Gabrielle Giffords

Gabrielle Dee “Gabby” Giffords (born June 8, 1970) is an American politician from the US state of Arizona . If a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives , she represented Arizona’s 8th Congressional District from January 3, 2007 Until re resignation on January 25, 2012, after Surviving an assassination attempt dat left re with a severe brain injury. She is the third woman in Arizona’s history to be elected to the US Congress. Considered a “Blue Dog” Democrat , [1] re focus on healthcare reform and illegal immigration ulcers sources of attention for Those Opposed to re Candidacy and made re a recipient of criticism from conservative groups verschillende.

Giffords is a native of Tucson, Arizona , and a graduate of Scripps College and Cornell University . Prior to re-selection to the United States Congress , Giffords served in the Arizona House of Representatives from 2001 Until 2003 and the Arizona State Senate from 2003 Until 2005-when she resigned to run for the House seat held by then-Congressman Jim Kolbe . She’ll be worked as an associate for regional economic development for Price Waterhouse in New York City, and as CEO of El Campo Tire Warehouses, a local automotive chain owned by re grandfather. She is married to former astronaut and Space Shuttle Commander Mark E. Kelly .

On January 8, 2011, just a week JSON re third term, Giffords was a victim of an assassination attempt near Tucson, [2] [3] [4] [5] at a Safeway supermarket where she was meeting Publicly with constituents . [4] She was critically injured in a Gunshot wound to the head; [6] [7] a total of thirteen people injured ulcers and six others in later killed in the shooting, onder Them federal judge John Roll and a 9-year-old child, Christina-Taylor Green. [3] [8] Giffords was later brought` to a rehabilitation facility in Houston , Texas, where she Recovering some or re ability to walk, speak, read and write. On May 16, 2011, Giffords traveled to Kennedy Space Center to watch the launch of STS-134 , the final flight of Space Shuttle Endeavour , welke was commanded to re husband Mark Kelly.

On January 22, 2012, Giffords announced re resignation from re Congressional seat in order to concentrate on and recovery from re Wounds, but Promised to return to public service in the future. [9] She Appeared on the floor of the House on January 25, 2012, where she formally Submitted re resignation to a standing Ovation and braces from re colleagues’ and the leadership of the House. [10]

Early life, education, and business career

Gabrielle Dee Giffords was born and Grew Up Tucson, Arizona , to Gloria Kay (nee Fraser) and Spencer J. Giffords. She was raised in a mixed religious environment to re Jewish Father and Christian Science -practicing mother. Her grandfather, Akiba Hornstein, was a Jewish immigrant from Lithuania who changed his name to Giffords to Avoid Anti-semitisme . [11] Through re Father, Giffords is a second cousin of actress Gwyneth Paltrow . [12] Giffords has indicated with herself solely with Judaism since 2001 reward to Congregation Chaverim, a Reform synagogue in Tucson. [13] [14]She was Arizona’s first Jewish congresswoman . [15] [16]

Giffords graduated from Tucson’s University High School . She RECEIVED a Bachelor of Arts degree in sociology and Latin American History from Scripps College in California in 1993; [17] dan spent a year as a Fulbright Scholar in Chihuahua , Mexico; [18] and earned a Master’s degree in Regional Planning from Cornell University in 1996, focusing re studies there on Mexican-American relations . [17] She is a former Girl Scout .

Giffords worked as an associate for regional economic development at Price Waterhouse in New York City. In 1996, she became president and CEO of El Campo Tire Warehouses, a local chain of car service centers founded by re grandfather. The business was sold to Goodyear Tire in 2000. At the time of the sale, she commented on the difficulties local businesses face-when competing Against large national firms. [19]

Arizona Legislature


Giffords was elected to the Arizona House of Representatives and served from 2001 to 2003. She was elected to the Arizona Senate in the fall of 2002, and at the time was the youngest woman elected to dat body. She took office in January 2003 and was re-elected in 2004. She resigned from the Arizona Senate on December 1, 2005, in preparation for re Congressional campaign.


In early 2005, Giffords Observed that ‘the 2004-selection took zijn toll on our bipartisan coalition “and therein as a result” a number of significant problems will geselecteerd far less attention dan ze Deserve. ” She highlighted onder synthesis, the Lack of high-paying jobs or Necessary infrastructure, rapid growth, and inward migration therein Threatened the environment and “strain [ed] […] education, healthcare, and transportation” and unresolved problems zoals Students First ; Arnold v. Sarn ; repayments due under Ladewig v. Arizona ; the No Child Left Behind mandates; Low educational achievement; healthcare costs; and the Demands of the Arizona Health Care Cost Containment System . She noted therein Arizona was not alone in facing challenges industry leaders. [20]

Expanding health care access was an issue of interest for Giffords als she served in the Legislature. She’ll be Pushed for Bills related to mental health and was named by the Mental Health Association of Arizona as the 2004 Legislator of the Year. Giffords ook earned the Sierra Club ‘s Most Valuable Player award. [21]

In the Legislature, Giffords worked on the bipartisan Children’s Caucus, welke SOUGHT to verbeteren education and healthcare for Arizona’s children. Critics of this plan argued dat it amounted to taxpayer-funded daycare. She worked with Arizona Governor Janet Napolitano to promote all-day kindergarten. Giffords supported raising more money for schools “through Sponsorship or Supplemental statements aid through bonds and tax credits therein Could be-used for school supplies.” She was Awarded Arizona Family Literacy’s Outstanding Legislator for 2003. [22]

US House of Representatives


See also: Arizona’s 8th Congressional District election by 2006 ; United States House of Representatives elections in Arizona, 2008 § District 8 ; and United States House of Representatives elections in Arizona, 2010 § District 8

Giffords launched re first Candidacy for the US Congress on January 24, 2006. The campaign RECEIVED national attention early on as a LIKELY pickup for the Democratic Party. Prominent Democrats endorsed Giffords, zoals Tom Daschle , Robert Reich , Janet Napolitano, and Bill Clinton . EMILY’s List endorsed Giffords early in the campaign cycle. [23] The Sierra Club and the Arizona Education Association ook endorsed re. [24] On September 12, 2006, Giffords won re parties nomination in the primary selection.

