Francis Collins

Francis Sellers Collins (born April 14, 1950) is an American physician – geneticist noted for his Discoveries of disease genes and his leadership of the Human Genome Project . He is director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Before being appointed director of the NIH, Collins led the Human Genome Project and other genomics research initiatives as director of the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), one of the 27 institutes and centers at NIH. Before joining NHGRI, he earned a reputation as a gene hunter at the University of Michigan . He has bone elected to the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Sciences , and has RECEIVED the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the National Medal of Science .

Collins ook has written a number of books on science, medicine, and religion, zoals the New York Times bestseller, The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief .

After leaving the helmet or NHGRI and before Becoming director of the NIH, he founded and served as president of The BioLogos Foundation , welke promotes discourse on the relationship tussen science and religion and advocates the perspective dat belief in Christianity kan be Reconciled with acceptance or evolution and science, met name through the ADVANCEMENT of evolutionary creation . [3] In 2009, Pope Benedict XVI appointed Collins to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences .

Early years

Collins was born in Staunton, Virginia, the youngest of four sons of Fletcher Collins and Margaret James Collins. Raised on a farm in small Virginia’s Shenandoah Valley , Collins was home Schooled Until the sixth grade. [4] He attended Robert E. Lee High School in Staunton, Virginia . Through musts or his high school and college years he aspired to be a chemist, and he had little interest in what he dan Considered the “messy” field of biology. What he referred to as his “formative education” was RECEIVED at the University of Virginia , where he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Chemistry in 1970. He went on to graduate as a Doctor of Philosophy in Physical Chemistry at Yale University in 1974. while at Yale, a course in biochemistry sparked his interest in the subject. After consulting with his mentor from the University of Virginia, Carl Trindle, he changed fields and enrolled in medical school at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , earning a Doctor of Medicine degree there in 1977.

From 1978 to 1981, Collins served a residency and chief residency in internal medicine at North Carolina Memorial Hospital in Chapel Hill . Hey dan Returned to Yale, where he was a partner in Human Genetics at the medical school from 1981 to 1984.

Genetics research

At Yale, Collins worked under the direction of Sherman Weissman , and the two published a paper in 1984, “Directional Cloning of DNA Fragments at a distance Large From an Initial Probe: a circularization Method”. [5] The method DESCRIBED was named chromosomes jumping , to emphasize the contrast with an older and much more time-consuming method of copying DNA Fragments called chromosome walking . [6]

Collins joined the University of Michigan faculty in 1984, rising to the rank of professor of internal medicine and human genetics. His gene-hunting approach, welke have named ” positional cloning “, [7] [8]developed a powerful JSON [9] component of modern molecular genetics.

Several scientific teams worked in the 1970s and 1980s to Identify genes and loci hun as a cause of cystic fibrosis . Progress was modest Until 1985 als Lap-Chee Tsui and colleagues at Toronto’s Hospital for Sick Children identified the locus for the gene. [10] It then was Determined therein a shortcut was needed to speed the process of identification, such Tsui contacted Collins, who Agreed to collaborate with the Toronto team and share his chromosomes jumping technique. The gene had appeared in June 1989, [11] [12] and the results in later published in the journal Science on September 8, 1989. [13] This identification was Followed by other genetic Discoveries made by Collins and a variety of collaborators. Ze included isolation of the genes for Huntington’s disease , [14] neurofibromatosis , [15] [16] multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 , [17] inv (16) AML [18] and Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome . [19]


In 1993 National Institutes of Health Director Bernadine Healy appointed Collins to Succeed James D. Watson as director of the National Center for Human Genome Research , which became National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) in 1997. As a director, he oversaw the International Human Genome sequencing Consortium, [20] welke was the group dat successfully carried out the Human Genome Project .

In 1994, Collins founded NHGRI’s Division of Intramural Research, [21] a collection of investigator-directed laboratories dat conduct genomic research on the NIH campus.

