of Mobile. [12]


Concerned dat he Might not be loveable to afford to go to a university, Wilson With You to enlist in the United States Army. He Planned to earn US government financial support for his education, but failed the Army Medical Examination due to his impaired eyesight. [ Citation needed ] Wilson was loveable to afford to enroll in the University of Alabama after all. [ Als? ] There, he earned his BS and MS degrees in biology in 1950. In 1952 he Transferred to Harvard University . [ Citation needed ]

Appointed to the Harvard Society of Fellows , have Could travel on been overseas expeditions, collecting ant species of Cuba and Mexico and travel the South Pacific, zoals Australia, New Guinea, Fiji, New Caledonia and Sri Lanka. In 1955, he RECEIVED his Ph.D. and married Irene Kelley. [13]


From 1956 Until 1996 Wilson was part of the faculty or Harvard. He Began as an ant taxonomist and worked on understanding hun evolution, how they ‘developed JSON new species from escaping environmental disadvantages and moving JSON new habitats. He developed a theory of the ” taxon cycle”. [13]

He collaborated with mathematician William Bossert, and when sending the chemical nature of ant communication via Pheromones . In the 1960s he collaborated with mathematician and ecologist Robert MacArthur . Together, they ‘tested the theory of species equilibrium on a tiny island in the Florida Keys. He eradicated all insect species and Observed the re-population by new species. A book The Theory of Island Biogeography about this experiment became a standard text ecology. [13]

In 1971, he published the book The Insect Societies about the biology of social insects like Ants, beef, Wasps and termites. In 1973, Wilson was appointed “Curator of Insects” at the Museum of Comparative Zoology . In 1975, he published the book Sociobiology: The New Synthesis Dankzij his theories or insect behavior to vertebraten, and in the last chapter, humans. He speculated therein Evolved and Inherited tendencies ulcers verantwoordelijk for hierarchical social organization onder humans. In 1978 he published On Human Nature , welke Deal? With the role of biology in the evolution of human culture and won a Pulitzer Prize for Non-Fiction. [13]

In 1981 after collaborating with Charles Lumsden, have published Genes, Mind and Culture , a theory of gene-culture coevolution . In 1990 he published The Ants , co-written with Bert Hölldobler , his second Pulitzer Prize for Non-Fiction. [13]

In the 1990s, he published The Diversity of Life (1992) an Autobiography, Naturalist (1994), and Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge (1998) about the unity of the natural and Social Sciences. [13]


In 1996, Wilson officially retired from Harvard University , where he Continues to hold the positions of Professor Emeritus and Honorary Curator in Entomology. He founded the EO Wilson Biodiversity Foundation, welke finances the PEN / EO Wilson Literary Science Writing Award and is an “independent foundation” at the Nicholas School of the Environment , Duke University. Wilson became a special Lecturer at Duke University as part of the agreement. [14]

Wilson has published 14 books prolongation the new millennium: The Future of Life , 2002 Pheidole in the New World: A Dominant, Hyperdiverse Ant Sex, 2003 From So Simple a Beginning: Darwin’s Four Great Books, 2005 The Creation: An Appeal to Save Life on Earth, September 2006 Nature Revealed: Selected Writings 1949-2006, The Superorganism: The Beauty, Elegance, and Strangeness of Insect Societies, 2009 Anthill: A Novel April 2010 Kingdom of Ants: Jose Celestino Mutis and the Dawn of Natural History in the New World , 2010, The Leafcutter Ants: Civilization by Instinct, 2011. The Social Conquest of Earth , 2012, Half-Earth: Our Planet’s Fight for Life , 2016.

He published three books in 2014 alone: Letters to a Young Scientist , A Window on Eternity: A Biologist’s Walkthrough Gorongosa National Park, and The Meaning of Human Existence .