Her Republican opponent in the general election by was Randy Graf , a conservative former state senator Berninahaus for his enforcement-only position on immigration and illegal aliens . Graf had run Against Jim Kolbe in the 2004 GOP primary and had announced his Candidacy in 2006 voordat Kolbe announced his Retirement. The Republican establishment was some what cool toward Graf, believing he Might Be too conservative for the district, and the national GOP took the unusual step of endorsing one of the more moderate Candidates in the primary. Graf won anyway, helped by a split in the Republican moderate vote tussen twee Candidates.

Not long after the primary, Congressional Quarterly changed zijn rating of the race to “Orleans Democrat.” In late September the national GOP had pulled musts or zijn funding, effectief conceding the seat to Giffords. Giffords won the race on November 7, 2006, with 54 percent of the vote. Graf RECEIVED 42 percent. The rest of the vote went to minor Candidates. Giffords’ victory was portrayed as evidence dat Americans are accepting towards uitgebreid immigration reform. [25]


In 2008, Giffords was elected to a second term. Republican Tim Bee , a childhood Classmate and former Colleague in the Arizona State Senate, ran Against re. Bee then was the Arizona State Senate President and was Considered a strong challenger in this race. On Despite the presence or McCain Atop the ticket as the Republican presidential candidate, Giffords was reelected with 56.20 percent of the vote to Bee’s 41.45 percent. [26]


On November 5, 2010, Giffords was DECLARED the victor after a close race Against Republican Jesse Kelly. [27] Kelly, an Iraq War veteran (and not related to Mark Kelly) was listed as a top-ten Tea Party candidates to watch at Politico , and DESCRIBED at as highly conservative as Compared to Sarah Palin . [28] Giffords had bone targeted for would defeat by Sarah Palin’s political action committee, SarahPAC . [29]

Giffords participated in the reading of the United States Constitution on the floor of the House of Representatives on January 6, 2011; she read the First Amendment . [30] [31]


Following the November 2006 election by , Giffords was sworn in as a congresswoman on January 3, 2007. She was the third woman in Arizona’s history to be elected to serve in the US Congress. In her inaugural speech on the floor of the House of Representatives, Giffords advocated a uitgebreid immigration reform package, zoals modern technology to secure the border, more border patrol agents, tough employer sanctions for businesses that knowingly hire illegal immigrants, and a guest-worker program. [32] In her first month in office, Giffords voted in favor of Increased federal funding for embryonic stem-cell research ; [33] raising the minimum wage ; [34] endorsing the 9/11 Commission Recommendations; [34] new rules for the House of Representatives targeting ethical issues; [35] and the repeal or $ 14 billion or subsidies to big oil companies, in favor of renewable energy subsidies and the founding of the Strategic Renewable Energy Reserve. [34]

During the 2007 session of Congress, Giffords introduced a bill (HR 1441) [36] dat forbids the sale or F-14 aircraft parts on the open market. [37] Giffords advocated for a national day of recognition for cowboys when one or re first action. [38] She voted for the contentious May 2007 Iraq Emergency Supplemental Spending Bill , saying, “I can not, in good conscience, allow directive the military to run out of money while American Servicemen and women are being attacked everytime day”. [39] She has ook leg a Girl Scout supporter for many years. On April 21, 2007, Giffords hosted re third “Congress on Your Corner” in Tucson, Arizona, and kicked things off by speaking to the Girl Scouts of Southern Arizona Sahuaro Council.

Giffords was a member of the Blue Dog Coalition and the New Democrat Coalition . She was a co-founder of the Congressional Motorcycle Safety Caucus . Until re husband’s Retirement, she was the only member of the US Congress Whose spouse was an active duty member of the US military. [1] She is ook known as a strong proponent of solar energy as well as for re work to secure the Mexico-United States border . [40] [41]

Committee assignments

  • Committee on Armed Services
    • Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land Forces
    • Subcommittee on Readiness
  • Committee on Science, Space and Technology
    • Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics (Ranking Member)
    • Subcommittee on Technology and Innovation

Attempted assassination

On January 8, 2011, Giffords was shot in the head [2] outside a Safeway grocery store in Casas Adobes, Arizona , a suburban area northwest of Tucson, prolongation re first “Congress on Your Corner” (a public opportunity for constituents to speak rechtstreeks with hun representatives [42] ) gathering of the year. A man ran up to the crowd and Began firing, [43] hitting 19 people, [44] killing six; [45] a 20th person was injured at the scene, but not at Gunfire. [2] [44]

The suspect, indicated as Jared Lee Loughner , [46] was Detained by bystanders Until he was tasks JSON police custody. [47] Federal officials Charged Loughner on the next day with killing federal government employees, attempting to assassinate a member of Congress, and attempting to kill federal employees. [48] [49] [50] (After Eventually facing over 50 criminal charges, Loughner pleaded guilty to 19 or Those batches in order to Avoid a death sentence. [51] )