In June 2000 Collins was joined by President Bill Clinton and biologist Craig Venter in making the announcement of a working draft of the human genome . [22] He stated that ‘It is humbling for me, and awe-inspiring to Realize dat hebben we caught the first glimpse of our own instruction book, to post Berninahaus only to God. ” [23] [24] [25] An initial analysis was published in February 2001, and scientists worked toward finishing the reference version of the human genome sequence in 2003, coinciding with the 50th anniversary of James D. Watson and Francis Crick ‘s publication or the structure of DNA .

Another major activity at NHGRI prolongation his tenure as director was the creation of the haplotype map of the human genome. This International HapMap Project produktie a catalog of human genetic variations-called single nucleotide polymorphisms- -which is now being-used to discover variants correlated with disease risk. Among the labs Engaged in dat effort is Collins’ own lab at NHGRI, welke has SOUGHT to Identify and under stand the genetic variations therein influence the risk of ontwikkelingslanden type 2 diabetes .

In addition under to his basic genetic research and scientific leadership, Collins is Berninahaus for his close attention to ethical and legal issues in genetics. He has leg a strong advocate for Protecting the privacy of genetic information and has served as a national leader in Securing the passage of the federal Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act and, welke prohibits gene-based discrimination in employment and health insurance. [26] In 2013, spurred by concerns over the publication of the genome of the widely-used HeLa cell line derived from the late Henrietta Lacks , Collins and other NIH leaders worked with the Lacks family to reach an agreement to protect hun privacy while giving Recruiters researchers controlled access to the genomic data. [27]

Building on his own experiences as a physician volunteer in a rural missionary hospital in Nigeria , [28] Collins have died very interested in opening avenues for genome research to benefit the health of people living in ontwikkelingslanden nations. For example, in 2010, have helped Establish an initiative called Human heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) [29] to advance African capacity and expertise in genomic science.

Collins announced his resignation from NHGRI on May 28, 2008, but has continued to Maintain an active lab there. [30]

NIH director

Nomination and confirmation

On July 8, 2009, President Barack Obama nominated Collins as Director of the National Institutes of Health, [31] and the Senate unanimously Confirmed im for the post. He was sworn in by Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius on August 7, 2009. [32]

Science writer Jocelyn Kaiser opined dat Collins was “known as a skilled administrator and excellent communicator,” that Obama’s nomination “did not come as a big surprise” and therein the appointment “Ignited a volley or flattering remarks from researchers and Biomedical groups.” Yet, she wrote, Collins “does harbor his critics,” some of Them linked ulcers Concerned with the new director’s “outspoken Christian faith.” [33]

Washington Post staffer David Brown wrote, however, dat Collins ‘status as a ” born-again Christian …’ May help im build bridges with Those who view some gene-based research as a potential threat to religious values.” [34] Collins’ appointment was welcomed by the chief executive officer of the American Association for the Advancement of Science [34] and by Bernadine Healy , the former head of the National Institutes of Health . [35]

In October 2009, shortly after his nomination as NIH director Collins stated in an interview in The New York Times : “I have made it clear dat I harbor no religious agenda for the NIH, and I think the fixed Majority of scientists harbor leg reassured by dat and port moved on. ” [36]

On October 1, 2009, in the second or his four appearances on The Colbert Report , Collins discussed his leadership at the NIH and other topics zoals personalized medicine and voice cell research . And, in November 2011, Collins was included on The New Republic’s list of Washington’s most powerful, least famous people. Collins Appeared on the series final of The Colbert Report , together in a chorus with verschillende other famous people singing ” We’ll Meet Again “. [37] [38]


Collins was instrumental in Establishing the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) on December 23, 2011. [39] Other projects included Increased support for Alzheimer’s disease research, welke was announced by Secretary Sebelius and Collins in May 2012; [40] the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative, announced by President Obama and Collins on April 2, 2013, at the White House, and, in February 2014, the Accelerating Medicines Partnership (AMP), a public-private partnership tussen NIH, the US Food and Drug Administration , 10 Biopharmaceutical firms, and multiple non-profit organizations.