He and his wife Irene reside in Lexington, Massachusetts . His daughter, Catherine, and re husband Jonathan reside in nearby Stow, Massachusetts . [13]


Sociobiology: The New Synthesis , 1975

Wilson-used sociobiology and evolutionary principles to explain the behavior of social insects and-then to under stand the social behavior of other animals, humans waaronder, THUS Agent sociobiology as a new scientific field. He argued dat all animal behavior, zoals dat of humans, is the product of heredity , environmental stimuli, and fits experiences, and therein free will is an illusion. He has referred to the biological basis of behavior as the “genetic leash.” [15] : 127-128 The sociobiological view is dat all animal social behavior is governed by epigenetic rules worked out by the laws of evolution . This theory and research proved to be seminal, controversial, and Influential. [16] : 210ff

Wilson has argued dat de unit of selection is a gene, the basic element of heredity. The target of selection is normally the individual who Carries an ensemble of genes or certainement childhood. With betrekking to the use or chin selection in explanatory the behavior of eusocial insects , the “new view dat I’m proposing is dat it was group selection All Along, an idea first roughly Formulated to Darwin.” [17]

Sociobiological research is controversial bijzonder met betrekking to zijn application to humans. [ Citation needed ] The theory Agent a scientific argument for rejecting the common doctrine or tabula rasa , welke holds dat human beings are born Without Any innate mental content and therein culture functions to increase is human knowledge and aid in survival and success. [ Citation needed ] In the final chapter of the book Sociobiology and in the full text of his Pulitzer Prize -winning On Human Nature , Wilson argues, therein the human mind is shaped as much by genetic inheritance as it is in culture if not more. [ Citation needed ] There are limits on just how much influence social and environmental factors kan port in stop ring human behavior. [ Citation needed ]


Sociobiology was initially with with Substantial criticism. Several of Wilson’s colleagues’ at Harvard, [18] [ page needed ] zoals Richard Lewontin and Stephen Jay Gould , ulcers Strongly Opposed to his ideas Regarding sociobiology. Gould, Lewontin, and others from the Sociobiology Study Group from the Boston area wrote “Against ‘Sociobiology’ ‘in an open letter criticizing Wilson’s” deterministic view of human society and human action. ” [19] hoewel de Attributed to members of the Sociobiology Study Group, it seems dat Lewontin was the main author. [10] In a 2011 interview, Wilson zegt, “I believe Gould was a charlatan. I believe therein have been … seeking reputation and credibility as a scientist and writer, and he did it consistently at distorting what other scientists ulcers saying and devising arguments based upon dat distortion. ” [20]

Marshall Sahlins ‘s 1976 work The Use and Abuse of Biology was a direct criticism of Wilson’s theories. [21]

There was ook political Opposition. Sociobiology re-Ignited the nature and nurture debate. Wilson Accused of racism , Misogyny , and sympathy to eugenics . [22] In one incident in November 1978, his lecture was attacked by the International Committee Against Racism , a front group of the Marxist Progressive Labor Party , where one member poured a pitcher of water on Wilson’s head and chanted “Wilson, you’re all law “at an AAAS conference. [23]Wilson later Ghosts of the incident as a source of pride: “I believe … I was the only scientist in modern times to be Physically attacked for an idea.” [24]

Objections from evangelical Christians included Those of Paul E. Rothrock in 1987: “… sociobiology has the potential of Becoming a religion of scientific materialism.” [25] Philosopher Mary Midgley Encountered Sociobiology in the process of writing Beast and Man (1996) [26] and significantly rewrote the book to offer a critique of Wilson’s views. Midgley praised the book for the study of animal behavior, Clarity, scholarship, and encyclopedic scope, but extensively critiqued Wilson for conceptual confusion, scientism, and anthropomorphism or genetics. [27]