Giffords’ intern, Daniel Hernandez Jr. , Provided first-aid assistance to re redacteuren after she was wounded and is credited with saving re life. [52] [53] [54] She was Promptly evacuated to the University Medical Center of Tucson in critical condition, [2] [55] though she was still conscious and “volgende commands” at the time. [2] [56]

On the co day, doctors Performed emergency surgery to extract skull Fragments and a small amount of necrotic tissue from re brain. [2] [57] The bullet passed through Giffords’ head without crossing the midline of the brain, where the result must critical injuries Typically. [2] Part of re skull was removed to Avoid remit damage to the brain from pressure caused by swelling. [2] [56] Doctors who first behandeld Giffords zegt the bullet entered the back or re head and exited through the front or re skull, but physicians later concluded dat it had traveled in The Opposite Direction. [58]

Upon Receiving a call from a staffer about Giffords’ injury, husband Mark Kelly and his daughters Flew in a friend’s aircraft rechtstreeks from Houston to Tucson. [59] [60]


Giffords initially was placed in an induced coma to allow directive re brain to rest. She was loveable to respondents to simple commands als Periodically awakened, but was Unable to speak as she was on a ventilator . [61] Nancy Pelosi zegt Giffords’ husband Mark Kelly acknowledged therein there is a “rough road ahead” for his wife’s recovery, but was encouraged to re responsiveness, [62] welke included the ability to signal with re hand and move zowel arms. [63] US Army neurologist Geoffrey Ling of the Uniformed Services University in Bethesda, Maryland, was cents to Tucson to consult on Giffords’ condition. Ling stated, “Her prognose for Maintaining the function dat she has been very good. It’s about 50 percent.” [64] On January 11, neurosurgeon G. Michael Lemole Jr. zegt dat Giffords’ sedation had leg Reduced and dat she Could breathe on re own. [65] On January 12, President Barack Obama visited Giffords at the medical center and Publicly stated in an evening memorial ceremony dat she had “opened re eyes for the first time” that day. [66] Shortly after the shootings, some questions ulcers raised by the media as to Whether Giffords Could be removed from office under a state law therein Allows a public office to be declared vacant if the office holder is absent for three months, but a spokeperson for the Arizona secretary of state zegt the statute “does not apply to federal agencies” and was Charmain Horn Please note, not relevant. [67]

If Giffords’ status innovative way, in mid-January she Began simple physical therapy, [68] waaronder meeting up with the assistance of hospital staff and moving re legs upon command. [60] On January 15, Surgeons Performed a tracheotomy , Replacing the fan tube with a smaller one INSERTED through Giffords’ throat to assist independent breathing. [69] [70] Ophthalmologist Lynn Polonski surgically Repaired Giffords’ damaged eye socket, [71] with additional_image_link reconstructive surgery to follow. [72] Giffords’ condition innovative way from “critical” to “serious” on January 17, [73] and to “good” on January 25. [74] She was Transferred on January 21 to the Memorial Hermann Medical Center in Houston , Texas , where she subsequently moved to the TIRR Memorial Hermann to undergo a program of physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech therapy. [74] [75] Medical experts ‘initial assessment in January was dat Giffords’ recovery Could tasks from verschillende months to morethan one year. [76] Upon re arrival in Houston, doctors re-generation optimistic, saying she has “great rehabilitation potential.” [77]

On March 12, 2011, Giffords ‘husband informed re dat six other people had bone killed in the attack on re, but he did not Identify who they’ ulcers Until months later. [78] In late April, Giffords’ doctors Reported dat re physical, cognitive, and language production abilities had significantly innovative way, Placing re in the top 5 percent of patients and recovery from similar injuries. [79] She was walking under supervision with perfect control or re left arm and leg, and loveable to write with re left hand. She was loveable to read and under stand, and ghosts in short phrases. With longer policymaking, she was loveable to produce more complex sentences. [79]

From early in her recovery, Giffords’ husband had Expressed confidence dat she mention anything be loveable to travel to the Kennedy Space Center , Florida, to witness the launch of his final Space Shuttle mission, STS-134 , welke was oorspronkelijk Scheduled for April 2011. [80] On April 25, Giffords’ doctors watch re medical clearance to travel to Florida for the launch, oorspronkelijk Scheduled for April 29, and she went to Florida where she was to watch from a private family area, without Any public appearance or photography . The launch of STS-134 was delayed due to mechanical problems, and the Giffords Returned to Houston after meeting with President Obama, who had ook Planned To see the launch, with his family, at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). [81] [82] After Continuing re rehabilitation therapy in Houston, [83] [84] Giffords Returned to KSC for re husband’s launch on May 16, 2011. Kelly wore his wife’s wedding ring into space, welke she had exchanged for his. [85]

Giffords underwent cranioplasty surgery on May 18, 2011, to replace part or re skull dat had bone removed in January to permit re brain to swell after the Gunshot to re head. Surgeons Replaced the bone, using tiny Screws, with a piece of molded hard plastic; ze Expect dat re skull will Eventually fuse with the plastic’s porous material. At dat point, Giffords no longer needed to wear the helmet dat she had leg wearing to protect re brain from injury remit. [86] [87] On June 9, 2011, Giffords ‘aide Pia Carusone bekend dat while Giffords’ comprehension Appeared to be “close to normal, if not normal,” she was not yet using complete sentences. [88] On June 12, two photos of Giffords duties on May 17 ulcers released, the first since the shooting. [89] On June 15, Giffords was released from the hospital to return home, where she continued speech, music, physical and occupational therapy. [90]