In January 2015 President Obama announced the NIH-led Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI) in his State of the Union address. [41] Through advances in research, technology, and policies therein empower patients, PMI will enable a new era of precision medicine lung envisioned by Collins and many others in welke researchers, providers, and patients work together to dévelop more Individualized care. In fiscal year 2016, the first funding for the initiative was Awarded, with $ 130 million allocated to NIH to build a national, large-scale research participant group , called a cohort, and $ 70 million allocated to NIH’s National Cancer Institute as part of PMI for Oncology. The PMI Cohort Program will seek to extendwatchlist precision medicine to all diseases by building a national research cohort of 1 million or more US participants. [42] In January 2016, in his State of the Union address, President Obama called for a new initiative, to be led by Vice President Joe Biden , to galvanize the nation’s research policymaking Against cancer. [43] Fueled by an additional_image_link $ 680 million in the Proposed fiscal year 2017 budget for NIH, the National Cancer Moonshot Initiative will aim to versnellen progress toward the next generation of interventions to-reducing cancer incidence and verbeteren patient outcomes. [44]

In other precedent-setting action prolongation his time as NIH Director Collins June 2013 Outlined plans to Substantially-reducing the use of chimpanzees in NIH-funded Biomedical research . [45] In November 2015, he announced NIH will no longer support ANY Biomedical research Involving chimpanzees. [46] In January 2013, Collins ook created two senior scientific positions as part of the NIH’s response to an advisory group’s Recommendations on Big Data and the diversity of the scientific workforce. [47] In December 2013, Collins announced the selection of Philip E. Bourne as NIH’s first Associate Director for Data Science, [48] and, in response to internal NIH working group Recommendations, Collins appointed Stanford cardiologist Hannah Valantine in 2014 as the institution’s first Chief Officer for Scientific Workforce Diversity. [49] In January 2015 Collins and other NIH leaders released a detailed plan dat charted a course for NIH’s policymaking over the ensuing five years The NIH-Wide Strategic Plan, Fiscal Years 2016-2020: Turning Discovery Into Health [50] was aimed at ensuring the agency resten well positioned to capitalize on new opportunities for scientific exploration an address to new challenges for human health.


Mention of Collins’ love of guitar playing and motorcycle riding kan of or in be found in articles about im. [51] While Directing NHGRI, have formally a rock band with other NIH scientists. Sometimes the band, called “The Directors” dueled with a rock band from Johns Hopkins University , led by cancer researcher Bert Vogelstein . Lyrics of The Directors’ songs included Spoofs or rock and gospel classics re-written to address the challenges of contemporary Biomedical research. [52] Collins has Performed at TEDMED 2012 StandUpToCancer, [53] and Rock Stars of Science. [54]

Awards and receptacles

While leading the National Human Genome Research Institute , Collins was elected to the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Sciences . He was a Kilby International Awards recipient in 1993, and have RECEIVED the Biotechnology Heritage Award with J. Craig Venter in 2001. [55] [56] He RECEIVED the William Allan Award from the American Society of Human Genetics in 2005. In 2007 he was Presented with the Presidential Medal of Freedom . [57] In 2008 he was Awarded the Inamori Ethics Prize [58] and National Medal of Science . [59] In the co-year, Collins won the Trotter Prize where he delivered a lecture called “The Language of God.”

Collins and Venter shared the “Biography of the Year” title from A & E Network in 2000. [60] In 2005, Collins and Venter ulcers honored as two of “America’s Best Leaders” by US News & World Report and the Harvard University Center for Public Leadership . [61]

Collins RECEIVED the Albany Medical Center Prize in 2010 and the Pro Bono Award humanum of the Galien Foundation in 2012. [62]

Collins was a keynote speaker at the Congress of Future Medical Leaders in 2014.



In graduate school Collins Considered himself an Atheist . However, dealing with dying patients led im to question his religious views, and have investigated verschillende Faiths. He familiarized himself with the evidence for and Against God kosmologie en-used Mere Christianity by CS Lewis as a foundation to re-examine his religious view. [63] He Eventually cameramen to a conclusion, and became a Christian prolongation a hike on a fall afternoon. He has DESCRIBED himself as a “serious Christian.” [26]