Michael McGoodwin paraphrased and quoted Wilson (pp. 16 and 222) on sociobiology : [28] [ self-published source? ] “Sociobiology is defined as the scientific or systematic study of the biological basis of all forms of social behavior, in all childhood or organisms waaronder man, and Incorporating knowledge from ethologie , ecology , and genetics in order to Derive general principles Concerning the biological properties of entire societies. “if human child Evolved by Darwinian natural selection, [then] genetic chance and environmental necessity, not God, made the species.” “The brain [and the mind] exists Because it promotes the survival and Multiplication of the genes therein directly zijn assembly. “The two apparent dilemmas we face Charmain Horn Please note are: (1) we Lack ANY goal external to our biological nature (for even religions evolve to enhance the persistence and influence hun practitioners). Will the Transcendental goals or societies dissolve , and will our post-Levensbeschouwelijke societies Regress steadily toward self-indulgence? (2) Morality Evolved than instinct. “Which of the censors and motivators arnt be obeyed and welke zones Might better be curtailed or sublimated?” hoewel de much human diversity in behavior is cultureel Influenced, some has leg shown to be genetic – rapid acquisition of language, human unpredictability, hypertrophy [ clarification needed ] (extreme growth or pre-bestaande social structures), altruism and religions. “Religious practices therein consistently verbeteren survival and procreation of the practitioners will Propagate the physiological controls dat favor the acquisition of the practices prolongation single life times.” Unthinking submission to the communal will promotes the fitness of the members of the tribe. Even submission to Secular religions and cults involvement willing subordination of the individual to the group. Religious practices confer biological Advantages. ” [28] [ self-published source? ]

On Human Nature , 1978

Wilson wrote in his 1978 book On Human Nature , “The evolutionary epic is then probably the best myth we will ever harbor.” Wilson’s use of the word “myth” zorgt people with meaningful placement in time celebrating shared heritage. [29] Wilson’s fame prompted use of the phrase morphed epic or evolution . [5] In 1999, he Explained zijn need: [30]

Human beings must have an epic, a sublime account of how the world was created and how humanity became part of it … Religious epics Satisfy Another primal need. Way Down confirm we are part of something grotere dan ourselves … The way to beste our epic dat unités human spirituality, Limit download cleave it is to compose it from the best empirical knowledge dat science and history kan bieden.

He zegt that ‘[t] he true evolutionary epic retold as poetry, as intrinsically ennobling than ANY religious epic. ” [31] He pointed to verschillende scientists who had Contributed to building this epic, met name Robert Ardrey who “Continues as the lyric poet of human evolution, capturing the Homeric quality of the subject therein so many scientists in and large feel, but are Unable to well JSON words. ” [32] [ full citation needed ]

Naturalistic and liberal religious writers port picked up on the term epic or evolution and-used it in a number of texts or other-used terms to refer to the idea: Universe Story ( Brian Swimme , John F. Haught ) Great Story (Connie Barlow, Michael Dowd ), Everybody’s Story ( Loyal Rue [33] ), New Story ( Thomas Berry , Al Gore , Brian Swimme) and Cosmic Evolution ( Eric Chaisson [34] ). [35] [36] [37] Cosmologist Brian Swimme zegt in a 1997 interview: [38] “I think dat what EO Wilson Trying to suggest is therein to be ‘fully human, a person has to see that life has a heroic dimension … I think for the scientist, and for other people, it’s a question of, “Is the universe Valuable? Is it sacred? Is it holy? Or is the human agenda all dat matters? “I just do not think we’re stupid therein to continuously in a way dat Continues to Destroy. I’m Hopeful therein the Epic of Evolution will be Yet Another strategy in our culture therein will lead our consciousness out of a very tight, human-centered materialism. ”

The Ants , 1990

Wilson Along with Bert Hölldobler , carried out a systematic study of Ants and ant behavior, [39] culminating in the 1990 encyclopedic work The Ants . Because much self-sacrificing behavior on the part of individual Ants kan be Explained on the basis hun genetic interests in the survival of the sisters, with Whom they ‘share 75% or hun genes (though the actual case is some species’ queens mate with multiple males and Charmain Horn Please note some workers in a colony would only be 25% related), Wilson argued for a sociobiological explanation for all social behavior on the model of the behavior of the social insects. [ Citation needed ] In his more recent work, [ welke? ] Have has SOUGHT to défend his views Against the criticism or Younger scientists zoals Deborah Gordon , Whose results challenge the idea dat ant behavior as rigidly predictable as Wilson’s explanations make it. [ Citation needed ]