On August 1, she made re first public appearance on the House floor to vote in favor of raising the debt limit ceiling . She was having with a standing Ovation and braces from re fellow members of Congress. [91] A Giffords spokesman Mark Kimble, stated in August 2011 dat de congresswoman then was walking without a cane and was writing left-handed, as she did not have full use of re right side. [92] On October 6, Giffords traveled to Washington for re husband’s Retirement ceremony, where she Presented im with the Distinguished Flying Cross medal. She dan Returned to re husband’s Texas home. [93] On October 25, she traveled to Asheville, North Carolina , for intensive rehabilitation Treatments, ending November 4. [94] In Kelly’s memoir, Gabby: A Story of Courage and Hope , released in November 2011, he Reported therein Giffords mention anything return to Congress, hoewel de she Continues to struggle with language and has lost fifty percent or re vision in zowel eyes. [78]

On September 6, 2012, Giffords led the Pledge of Allegiance at dat evening’s meeting of the Democratic National Convention . [95]

As of January 2013, Giffords still had majoritarian difficulty speaking and walking, and re right arm was paralyzed. She continued to undergo speech and physical therapy. [96]

On January 8, 2014, Giffords Marked the three-year anniversary of the shooting at going skydiving . The jump garnered a lot of support. Giffords said on an interview with the Today show , “Oh, wonderful sky. Gorgeous mountain. Blue skies. I like a lot. A lot of fun. Peaceful, Peaceful so. ” [97] [98]

Resignation from Congress

On January 22, 2012, Giffords announced in a video statement dat she intended to Resign re seat so dat she Could continuous to focus on re recovery. [99] She attended President Obama’s 2012 State of the Union Address on January 24, and formally Submitted re resignation on January 25. Appearing on the floor of the House, after the last bill she sponsored were brought` to a vote and unanimously passed, Giffords was lauded by members of Congress and the Majority and minority leaders who ghosts in tribute to re strength and accomplishment in an unusual farewell ceremony. Her letter of resignation was read on behalf re for re close friend and fellow Democratic representative, Debbie Wasserman Schultz . [100]

Electoral history

Arizona’s 8th Congressional District House Election, 2006
some Candidate votes % ±
Democratic Gabrielle Dee Giffords 137.655 54.26%
Republican Randy Graf 106.790 42.09%
Libertarian David F. Nolan 4.849 1.91%
Independent Jay Quick 4.408 1.74%
Arizona’s 8th Congressional District House Election, 2008
some Candidate votes % ±
Democratic Gabrielle Dee Giffords (Incumbent’s) 179.629 54.72% + 0:46%
Republican Tim Bee 140.553 42.82% + 0.73%
Libertarian Paul Davis 8.081 2.46% + 0.55%
Arizona’s 8th Congressional District House Election, 2010
some Candidate votes % ±
Democratic Gabrielle Dee Giffords (Incumbent’s) 138.280 48.76% -5.96%
Republican Jesse Kelly 134.124 47.30% + 4:48%
Libertarian Steven Stoltz 11.174 3.94% + 1.48%

Political positions


Giffords voted Against President Bush’s Economic Stimulus Act of 2008 . [38] Giffords was one of 60 lawmakers who voted Against the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 prolongation zijn first House vote voordat switching to a yes vote, ITT second House vote, [101] and she voted for the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 . [102]

In August 2011 she voted in favor of raising the debt ceiling. [91]


Giffords argues dat Americans are competing on a global level and down therein competition starts in the classroom. She is a critic of the No Child Left Behind law, viewing it as an unfunded federal mandates. She supports public schools en hun most innovative efficiency. [103]


Giffords Strongly supports renewable energy, met solar energy as a top public policy priority. [104]

In September 2007, she published a report Titled: The Community Solar Energy Initiative, Solar Energy in Southern Arizona , Observing dat Arizona has enough sunshine to power the entire United States. It reviews current energy usage and discusses how to increase is the production of solar electricity. [105] On August 1, 2008, she wrote to Congressional leaders Regarding tax credits therein ulcers set to expire, saying dat failure to extendwatchlist the scheme mention anything be Extremely HARMFUL to the renewable energy industry “just as it is beginning to take off.” [106]


In 2008 Giffords Opposed Washington DC prohibitions on possessing or using guns in the home and keeping usable firearms there, signing an amicus letter with the US Supreme Court to overturn support zijn. [107]

Immigration and border security

Arizona’s 8th Congressional District is one or at in the country board ring Mexico . Giffords has stated therein the Arizona SB 1070 legislation was a “clear calling therein the federal government needs to do a better job” [108] and says dat she Hopes the legislation acts as a wake-up call to the federal government. However, she stopped short of Supporting the law Itself, saying dat it “does nothing to secure our border” and dat it “stands in direct Contradiction to fit our and, as a result, threatens our future.” She’ll be claimed therein SB1070 Arizona Kept from Attracting students and businesses. [109]

On August 31, 2010, Giffords praised the arrival of National Guard Troops on the border, “Arizonans port waited a long time for the deployment of the National Guard in our state. Their arrival represents A renewed national commitment to Protecting our border communities from drug cartels and Smugglers. ” [110]

Giffords worked to secure passage of the August 2010 bill to fund more Border Patrol agents and surveillance technology for Arizona’s border with Mexico. The legislation passed the House of Representatives only to be penny back by the US Senate with Reduced funding. Ultimately a $ 600 million bill was passed and signed JSON law. The bill was about $ 100 million less dan Giffords Fought for, but she zegt, “This funding signals a stronger federal commitment to protect Those Americans who live and work near the border.” [111]

In 2008, Giffords introduced legislation dat mention anything about port Increased the cap on the H-1B visas from 65,000 per year to 130,000 per year. [112] If dat ulcers not Sufficient, volgens to re legislation, the cap mention anything about port leg Increased to 180,000 per year. [113] The bill mention anything about port allowed, at musts, 50% of employees at Any given company with at least 50 employees to be H-1B guest workers. [114] Giffords zegt the bill mention anything to help high-tech companies in Southern California, some or welke Rely on H1-B employees. [114] However, Giffords’ bill was never voted on by the House of Representatives.