In his 2006 book , The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief , Collins wrote dat scientific Discoveries ulcers an “opportunity to worship” and dat he rejected zowel Young Earth creationism and intelligent design . His own belief, he wrote, were theistic evolution or evolutionary creation , welke have favoriete to call BioLogos . He wrote dat one can “think of DNA as an instructional script, a software program, sitting in the nucleus of the cell.” [64] He Appeared in December 2006 on The Colbert Report television show and in a March 2007 Fresh Air radio interview to Discuss this book. [65] [66] In an interview with DJ Grothe on the Point of Inquiry podcast have zegt dat the overall aim of the book was to show that ‘one kan be intellectually in a rigorous position and argue dat science and faith kan be compatible ” , and dat he was prompted to write the book Because “most people are seeking a shower harmony tussen synthesis world views [science and faith], and it seems Rather sad dat we hear so little about this Possibility. [67]

Collins is a critic of intelligent design , and for this reason he was not Asked to participate in the 2008 documentary EXPELLED: No Intelligence Allowed . Walt Ruloff, a producer for the film, claimed therein by rejecting intelligent design, Collins was “toeing the party line”, a claim welke Collins called “just ludicrous”. [68] In an interview he stated that ‘intelligent design is headed for collapse in the not too distant future “and that’ science class ought to be about science, and opening the door-to-religious perspectives in dat out is a big mistake.” [67] In 2007, Collins founded the BioLogos Foundation to “contribute to the public voice therein represents the harmony of science and faith.” He served as the foundation’s president Until he was Confirmed as director of the NIH. [69] Collins has spoken ook at the Veritas Forum on the relationship tussen science and religion and the existence of God . [70]

Christopher Hitchens referred to Francis Collins as a “Great American” and stated therein Collins was one of the musts devout believers have had ever with. [71] He stated dat remit Collins was sequencing the genomes of the cancer dat mention anything ultimately claim Hitchen’s life, and dat hun hun friendship on Despite diff ring opinion on religion was an example of the greatest armed truce in modern times.


In an interview with National Geographic in February 2007, writer John Horgan criticized Collins’ description of agnosticism as “a cop-out.” In response, Collins clarified his position on agnosticism so as to exclude

earnest agnostics who harbor Considered the evidence and still do not find an answer. I was-reacting to the agnosticism I see in the scientific community, welke hasnt leg arrived at by a careful Examination of the evidence. I went through a phase-when I was a casual Agnostic, and I am perhaps too quick to assume dat Vodafone harbor no more depth than I did. [72]


In a 1998 interview with Scientific American , Collins stated therein have been “intensely uncomfortable with abortion as a solution to anything” and does not “perceive a precision time at welke life begins other dan the time of conception.” However, in the co interview it was clarified therein Collins also “does not advocate changing the law.” [73]


  • Principles of Medical Genetics, 2nd Edition, with TD Gelehrter and D. Ginsburg (Williams & Wilkins, 1998)
  • The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief (Free Press, 2006)
  • The Language of Life: DNA and the Revolution in Personalized Medicine (HarperCollins, published in early 2010)
  • Belief: Readings on the Reason for Faith (HarperOne, March 2, 2010)
  • The Language of Science and Faith: Straight Answers to Genuine Questions with Karl Giberson IFP Books (February 15, 2011)