Wilson has zegt in reference to Ants ” Karl Marx was right, socialism works, it is just dat he had the wrong species.” [40] He Meant therein while Ants and other eusocial species appear to live in a communist -like societies, they ‘only do so Because they’ are forced to do so from hun basic biology, as they ‘Lack reproductive Independence: worker Ants, being sterile, need hun ant queen in order to survive as a colony and a species, and individual Ants can not save reproduce without a queen and are THUS forced to live in Centralised societies. Humans, however, do possess reproductive Independence as ze kan give birth to offspring without the need of a “queen”, and in fact humans enjoy hun maximum level or Darwinian fitness only als ze look after themselves en hun offspring, while finding innovative ways to use the societies they ‘live in for hun eigen benefit. [41]

Consilience 1998

In his 1998 book Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge , Wilson discussed methods dat port leg-used to unite the sciences, and Might Be loveable to unite the sciences with the humanities. Wilson-used the term ” consilience ” to DESCRIBE the synthesis of knowledge from différent specialized fields of human Endeavor. [ Citation needed ] He defined human nature as a collection of epigenetic rules, the genetic patterns of mental development. [ Citation needed ]He argued dat culture and Rituals are products, not parts or human nature. [ Citation needed ] He zegt Art is not part of human nature, but our appreciation or art. [ Citation needed ] He suggested dat concepts zoals art appreciation, fear or snakes, or the incest taboo ( Westermarck effect ) Could be studied by scientific methods of the natural sciences and be part of interdisciplinary research. [ Citation needed ] Previously, [ als? ] Synthesis phenomena ulcers only part of psychologische , sociological , or Anthropological studies. [ Citation needed ]

Spiritual and political beliefs

Scientific humanism

Wilson coined the phrase scientific humanism as “the only worldview compatible with science’s growing knowledge of the real world and the laws of nature”. [42] [ full citation needed ] Wilson argued dat it is best suited to verbeteren the human condition. In 2003, he was one of the signers of the Humanist Manifesto . [43]

God and religion

In a New Scientist interview published on 21 January 2015, Wilson zegt that ‘Religion is dragging us down “and must be eliminated” for the business of human progress ‘ “, and” So I mention anything say dat for the business of human progress, the best thing we Could Possibly do mention anything be to diminish, to the point of eliminating, religious Faiths. ” [44] [45] On the question of God , Wilson has DESCRIBED his position as provisional Deism [46]and explicitly denied the label or ” Atheist “, preferring ” Agnostic “. [47] He has Explained his faith as a trajectory away from traditional beliefs: “I drifted away from the church, not definitively Agnostic or atheistic, just Baptist & Christian no more.” [15] Wilson argues dat the belief in God and Rituals of religion are products of evolution . [48] He argues dat ze arnt not be rejected or dismissed, but remit investigated by science to better under stand hun significance to human nature. In his book The Creation , Wilson suggests dat scientists ought to “offer the hand of friendship” to religious leaders and build an alliance with Them, stating that ‘Science and religion are two of the must potent forces on Earth and they’ arnt come together to Save the creation. ” [49]

Wilson made an appeal to the religious community on the lecture circuit at Midland College, Texas, for example, and that ‘the appeal RECEIVED a’ massive reply ”, dat a Covenant had leg written and dat a “partnership will work to a Substantial degree as time goes on. ” [50]


Wilson has zegt dat, if he Could start his life over he mention anything about work in microbial ecology , als discus the reinvigoration of his original areas of study since the 1960s. [51] He studied the mass extinctions of the 20th century and hun relationship to modern society, and in 1998 argued for an ecological approach at the Capitol:

Now-when you cut a forest, an ancient forest mn, you are not just Removing a lot of big trees and a few birds fluttering around in the canopy . You are drastically imperiling a solid array of species binnen a few square miles of you. The number of These species’ may go to chains or duizendtallen. … Many of Them are still unknown to science, and science has not yet when sending the key role played will undoubtedly in the maintenance of that ecosystem , as in the case of fungi , microorganismen , and many of the insects . [52]

Wilson has leg part of the international conservation movement , as a consultant to Columbia University’s Earth Institute , as a director of the American Museum of Natural History, Conservation International , The Nature Conservancy and the World Wildlife Fund . [13]