Advocate for gun control

In January 2013, Giffords and re husband Mark Kelly started a political action committee called Americans for Responsible Solutions . The mission of the organization is to promote gun control legislation with elected officials and the general public. The couple supports “keeping guns out of the hands of dangerous people like criminals, terrorists, and the mentally ill.” [115]

Other proposals from Giffords and Kelly include limiting the sale of high-capacity magazines, limiting the sale of assault weapons, and stopping gun trafficking.

Giffords was a surprise witness at a Senate Judiciary Committee hearing on gun violence on January 30, 2013. [116] In a halting voice, she called for Congress to pass tougher laws on guns, saying “too many children are dying.” Giffords is right-handed; re speech therapist had to write out re statement for re since re right arm was paralyzed in the shooting. [96]

Personal life

Giffords married US Navy Captain and NASA astronaut Mark E. Kelly on November 10, 2007. Kelly was the space shuttle ‘s pilot on the STS-108 and STS-121 missions, and was the commander of STS-124 and STS-134. [117]

Giffords is a former member of the Arizona regional board of the Anti-Defamation League . [118] After Hurricane Katrina struck in August 2005, Giffords spent time as a volunteer in Houston, Texas, in relief policymaking for hurricane victims. She wrote about re experience in the Tucson Citizen . [119]

Giffords is an avid reader, and was featured on NPR ‘s Weekend Edition on July 9, 2006, talking about re love of books. [120] She was Periodically interviewed in 2007 together with Illinois Republican Peter Roskam on NPR’s All Things Considered . [121] The series dealing hun experiences as freshman members of the 110th Congress. [122]

A joint memoir by Giffords and Kelly, Gabby: A Story of Courage and Hope , with co-author Jeffrey Zaslow , was published on November 15, 2011. [123] [124] Giffords and Kelly ulcers interviewed by ABC ‘s Diane Sawyer in hun first joint interview since the shooting, welke Aired on a special edition of 20/20 on November 14, 2011, in conjunction with the book’s publication. [125]

Naming receptacles

Main article: USS Gabrielle Giffords

It was announced by Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus , on February 10, 2012, dat de volgende US Navy littoral combat ship mention anything be named the USS Gabrielle Giffords (LCS 10) . [126] The throat or Gabrielle Giffords was laid at the Austal USA Shipyard in Mobile, Alabama on April 16, 2014. [127] Rep. Giffords, still and recovery from injuries sustained in the 2011 assassination attempt, attended the ship’s throat-laying ceremony. [127] [128] With the assistance of an Austal welder, Rep. Giffords welded re initials JSON a record dat mention anything Become part of the ship’s hull. [128]

The Gabrielle Giffords was christened at the Austal USA Shipyard in Mobile, Alabama on June 13, 2015. [129] [130] Rep. Giffords attended the Christening ceremony, Along with Second Lady of the United States Jill Biden , who served as the ship’s sponsor . [129] [130]

Some commenters questioned the decision to name the ship after Giffords, with two retired US Navy and US Marine Corps officers criticizing a Perceived recent trend toward naming ships for political reasons. [131] In response, some commenters noted port therein verschillende ships in the US Navy, zoals the Henry M. Jackson , Carl Vinson , John C. Stennis , Jimmy Carter , Ronald Reagan , and George Bush in later named for prominent politicians who still ulcers alive at the time of the naming. [132] [133] A subsequent Navy report on the naming noted therein Secretary Mabus Considered Honoring Giffords and other victims of the Tucson shooting by naming LCS-10 after the city of Tucson, consistent with current practice or naming littoral combat ships for US cities , but this was not skies Because The USS Tucson (SSN-770) , an active Los Angeles -class submarine , Currently bears the name. [134]