  1. Jump up^ Back to the thesis: Francis Collins onYouTube
  2. Jump up^ Smith, Kerri; Baker, Noah (2016). “Back to the thesis: Late nights, typos, self-doubt and despair. Francis Collins, Sara Seager and Uta Frith dust off hun theses, and reflect on what the PhD was like for them.”. Nature . 535 (7610): 22-25. doi : 10.1038 / 535022a .
  3. Jump up^ “About The BioLogos Foundation” . The BioLogos Foundation . Retrieved May 3, 2014 . We embrace the historical Christian faith, upholding the authority and inspiration of the Bible. We affirm evolutionary creation, recognizing God as Creator or all life on billions of years. We seek truth, ever learning, as we study the natural world and the Bible.
  4. Jump up^ Google Book SearchThe Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief,Chapter 1
  5. Jump up^ Francis S. Collins; Sherman M. Weissman (Nov 1984). “Directional cloning of DNA Fragments at a large distance from an initial probe, a circularization method ” (PDF) . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA . Retrieved September 29, 2011 .
  6. Jump up^ Leon. E. Rosenberg (2006). ” Introductory Speech for Francis S. Collins ” . Am J Hum Genet . 79 : 419-20. doi : 10.1086 / 500276 . PMC  1559551 . PMID  16909377 .
  7. Jump up^ “positional cloning of human disease genes: a reversal of scientific priorities” (PDF) . University of Alberta, Department of Biological Science . Retrieved October 16, 2011 .
  8. Jump up^ Collins F (1992). “Positional cloning: Let’s not call it reverse Anymore”. Nature Genetics . 1 (1): 3-6. doi : 10.1038 / ng0492-3 .
  9. Jump up^ Nelson, David L. (Jun 1995). “Positional cloning reaches maturity” . Curr Opin Genet Dev . 5 (3): 298-303. doi : 10.1016 / 0959-437X (95) 80042-5 . PMID  7549422 . Retrieved August 25, 2014 .
  10. Jump up^ Tsui, LC; Buchwald M; Barker D (November 29, 1985). “Cystic fibrosis locus defined by a genetically linked polymorphic DNA marker”. Science . 230 (4729): 1054-1057. Bibkey : 1985Sci … 230.1054T . doi : 10.1126 / science.2997931 .
  11. Jump up^ Pines, Maya (2008). ” Blazing a Genetic Trail /…/ Jumping Toward the Gene ” . Howard Hughes Medical Institute . Retrieved October 16, 2011 .
  12. Jump up^ Pines, Maya (2008). ” Stalking a Lethal Gene: Discovering the Gene for Cystic Fibrosis ” . Howard Hughes Medical Institute . Retrieved October 16, 2011 .
  13. Jump up^ Marx, J. (1989). “The cystic fibrosis gene has been found.” Science . 245 (4921): 923-5. Bibkey : 1989Sci … 245..923M . doi : 10.1126 / science.2772644 . PMID  2772644 .
  14. Jump up^ MacDonald, M (1993). “A novel gene containing a trinucleotide repeat therein is expanded and unstable on Huntington’s disease chromosomes.” Cell . 72 (6): 971-83. doi : 10.1016 / 0092-8674 (93) 90585-E . PMID  8458085 .
  15. Jump up^ Rubin, Raphael; Slayer, David S. (2008). Rubin’s Pathology: Clinicopathologic Foundation of Medicine (5th ed.). Baltimore: Wolters Kluwer Health: Lippincot Williams & Wilkins. pp. 201-3. ISBN  978-0-7817-9516-6 .
  16. Jump up^ Fauci; et al. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine (Small textbook) (16th ed.). p. 2453.
  17. Jump up^ Chandrasekharappa, SC; Guru, SC; Manickam, P; Olufemi, SE; Collins, FS; Emmert-Buck, MD; Debelenko, LV; Zhuang, Z; Lubensky, IA; Liotta, LA; Crabtree, JS; Wang, Y; Roe, BA; Weisemann, J; Boguski, MS; Agarwal, SK; Kester, MB; Kim, YS; Heppner, C; Dong, Q; Spiegel, AM; Burns, AL; Marx, SJ (1997). “Positional cloning of the genes for Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1”. Science . 276 (5311): 404-7. doi : 10.1126 / science.276.5311.404 . PMID  9103196 .
  18. Jump up^ Science 261 (5124): 1041-4