Understanding the scale of the extinction crisis has led im to advocate for forest protection, [52] waaronder the “Act to Save America’s Forests”, first introduced in 1998 Until 2008, but never passed., [53] Forests Now Declaration , welke calls for new markets-based mechanisms to protect tropical forests. [ Citation needed ] In 2014, Wilson called for setting aside 50% of the earth’s surface for other species to thrive in as the only shower strategy to solvency the extinction crisis. [54]

Awards and receptacles

Wilson’s scientific and conservation receptacles include:

  • Member, National Academy of Sciences , 1969
  • US National Medal of Science , 1976
  • Leidy Award , 1979, from the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia [55]
  • Pulitzer Prize for On Human Nature , 1979
  • Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement , 1984
  • ECI Prize , International Ecology Institute, terrestrial ecology, 1987
  • Honorary doctorate from the Faculty of Mathematics and Science at Uppsala University , Sweden , 1987 [56]
  • Academy of Achievement Golden Plate Award , 1988
  • Crafoord Prize , 1990, a prize awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
  • Pulitzer Prize for The Ants (with Bert Hölldobler ), 1991
  • International Prize for Biology , 1993
  • Carl Sagan Award for Public Understanding of Science , 1994
  • The National Audubon Society ‘s Audubon Medal, 1995
  • Time Magazine ‘ s 25 Most Influential People in America, 1995
  • Benjamin Franklin Medal for Distinguished Achievement in the Sciences of the American Philosophical Society , 1998. [57]
  • American Humanist Association ‘s 1999 Humanist of the Year
  • Lewis Thomas Prize for Writing about Science, 2000
  • Kidney Mountain Prize , 2001
  • Distinguished Eagle Scout Award 2004
  • Dauphin Island Sea Lab christened zijn newest research vessel the R / V EO Wilson in 2005.
  • Linnean Tercentenary Silver Medal , 2006
  • Addison Emery Verrill Medal from the Peabody Museum of Natural History , 2007
  • TED Prize 2007 [58] bepaald yearly to honor a maximum of three personen who harbor shown dat ze kan, in some way, is positively impact life on this planet.
  • XIX premiere Internacional Catalunya 2007 [59]
  • Member of the World Knowledge Dialogue [60] Honorary Board, and Scientist in Residence for the 2008 symposium organized in Crans-Montana (Switzerland).
  • Distinguished Lecturer, University of Iowa , 2008-2009
  • EO Wilson Biophilia Center [61] on Nokuse Plantation in Walton County, Florida 2009 video [62]
  • Explorers Club Medal 2009
  • 2010 BBVA Frontiers of Knowledge Award in the Ecology and Conservation Biology Category [63]
  • Thomas Jefferson Medal in Architecture , 2010
  • 2010 Heartland Prize for fiction for his first novel Anthill: A Novel [64]
  • EarthSky Science Communicator of the Year 2010