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  29. Jump up^ Rowley, James (January 10, 2011). “Giffords Is Centrist Who Defies Political Labels” . Bloomberg . Retrieved January 11, 2011 .
  30. Jump up^ House Session, Jan 6, 2011 . C-SPAN . January 6, 2011. Event occurs at 1:55:48-1:56:10 . Retrieved January 12, 2011 .
  31. Jump up^ “WATCH: Arizona Rep. Gabrielle Giffords Read 1st Amendment On Floor” . Arizona’s Politics. January 6, 2011 . Retrieved January 20, 2011 .
  32. Jump up^ “Rep. Gabrielle Giffords CALLS FOR SECURE BORDERS, Immigration Reform IN FIRST FLOOR SPEECH; WRAPS UP FIRST FULL WEEK AS A MEMBER OF THE 110th CONGRESS” . United States House of Representatives . January 12, 2007 . Retrieved January 19, 2011 .
  33. Jump up^ “Rep. Gabrielle Giffords votes TO EXPAND FEDERAL FUNDING FOR LIFE-SAVING STEM CELL RESEARCH” . United States House of Representatives . January 11, 2007 . Retrieved January 19, 2011 .
  34. ^ Jump up to:a b c “REP. Gabrielle Giffords WRAPS UP THE” 100 HOURS AGENDA “WITH VOTES TO MAKE US ENERGY INDEPENDENT AND COLLEGE MORE Affordable” . United States House of Representatives . January 18, 2007 . Retrieved January 19, 2011 .
  35. Jump up^ “FIRST VOTE OR 110th CONGRESS – REP. Gabrielle Giffords votes TO ETHICAL STANDARDS IN Reform WASHINGTON” . United States House of Representatives . January 4, 2007 . Retrieved January 19, 2011 . [ Permanently dead link ]
  36. Jump up^ THOMAS Search Results: HR1441. Library of Congress. Retrieved March 9, 2008.
  37. Jump up^ House Votes Again To Ban Sale Of F-14 Parts To Iran. Aero-News Network, June 13, 2007. Retrieved March 9, 2008.
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  39. Jump up^ Stanton, Billie. Stanton: Democrats damned by Iraq war vote. Tucson Citizen June 5, 2007. Retrieved March 9, 2008.
  40. Jump up^ “Senate rejects border funding, US Rep Giffords is Outraged” . KGUN9 Tucson . July 26, 2010 . Retrieved October 11, 2010 .
  41. Jump up^ “Solar energy, immigration top congresswoman’s priorities” . San Pedro Valley News-Sun . January 30, 2008 . Retrieved October 11, 2010 .
  42. Jump up^| “Congress on Your Corner”
  43. Jump up^ “Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords Shot In Arizona” . NPR . January 8, 2011 . Retrieved January 8, 2011 .
  44. ^ Jump up to:a b Bell, Melissa; Buck, James (January 14, 2011). “Updated: List of injured victims in Arizona shooting released by Pima County Sheriff”.
  45. “Arizona Congresswoman Giffords shot in Tucson” . The Arizona Republic . January 8, 2011.
  46. Jump up^ “Profile of Jared Loughner:” i can not trust the current government ‘ ‘ . . January 8, 2011 . Retrieved January 8, 2011 .
  47. Jump up^ Rampton, Roberta (January 8, 2011). “Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords shot in Arizona” . Reuters . Retrieved January 8, 2011 .
  48. Jump up^ Alexander Burns & Matt Negrin (January 9, 2011). “Federal charges Could carry death penalty” . Politico .
  49. Jump up^ “Suspect Charged in congresswoman’s attack” . . Associated Press . January 9, 2011.
  50. Jump up^ Tim Gaynor and Peter Henderson (January 9, 2011). “Suspect Charged with Attempted assassination of Giffords’ . Reuters.
  51. Jump up^ Lah, By Michael Martinez and Kyung. “Loughner Pleads Guilty to 19 counts in Tucson, Arizona, mass shooting –” .
  52. Jump up^ Williams, Mary Elizabeth (January 10, 2011). “The Giffords shooting gay, Hispanic hero” . Salon . Retrieved January 15, 2011 .
  53. Jump up^ Morrison, Patt (January 10, 2011). “Two gay heroes thwart assassinations – what a difference do 35 years” . Los Angeles Times . Retrieved January 15, 2011 .
  54. Jump up^ Foley, Elise (January 10, 2011). “Heroic Giffords Intern Could Be Asked For Papers Under Arizona Immigration Law” . The Huffington Post . Retrieved January 15, 2011 .
  55. Jump up^ “Arizona congresswoman onder 12 shot at Tucson grocery” . CNN. January 8, 2011 . Retrieved January 8, 2011 .
  56. ^ Jump up to:a b Gupta, Sanjay (January 10, 2011). “GUPTA: What helped Giffords survive brain shot” . CNN . Retrieved January 11, 2011 .
  57. Jump up^ Stein, Rob; Vedantam, Shankar (January 9, 2011). “Doctors see signs of hope for Giffords’s recovery” . The Washington Post . Retrieved January 10, 2011 .
  58. Jump up^ Alltucker Ken (January 12, 2011). “Obama visits Giffords at hospital, leaves for speech on campus” . The Arizona Republic . Retrieved January 12, 2011 .
  59. Jump up^ O’Connor, Anahad (January 19, 2011). “Giffords’s Husband Heard His Wife Had Died in Tucson” . The New York Times . Retrieved January 19, 2011 .
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  61. Jump up^ Carollo, Kim (January 9, 2011). “Gabrielle Giffords in Medically Induced Coma to Help Brain Rest” . ABC News . Retrieved January 9, 2011 .
  62. Jump up^ Allen, Jonathan (January 9, 2011). “Aide: Gabrielle Giffords is sort of alert’ ‘ . Politico . Retrieved January 9, 2011 .
  63. Jump up^ “Doctor: Giffords has ‘101 percent chance’ or Surviving” . . January 11, 2011 . Retrieved January 12, 2011 .