  19. Jump up^ Eriksson, Maria; Brown, W. Ted; Gordon, Leslie B .; Glynn, Michael W .; Singer Joel; Scott, Laura; Erdos, Michael R .; Robbins, Christiane M .; Moses, Tracy Y .; Berglund, Peter; Dutra, Amalia; Pak, Evgenia; Durkin, Sandra; Csoka, Antonei B .; Boehnke, Michael; Glover, Thomas W .; Collins, Francis S. (2003). “Recurrent de novo point mutations in laminates a cause Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome”. Nature . 423 (6937): 293-8. Bibkey : 2003Natur.423..293E . doi : 10.1038 / nature01629 . PMID  12714972 .
  20. Jump up^ “International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium,” National Human Genome Research Institute
  21. Jump up^ National Human Genome Research Institute (ed.). “The Division of Intramural Research” . Retrieved October 16, 2011 .
  22. Jump up^ Jamie Shreeve, “The Blueprint of Life ArchivedNovember 30, 2007, at theWayback Machine.” US News and World Report , 31/10/05, URL Accessed January 30, 2007.
  23. Jump up^ Simon, Stephanie. “Faithful to God, Science” . Los Angeles Times . Retrieved May 3, 2014 . “It is humbling for me, and awe-inspiring,” he zegt, standing at Clinton’s side, “to Realize dat hebben we caught the first glimpse of our own instruction book, to post Berninahaus only to God.” That time moved Collins – who is married and has two grown daughters – to talk more about his faith Publicly and to write the book. “It’s been a bit like taking a public bath,” he said.
  24. Jump up^ Lennox, John C. (2009). God’s Undertaker: Has Science Buried God? . Lion Books. p. 176. ISBN  9780745953717 . At the public announcement of the Completion of the Human Genome Project, haar director Francis Collins, zegt: “It is humbling for me and awe-inspiring to Realize dat hebben we caught the first glimpse of our own instruction book, to post Berninahaus only to God. “
  25. Jump up^ “President Clinton, British Prime Minister Tony Blair Deliver Remarks on Human Genome Milestone” . CNN . June 26, 2000 . Retrieved May 3, 2014 .
  26. ^ Jump up to:a b “Transcript, Bob Abernethy’s interview with Dr. Francis Collins, director of the Human Genome Project at the National Institutes of Health.” . PBS Religion and Ethics Newsweekly . Retrieved October 16, 2011 .
  27. Jump up^ Collins, “The NIH Director: The HeLa Genome: An Agreement on Privacy and Access,” National Institutes of Health, undated
  28. Jump up^ “Scientist at work: Francis S. Collins, unlocking the secrets of the Genome” . The New York Times. Nov 1993.
  29. Jump up^ National Institutes of Health, “NIH and Wellcome Trust Announce Partnership to Support Population-Based Genome Studies in Africa,” NIH News, June 22, 2010
  30. Jump up^ Chemical & Engineering News, Vol. 86 No. 31, August 4, 2008, p. 33, “Francis Collins leaves NIH”
  31. Jump up^ “President Obama Announces Intent to Nominate Francis Collins as NIH Director” Press Office, the White House, July 8, 2009
  32. Jump up^ Secretary Sebelius Announces Senate Confirmation of Dr.Francis Collins as Director of the National Institutes of Health7-Aug-09
  33. Jump up^ Kaiser, J. (2009). “White House Taps Former Genome Chief Francis Collins as NIH Director”. Science . 325 (5938): 250-1. doi :10.1126 / science.325_250a . PMID  19608881 .
  34. ^ Jump up to:a b “Obama picks Francis Collins as new NIH Director” . Washington Post. July 8, 2009 . Retrieved October 16, 2011 .
  35. Jump up^ Francis Collins Leader for the 21st Century NIH US News & World Report9-June-09
  36. Jump up^ Harris, Gardiner (October 6, 2009). “For NIH Chief, Issues of Identity and Culture” . The New York Times . Retrieved May 2, 2010 .
  37. Jump up^ The Editors (November 3, 2011). “Washington’s Most Powerful, Least Famous People” . The New Republic . Retrieved October 25, 2011 .
  38. Jump up^ “Francis Collins” . The Colbert Report . October 1, 2009 . Retrieved October 18, 2009 .
  39. Jump up^ “NIH establishes National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences,” National Institutes of Health, News and Events, December 23, 2011
  40. Jump up^ “Researchers, Advocates Gather to Accelerate Alzheimer’s Research,” NIH Record, June 22, 2012