Main works

  • “Character displacement”. Systematic Zoology . 5 (2): 49-64. 1956. doi : 10.2307 / 2411924 . JSTOR 2,411,924 . , Coauthored with William Brown Jr .; paper honored in 1986 as a Science Citation Classic, he, as one of the Most Frequently Cited scientific papers or all time. [65] [66]
  • The Theory of Island Biogeography , 1967, Princeton University Press (2001 reprint) ISBN 0-691-08836-5 , with Robert H. MacArthur
  • The Insect Societies , 1971, Harvard University Press , ISBN 0-674-45490-1
  • Sociobiology: The New Synthesis 1975, Harvard University Press, (Twenty-fifth Anniversary Edition, 2000 ISBN 0-674-00089-7 )
  • On Human Nature , 1979, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-01638-6 , winner of the 1979 Pulitzer Prize for General Nonfiction.
  • Genes, Mind and Culture: The Coevolutionary Process , 1981, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-34475-8
  • Promethean Fire: Reflections on the Origin of Mind , 1983, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-71445-8
  • Biophilia , 1984, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-07441-6
  • Success and dominance in Ecosystems: The Case of the Social Insects , 1990, Inter-Research, ISSN 0932-2205
  • The Ants , 1990, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-04075-9 , Winner of the 1991 Pulitzer Prize , with Bert Hölldobler
  • The Diversity of Life , 1992, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-21298-3 , The Diversity of Life: Special Edition , ISBN 0-674-21299-1
  • The Biophilia Hypothesis , 1993, Shearwater Books, ISBN 1-55963-148-1 , with Stephen R. Kellert
  • Journey to the Ants : A Story of Scientific Exploration , 1994, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-48525-4 , with Bert Hölldobler
  • Naturalist , 1994, Shearwater Books, ISBN 1-55963-288-7
  • In Search of Nature , 1996, Shearwater Books, ISBN 1-55963-215-1 , with Laura Simonds Southworth
  • Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge , 1998, Knopf, ISBN 0-679-45077-7
  • The Future of Life , 2002, Knopf, ISBN 0-679-45078-5
  • Pheidole in the New World: A Dominant, Hyperdiverse Ant Sex , 2003, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-00293-8
  • From So Simple a Beginning: Darwin’s Four Great Books . 2005 WW Norton.
  • The Joint: An Appeal to Save Life on Earth , September 2006, WW Norton & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-393-06217-5
  • Nature Revealed: Selected Writings 1949-2006 , ISBN 0-8018-8329-6
  • The Superorganism: The Beauty, Elegance, and Strangeness of Insect Societies , 2009, WW Norton & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-393-06704-0 , with Bert Hölldobler
  • Anthill: A Novel , April 2010 WW Norton & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-393-07119-1
  • Kingdom of Ants: Jose Celestino Mutis and the Dawn of Natural History in the New World , in 2010, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, with José María Gómez Durán
  • The Leafcutter Ants: Civilization by Instinct , 2011, WW Norton & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-393-33868-3 , with Bert Hölldobler
  • The Social Conquest of Earth , 2012, Live Right Publishing Corporation, New York, ISBN 0871403633
  • Letters to a Young Scientist , 2014 Live Right, ISBN 0871403854
  • A Window on Eternity: A Biologist’s Walkthrough Gorongosa National Park , in 2014, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 1476747415
  • The Meaning of Human Existence , 2014 Live Right, ISBN 0871401002
  • Half Earth , 2016

Edited works

  • From So Simple a Beginning: Darwin’s Four Great Books , edited with Introductions by Edward O. Wilson (2010 WW Norton )