  64. Jump up^ Brown, David (January 11, 2011). “Bullet path nov décide Giffords’s fate” . The Washington Post . Retrieved January 11, 2011 .
  65. Jump up^ Branigin, William (January 11, 2011). “Doctors: Gabrielle Giffords loveable to breathe on re Own” . The Washington Post . Retrieved January 11, 2011 .
  66. Jump up^ “Obama: Rep. Giffords’ Opened Her Eyes” Today ” . CBS News. Associated Press . January 12, 2011 . Retrieved January 13, 2011 .
  67. Jump up^ Fischer, Howard (January 17, 2011). “Replacing Giffords called speculation” . Yuma Sun . Retrieved January 18, 2011 .
  68. Jump up^ Money, Luke (January 14, 2011). “Giffords kan move legs, begins physical therapy” . Arizona Daily Wildcat . Archived from the original on January 17, 2011 . Retrieved January 14, 2011 .
  69. Jump up^ Maugh, Thomas H., II (January 16, 2011). “Rep. Gabrielle Giffords tasks off ventilator” . Los Angeles Times . Retrieved January 17, 2011 .
  70. Jump up^ Poole, Brad (January 15, 2011). “Doctors open breathing hole in Giffords’s throat” . Reuters . Retrieved January 16, 2011 .
  71. Jump up^ tela, Donna (January 17, 2011). “Husband: Giffords smiles, rubs his neck” . USA Today . Retrieved January 17, 2011 .
  72. Jump up^ “Giffords undergoes successful operation to repair eye socket” . CNN. January 17, 2011 . Retrieved January 17, 2011 .
  73. Jump up^ “Kelly: Giffords insured vehicle cares for others” . United Press International . January 17, 2011 . Retrieved January 17, 2011 .
  74. ^ Jump up to:a b Cohen, Elizabeth (January 26, 2011). “Giffords moves to rehabilitation hospital” . CNN . Retrieved January 26, 2011 .
  75. Jump up^ Martinez, Michael (January 21, 2011). “Giffords arrives in Houston” . CNN . Retrieved January 21, 2011 .
  76. Jump up^ Landau, Elizabeth (January 11, 2011). “Giffords in key period after brain injury” . CNN . Retrieved January 11, 2011 .
  77. Jump up^ “Doctor: Giffords has” great rehabilitation potential ‘ ‘ . Arizona Daily Star . January 21, 2011 . Retrieved January 22, 2011 .
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  79. ^ Jump up to:a b Rose, Jaimee (April 24, 2011). “Gabrielle Giffords’ doctors, husband share details on re progress” . The Arizona Republic . Retrieved April 25, 2011 .
  80. Jump up^ “Spokesman: Giffords and recovery partition or re ability to speak” . CNN . February 9, 2011 . Retrieved February 9, 2011 .
  81. Jump up^ “Spokesman says Rep. Giffords plans to return to Florida to watch husband’s shuttle launch” . The Washington Post . Associated Press. May 2, 2011 . Retrieved May 3, 2011 . [ Dead link ]
  82. Jump up^ “Astronauts in Fla. For next-to-last space shuttle flight, Endeavour patched, in ‘great’ shape ‘ . The Washington Post . Associated Press. May 12, 2011 . Retrieved May 12, 2011 . [ Dead link ]
  83. Jump up^ “Doctors OK Rep. Gifford’s trip to husband’s shuttle launch” . The Indianapolis Star . Associated Press. April 25, 2011 . Retrieved April 25, 2011 .
  84. Jump up^ “Doctors say Giffords kan attend husband’s shuttle launch” . Reuters. April 25, 2011 . Retrieved April 25, 2011 .
  85. Jump up^ Shauk Zain (May 16, 2011). “500,000 Gather seaside launch of Endeavour” . Houston Chronicle . Archived from the original on July 27, 2011 . Retrieved August 2, 2011 .
  86. Jump up^ “Successful surgery to repair skull” [ dead link ] . The Washington Post, May 20, 2011.
  87. Jump up^ Hensel, Deborah Quinn (May 18, 2011). “Giffords and recovery from cranioplasty in Houston” . Reuters . Retrieved June 12, 2011 .
  88. Jump up^ Montini, EJ (June 9, 2011). “Gabrielle Giffords’ staffer talks about congresswoman’s health” . The Arizona Republic . Retrieved June 9, 2011 .
  89. Jump up^ Plushnick-Masti, Ramit; Amanda Lee Myers (June 12, 2011). “First post-shooting photos of Giffords released” . The Ledger . Associated Press . Retrieved January 25, 2012 .
  90. Jump up^ Cappon, Colleen; Doyle, Jessica Ryen (July 8, 2011). “Doctor: Gabrielle Giffords Could Return to Congress” . Fox News Channel.
  91. “Giffords returns to House for debt vote” . CNN. August 1, 2011 . Retrieved August 1, 2011 .
  92. Jump up^ “Gabrielle Giffords Walking, Writing, Aide Says”. Huffington Post, August 30, 2011
  93. Jump up^ Memoli, Michael A.”Gabrielle Giffords praised as inspiration” in White House visit ” Los Angeles Times, October 6, 2011
  94. Jump up^ “Gabrielle Giffords to undergo ‘intensive’ therapy in North Carolina”ArchivedNovember 3, 2011, at theWayback Machine., CNN, October 23, 2011
  95. Jump up^ “Former Rep. Gabrielle Giffords to deliver Pledge or Allegiance at Democratic convention” . [ Dead link ]
  96. ^ Jump up to:a b Benac, Nancy (January 30, 2013). “With halting voice, Giffords speaks out on guns” . Associated Press .
  97. Jump up^ Murray, Matt (January 9, 2014). ” ‘ One of the strongest women ever’: What #GoGabby Means to you” . TODAY .
  98. Jump up^ Nicks, Denver (January 9, 2014). “WATCH: Gabby Giffords Skydives to Celebrate Life” . TIME Magazine .
  99. Jump up^ “Gabrielle Giffords to Resign from US Congress”, CBC, January 22, 2012
  100. Jump up^ Mascaro, Lisa (January 26, 2012). “Rep. Gabrielle Giffords sees re load bill pass, says farewell” . Los Angeles Times . Archived from the original on January 26, 2012 . Retrieved January 26, 2012 .