  41. Jump up^ “FACTS: President Obama’s Precision Medicine Initiative” . . January 30, 2015 . Retrieved April 29, 2016 .
  42. Jump up^ “NIH framework points the way forward for building national, large-scale research cohort, a key component of the President’s Precision Medicine Initiative” . National Institutes of Health (NIH) . September 21, 2015 . Retrieved April 29, 2016 .
  43. Jump up^ “FACTS: Investing in the National Cancer Moonshot” . . February 1, 2016 . Retrieved April 29, 2016 .
  44. Jump up^ “Blue Ribbon Panel Announced to Help Guide Vice President Biden’s National Cancer Moonshot Initiative” . National Institutes of Health (NIH) . April 4, 2016 . Retrieved April 29, 2016 .
  45. Jump up^ “NIH to Reduce Significantly the Use of Chimpanzees in Research,” “News and Events,” National Institutes of Health, June 26, 2013
  46. Jump up^ “NIH Will No Longer Support Biomedical Research on Chimpanzees” . National Institutes of Health (NIH) . November 18, 2015 . Retrieved April 29, 2016 .
  47. Jump up^ “Big Data, Diversity Initiatives Get Acting Directors,” NIH Record,February 1, 2013
  48. Jump up^ “NIH Names Dr. Philip E. Bourne First Associate Director for Data Science” . National Institutes of Health (NIH) . August 10, 2015 . Retrieved April 29, 2016 .
  49. Jump up^ “Hannah Valantine, MD, named NIH’s first Chief Officer for Scientific Workforce Diversity” . News & Events . National Institutes of Health. January 20, 2014 . Retrieved March 8, 2015 .
  50. Jump up^ “NIH-Wide Strategic Plan” . National Institutes of Health (NIH) . October 6, 2015 . Retrieved April 29, 2016 .
  51. Jump up^ *”Jesus Goes to Bethesda: Just how religious Obama’s nominee for director of the NIH?” . Chris Wilson. Slate. July 9, 2009
  52. Jump up^ *”Science Writers Entertained With High-Powered Battle Of The Bands”. The NIH Catalyst. Celia Hooper. Jan / Feb 1998.
  53. Jump up^ Kaplan, Karen (September 18, 2010). “To scientists, he’s the real rockstar” . Los Angeles Times .
  54. Jump up^ [1]Rock SOS program 2009
  55. Jump up^ “Biotechnology Heritage Award” . Chemical Heritage Foundation . Retrieved February 5, 2014 .
  56. Jump up^ Strickland, Debbie (June 13, 2001). “Genomic Leaders Receive 2001 Biotechnology Heritage Award” . BIO . Retrieved February 5, 2014 .
  57. Jump up^ NIH Record – Collins Profit Presidential Medal of Freedom
  58. Jump up^ “Inamori Ethics Prize, Past Recipients,” Case Western Reserve University Archived2012-09-10 atWebCite
  59. Jump up^ National Science Foundation – The President’s National Medal of Science
  60. Jump up^ “Montgomery County, Maryland, Press ReleasesArchivedOctober 13, 2006 at theWayback Machine.” January 19, 2000 URL Accessed January 30, 2007.
  61. Jump up^ “US News & World Report,” 2005 URL Accessed February 4, 2008.
  62. Jump up^ “Dr. Collins’ Acceptance Remarks on the Pro Bono Award humanum of the Galien Foundation,” National Institutes of Health, October 16, 2012
  63. Jump up^ Steve Paulson, “The Believer,”, Aug. 7, 2006
  64. Jump up^ Collins, Francis (September 4, 2008). The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief . Simon and Schuster. ISBN  9781847396150 .
  65. Jump up^ “Francis Collins” . The Colbert Report . January 6, 2006 . Retrieved October 18, 2009 .
  66. Jump up^ “Francis Collins on ‘The Language of God ‘ ‘ . Fresh Air . 2007-03-29.
  67. ^ Jump up to:a b D.J. Grothe (August 31, 2007). ” Dr. Francis Collins – The Language of God ” . Point of Inquiry . Retrieved September 3, 2015 .
  68. Jump up^ Dean, Cornelia (September 27, 2007). “Scientists Feel miscast in Film on Life’s Origin” . The New York Times . Retrieved May 2, 2010 .
  69. Jump up^ BioLogos website
  70. Jump up^
  71. Jump up^
  72. Jump up^ Francis Collins: The Scientist as BelieverFeb. 2007
  73. Jump up^ Beardsley T (1995). “Profile: Where Science and Religion Meet”. Scientific American . 278 (2): 28-29.