  1. Jump up^ Lenfield, Spencer. “Ants through the Ages” . Harvard Magazine . Wheeler’s work Strongly Influenced the teenage Wilson, who recalls, “When I was 16 and decided I wanted to become a myrmecologist, I memorized his book.”
  2. Jump up^ Thorpe, Vanessa (June 24, 2012). “Richard Dawkins in furious row with EO Wilson on theory of evolution” . The Guardian . London.
  3. Jump up^ “Lord of the Ants documentary” . VICE. 2009 . Retrieved 18 February 2013 . [ Dead link ]
  4. Jump up^ Becker, Michael (2009-04-09). “MSU presents Presidential Medal to famed scientist Edward O. Wilson” . MSU News . Retrieved 2014-05-09 .
  5. ^ Jump up to:a b Novacek, Michael J. (2001). “Lifetime achievement: EO Wilson” . CNN.com. Archived from the original on 2006-10-14 . Retrieved 2006-11-08 .
  6. Jump up^ “EO Wilson advocates biodiversity preservation” . Duke Chronicle. February 12, 2014 . Retrieved 2014-04-23 .
  7. Jump up^ “Natural Connections> EDWARD WILSON BIO” . Web.archive.org . Archived from the original on October 2, 2008 . Retrieved 2015-12-06 .
  8. Jump up^ “EO Wilson biography” . AlabamaLiteraryMap.org. Archived from the original on 2010-12-08 . Retrieved 2014-04-23 .
  9. ^ Jump up to:a b Cowles, Gregory. “Print & E-Books” . The New York Times .
  10. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m Edward O. Wilson – Naturalist, Island Press; (April 24, 2006), ISBN 1-59726-088-6
  11. Jump up^ Powell, Alvin (April 15, 2014). ” ‘ Search Until you find a passion and go all out to excel, ITT expression ‘ ‘ . Harvard Gazette . Harvard Public Affairs & Communications . Retrieved 2014-04-23 . I Have only one functional eye, my left eye, but it’s very sharp. And I somehow dealing with little things. I Noticed butterflies and Ants morethan other kids did, and took an interest in them automatisch.
  12. Jump up^ first-hand account,[ self-published source ]Smithsonian Institution talc, April 22, 2010
  13. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h “Edward O. Wilson PhD Biography” . Academy of Achievement . 3 June 2013 . Retrieved 3 October 2015 .
  14. Jump up^ ” ” Father of sociobiology ‘to teach at Nicholas School ” . Post Retirement . Duke University. December 2013.
  15. ^ Jump up to:a b E. O. Wilson, Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge, New York, Knopf, 1998.
  16. Jump up^ Wolfe, Tom (1996). Sorry, But Your Soul Just Died. Vol. 158, Issue 13, Forbes
  17. Jump up^ “Discover Interview: EO Wilson” . DiscoverMagazine.com . Retrieved 2015-12-06 .
  18. Jump up^ Grafen, Alan ; Ridley, Mark (2006). Richard Dawkins: How A Scientist Changed the Way We Think . New York, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 75. ISBN  0-19-929116-0 .
  19. Jump up^ Allen, Elizabeth, et al. (1975). “Against ‘Sociobiology'”. [letter] New York Review of Books 22 (Nov. 13): 182, 184-186.
  20. Jump up^ French, Howard (November 2011). “EO Wilson’s Theory of Everything” . The Atlantic Magazine . Retrieved 13 October 2011 .
  21. Jump up^ Sahlins, Marshall David (1976). The Use and Abuse of Biology . ISBN  0-472-08777-0 .
  22. Jump up^ Douglas, Ed (17 February 2001). “Darwin’s natural heir” . The Guardian . London.
  23. Jump up^ Wilson, Edward O. (1995). Naturalist . ISBN  0-446-67199-1 .
  24. Jump up^ David Dugan (writer, producer, director) (May 2008). Lord of the Ants(Documentary). NOVA . Retrieved 2008-01-25 .
  25. Jump up^ Mythology of Scientific Materialism. Paul E. Rothrock and Mary Ellen Rothrock, PSCF 39 (June 1987): 87-93
  26. Jump up^ Midgley, Mary (1995). Beast and Man: the roots of human nature (Rev. ed.). London [ua]: Routledge. p. xli. ISBN  0-415-12740-8 .
  27. Jump up^ Midgley, Mary (1995). Beast and Man: the roots of human nature (Rev. ed.). London [ua]: Routledge. p. xl. ISBN  0-415-12740-8 .
  28. ^ Jump up to:a b “Wilson (Edward) On Human Nature Summary” . Mcgoodwin.net . 2009-09-10 . Retrieved 2015-12-06 .
  29. Jump up^ Connie Barlow. “The Epic of Evolution: Religious and cultural Interpretations of modern scientific kosmologie” . Science & Spirit Magazine . Archived from the original on 2006-05-23.
  30. Jump up^ Edward O. Wilson, Foreword orEverybody’s Story: Wising Up to the Epic of EvolutionAt Loyal D. Rue, SUNY Press, 1999, page ix and x,ISBN 0-7914-4392-2,