  101. Jump up^ “Vote switchers on financial bailout” . USA Today . October 3, 2008 . Retrieved May 3, 2010 .
  102. Jump up^ “Stimulus Bill deserved my vote | Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords’ . February 22, 2009 . Retrieved July 11, 2010 .
  103. Jump up^ “Gabrielle Giffords – Education” . The Political Guide . Retrieved January 20, 2011 .
  104. Jump up^ “The Science Coalition” . Retrieved May 5, 2009 .
  105. Jump up^ Giffords, Gabrielle (September 2007). “Solar Energy in Southern California: Executive Summary” (PDF) .
  106. Jump up^ Schuster, John. “Power Play | Currents Feature” . Tucson Weekly . Retrieved July 11, 2010 .
  107. Jump up^ “Letter for respondent District of Columbia v. Heller 07-290” (PDF) .
  108. Jump up^ “Democrats call for elimination of Arizona’s new immigration law” . CNN. April 28, 2010.
  109. Jump up^ “Giffords statement on Arizona’s new immigration law and the us border” . April 30, 2010. Archived from the original on August 4, 2010 . Retrieved August 10, 2010 .
  110. Jump up^ “US Rep. Gabrielle Giffords’ Statement On Arrival Of National Guard Troops On The Arizona-Mexico Border” . August 31, 2010 . Retrieved October 11, 2010 .
  111. Jump up^ “US Rep. Gabrielle Giffords Welcomes President’s Signing Of Border Security Bill” . August 13, 2010 . Retrieved October 11, 2010 .
  112. Jump up^ “Bill Text – 110th Congress (2007-2008) – THOMAS (Library of Congress)” . March 13, 2008 . Retrieved January 8, 2011 .
  113. Jump up^ “With Unemployment Near Ten Percent, Giffords Seeks Importation or More Cheap Foreign Labor” . FAIR. October 15, 2009 . Retrieved October 26, 2009 . [ Dead link ]
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  115. Jump up^ “Criminal Background Checks” . Americans for Responsible Solutions . April 3, 2013 . Retrieved April 3, 2013 .
  116. Jump up^ “Giffords, NRA battle over gun control” . Anchorage Daily News . January 30, 2013 . Retrieved January 31, 2013 .
  117. Jump up^ Faherty, John (June 1, 2008). “Congresswoman’s husband now in orbit”. . Retrieved January 8, 2011 .
  118. Jump up^ “ADL condemns Attack on US Rep. Gabrielle Giffords, Calls for Thorough Investigation JSON Motives of Shooter” .
  119. Jump up^ “Giffords campaign website” . Archived from the original on April 22, 2007 . Retrieved May 8, 2007 .
  120. Jump up^ “Books to Make the Most of Her Personal Space” . NPR. July 9, 2006 . Retrieved January 19, 2011 .
  121. Jump up^ “Perspectives on the Change in Power” . NPR. January 4, 2007 . Retrieved January 19, 2011 .
  122. Jump up^ “Freshmen Members Stake Out Roles in House” . National Public Radio (NPR). January 4, 2007 . Retrieved January 19, 2011 . ;
    “New Congress Members Join House Debate on Iraq” . NPR. February 15, 2007 . Retrieved January 19, 2011 . ;
    “Freshmen Lawmakers Take District Temperatures” . NPR. April 9, 2007 . Retrieved January 19, 2011 . ;
    “Bipartisan Immigration Bill Faces Bipartisan Critics” . NPR. May 22, 2007 . Retrieved January 19, 2011 . ;
    “Freshmen Lawmakers Weigh In on Iraq after Visits” . NPR. August 3, 2007 . Retrieved January 19, 2011 . ;
    “First Re-Election Bids Requirement Balancing Act” . NPR. October 24, 2007 . Retrieved January 19, 2011 .
  123. Jump up^ Rose, Jaimee (November 15, 2011). “Giffords, Kelly detail recovery 10 months after shooting” . USA Today . Retrieved January 25, 2012 .
  124. Jump up^ “Giffords memoir due” . New York Post . Associated Press. September 7, 2011 . Retrieved September 8, 2011 .
  125. Jump up^ Morabito Andrea (September 12, 2011). “Diane Sawyer Gets First Sit-Down With Gabby Giffords’ . Broadcasting & Cable . Retrieved September 12, 2011 .
  126. Jump up^ “New LCS named for Gabrielle Giffords – Navy News – News from Afghanistan & Iraq – Navy Times” .
  127. ^ Jump up to:a b Program Executive Office, Littoral Combat Ships (April 16, 2014). “Keel Laid for Future USS Gabrielle Giffords” (Press release). United States Navy . Retrieved October 30, 2015 .
  128. ^ Jump up to:a b Finch II, Michael (April 16, 2014). “Gabrielle Giffords signs initials forbidden future littoral combat ship bearing her name” . . Retrieved November 2, 2015 .
  129. ^ Jump up to:a b “Navy christens Littoral Combat Ship Gabrielle Giffords” (Press release). US Department of Defense. June 11, 2015 . Retrieved June 11, 2015 .
  130. ^ Jump up to:a b “Navy ship christened for former Arizona Rep. Giffords’ . The Arizona Republic . June 13, 2015 . Retrieved September 27, 2015 .
  131. Jump up^ “Former military brass” Shocked, “angered” over USS Gabrielle Giffords’.
  132. Jump up^ Farley, Robert (February 10, 2012). “USS Gabrielle Giffords (LCS 10)” . Retrieved March 28, 2013 .
  133. Jump up^ Iskra, Darline (February 27, 2012). “More on Ship-Naming controversies: About the USS Gabrielle Giffords’ . Time Inc.
  134. Jump up^ Olson, Wyatt (June 19, 2015). “From Hope to Giffords: The Navy’s long history of unconventional ship names” . Stars and Stripes (newspaper) . Retrieved October 23, 2015..