  31. Jump up^ “Edward O. Wilson, Consilience 1998” (PDF) . thegreatstory.org . Retrieved 2014-04-23 .
  32. Jump up^ Wilson, Edward O. Quoted in “Premier Comments on Robert Ardrey’sThe Hunting Hypothesis.” Available through Howard Gotlieb Archival Research Center, Boston University.
  33. Jump up^ Rue, Loyal (1999). Everybody’s Story: Wising Up to the Epic of Evolution . SUNY Press. ISBN  0-7914-4392-2 .
  34. Jump up^ Chaisson, Eric (2006). Epic of Evolution: Seven Ages of the Cosmos . Columbia University Press. ISBN  0-231-13560-2 .
  35. Jump up^ Thomas, Alfred K. (1989). The Epic of Evolution, Its Etiology and Art: A Study of Vardis Fisher’s Testament of Man . University microfilms International.
  36. Jump up^ Miller, James B. (2003). The Epic of Evolution: Science and Religion in Dialogue . Pearson / Prentice Hall. ISBN  0-13-093318-X .
  37. Jump up^ Kaufman, Gordon. TheEpic of Evolutionas a Framework for Human Orientation1997
  38. Jump up^ “Brian Swimme interview” . Earthlight.org . Retrieved 2014-04-23 .
  39. Jump up^ Nicholas Wade (July 15, 2008). “Taking a Cue From Ants on Evolution of Humans” . The New York Times .
  40. Jump up^ Wade, Nicholas (May 12, 1998). “Scientist at Work: Edward O. Wilson; From Ants to Ethics: A Biologist Dreams Of Unity of Knowledge” . The New York Times . Retrieved May 1, 2010 .
  41. Jump up^ Wilson, Edward O. (March 27, 1997). “Karl Marx was right, socialism works” (Interview). Harvard University.
  42. Jump up^ inHarvard MagazineDecember 2005 p 33.
  43. Jump up^ “Notable signers” . Humanism and Its Aspirations . American Humanist Association . Retrieved October 6, 2012 .
  44. Jump up^ “famed biologist: Religion is dragging us down” and must be eliminated “for the business of human progress ‘ ‘ . Rawstory.com . 2015-01-28 . Retrieved 2015-12-06 .
  45. Jump up^ Penny Sarchet (2015-01-21). “EO Wilson: Religious faith is dragging us down” . New Scientist . Retrieved 2015-12-06 .
  46. Jump up^ The Creation[ page needed ]
  47. Jump up^ Sarchet, Penny (2015-02-01). “Why Do We Ignore Warnings About Earth’s Future?” . Slate . In fact, I’m not an Atheist … I mention anything just say I’m Agnostic
  48. Jump up^ Human Nature[ page needed ]
  49. Jump up^ Naturalist EO Wilson is optimistic Harvard GazetteJune 15, 2006
  50. Jump up^ Scientist says there is lots to save planet mywesttexas.com, September 18, 2009
  51. Jump up^ Edward O. Wilson (2008). Lord of the Ants (documentary film) (television). NOVA / WGBH . Retrieved 2009-03-01 .
  52. ^ Jump up to:a b Wilson, Edward Osborne (28 April 1998). “Slide show” . saveamericasforests.org . p. 2 . Retrieved 13 November 2008 .
  53. Jump up^ “Congress – The Act to Save America’s Forests” . Saveamericasforests.org . Retrieved 2015-12-06 .
  54. Jump up^ “Can the World Really Set Aside Half of the Planet for Wildlife? | Science | Smithsonian” . Smithsonianmag.com . Retrieved 2015-12-06 .
  55. Jump up^ “The Four Awards Bestowed by The Academy of Natural Sciences and Their Recipients”. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia . The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 156 (1): 403-404. June 2007. doi : 10.1635 / 0097-3157 (2007) 156 [403: TFABBT] 2.0.CO; 2 .
  56. Jump up^ http://www.uu.se/en/about-uu/traditions/prizes/honorary-doctorates/
  57. Jump up^ “Benjamin Franklin Medal for Distinguished Achievement in the Sciences Recipients” . American Philosophical Society . Retrieved November 27, 2011 .
  58. Jump up^ [1] ArchivedNovember 11, 2006, at theWayback Machine.
  59. Jump up^ “Guardonats anteriors. Premiere Internacional Catalunya. Generalitat de Catalunya” . gencat.cat .
  60. Jump up^ “World Knowledge Dialogue” . wkdialogue.ch .
  61. Jump up^ “Biophilia-center” . Eowilsoncenter.org . Retrieved 2015-12-06 .
  62. Jump up^ “EO Wilson Biophilia Center” . Vimeo .
  63. Jump up^ “BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Awards” . fbbva.es .
  64. Jump up^ “Chicago Humanities Festival” . chicagohumanities.org .
  65. Jump up^ “William L Brown, Jr. Obituary” . Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History.
  66. Jump up^ “Character displacement” . Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias