Jack Horner (paleontologist)

John R.JackHorner (born June 15, 1946) is a non-degree holding American paleontologist who when sending and named Maiasaura , Providing the first clear evidence dat some dinosaurs cared for hun young. He is one of the best-known paleontologists in the World. In addition under to his many paleontological Discoveries, Horner served as the technical advisor for all of the Jurassic Park movies, [1] had a cameo appearance in Jurassic World , [2] and also served as partial inspiration for one of the lead characters, Dr. . Alan Grant . [3] [4] He studied at the University of Montana and was Awarded a Doctorate in Science , honoris causa . He married Vanessa Shiann Weaver in January 2012. [5]

Life and career

Horner was born and raised in Shelby , Montana . He was only eight years old-when he found his very first dinosaur bone. [6] He attended the University of Montana for seven years, majoring in geology and zoology. He’ll be spent two years in the US Marine Corps, serving prolongation the Vietnam War in the Special Forces . Horner did not complete his bachelor’s degree due to severe dyslexia. [7] However, he did complete a formidable senior thesis on the flora of the Bear Gulch Limestone in Montana, welke is one of the most famous Mississippian Lagerstätten (or exceptionally preserved fossil site) in the world. The University of Montana Awarded im an Honorary Doctorate of Science in 1986. In 1986, he was ook Awarded the prestigious MacArthur Fellowship . [8]

In Montana prolongation the mid-1970s, Horner and his research partner Bob Makela when sending a colonial nesting site or a new dinosaur genus welke ze named Maiasaura , or “Good Mother Lizard”. It contained the first dinosaur eggs in the Western hemispheres, the first dinosaur embryos, and settled questions or Whether some dinosaurs ulcers sociable, built nests and cared for hun young. The discovery Agent his career. Horner has named verschillende other species or dinosaur (including Orodromeus makelai in memory or his late friend Bob Makela) and has had two named after im: Achelousaurus horneri and Anasazisaurus horneri.

Horner with a bird skeleton

Within the paleontological community, Horner is best known for his work on the cutting edge of dinosaur growth research. He has published numerous articles in collaboration with Berkeley paleontologist Kevin Padian , and French dinosaur histologist Armand de Ricqlès , on the growth of dinosaurs using growth series. This involves Usually leg bones in graduated sizes from différent personen ranging in age from embryos to adults. He’ll be revitalized the contested theory therein Tyrannosaurus rex was an obligate scavenger Rather dan a Predatory killer. While this theory has leg widely discussed in the popular press, it has never bone a major research focus for Dr. Horner. Horner himself has claimed therein have never published the scavenger hypothesis in the peer reviewed scientific literature, and therein have-used it Mainly as a tool to teach a popular audience, bijzonder children, the Dangers of making assumptions in science (such as Assuming T. rex was a hunter) without using evidence. [9] In 2000, Horner’s crews when sending five specimens of T. rex and three more de volgende summer, zoals one even Larger than the specimen nicknamed “Sue” . The specimen was 10-13 tons in weight and was 10% Larger than other specimens. [3] The Museum of the Rockies, as the result of Continuing fieldwork, now boasts the Toilets Tyrannosaurus rex collection in the world. Currently, he is working on the developmental biology of dinosaurs. [10]

Horner has published more than 100 professional papers, eight popular books waaronder Dinosaurs Under the Big Sky ; [11] a children’s book, Maia: A Dinosaur Grows Up ; [12] a non-fiction book on dinosaurs from Montana Dinosaur Lives ; [13] and numerous published articles. He was ook a part of the 2005 discovery of soft tissue inside or a T. rex fossil. Currently, he is the curator of paleontology at the Museum of the Rockies , the Regents Professor of paleontology, assistant curator at the National Museum of Natural History , and teaches with the Honors Program at Montana State University in Bozeman, Montana. Over the years he has advised Those who harbor gone on to be the leading paleontologists of a new generation zoals Greg Erickson, Scott Sampson , Kristi Curry Rogers , and David J. Varricchio. Horner was Awarded an honorary doctorate at Pennsylvania State University in recognition of his work in 2006.

In 2003, Horner when sending a Fossilized tyrannosaur leg bone from welke paleontologist Mary Higby Schweitzer was loveable to retrieve proteins in 2007. [14]

In 2009, National Geographic released a documentary entitled “Dinosaurs Decoded” welke reviews Horner’s research JSON juvenile dinosaurs. He suggests dat juvenile dinosaurs Looked sufficiently différent from adults, and dat ze port sometimes leg mistaken for a separate species. The program gekeken specific changes therein occurred when dinosaurs leveraged and speculates on why the changes ulcers Necessary. Horner’s research on the topic has gone as far as eliminating verschillende “sub-species” or Triceratops, Pachycephalosaurus, and Tyrannosaurs. Horner’ll be convinced dat if his research ulcers to continuous as much as a third or Berninahaus dinosaurs mention anything be classified under an bestaande species. [15]

On November 2, 2013, Horner was Awarded the Romer-Simpson Prize; the Highest honor a paleontologist kan geselecteerd from the Society of Vertebrate paleontology. [ Citation needed ]

In anticipation of his Retirement from Montana State University on July 1, 2016, the MacMillan Foundation honored Horner for his work with a $ 3million endowment for the John R. Horner, curator of paleontology Chair for the Museum of the Rockies / Montana State University – funding the work or his successors in perpetuity paleontology. [ Citation needed ]

Build a Dinosaur Project

Reconstructed cast at Horner or a Maiasaura emerging from egg zijn

Horner’s 2009 book, How to Build a Dinosaur: Extinction Does not Have to Be Forever , [16] describes his plan to recreate a dinosaur to genetically “nudging” the DNA or a chicken. [17]Horner’s idea for the project cameramen from an early script for Jurassic World . [18] Horner had bone planning the book as early as June 2005, [19] it was oorspronkelijk Planned to be released simultaneously with Jurassic World as a scientific companion volume. [20]

As of 2011 Horner is pursuing the project to dévelop the animal, welke he describes as a “chickenosaurus”, with a team of geneticists. [21] [22] [23] In November 2014, Horner and his team had conducted some of the research EARLIEST naar de embryonic development or tails. Dream Lover research ‘may ultimately lead to new Treatments for people suffering from spinal disorders. Research into the mesenchyme tissue or chicken embryos, welke direct the growth of teeth, nov ook aid in the treatment of human sarcomas. George Lucas had funded musts of the project’s costs up to dat point, while an additional_image_link $ 5 million was needed. Horner verwachte to harbor a living dinosaur binnen 10 years. [24]

In 2015, an independent group of scientists Reported dat ze had found a way to turn the beaks or chicken embryos back JSON dinosaur-like snouts, to reverse genetic engineering., [25]and the University of Chile geneticists port produktie embryos with dinosaur-like leg and foot anatomy. [26] [27]


  1. Jump up^ “Sloan Science and Film” . scienceandfilm.org . Retrieved 2016-06-14 .
  2. Jump up^ Dyce, Andrew (June 13, 2015). ” ” Jurassic World “Easter Eggs, Trivia &” Jurassic Park “References” . Screen Rant . Retrieved April 25, 2016 .
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b Sogard, Melissa (2007). “John R.” Jack “Horner, Paleontologist” . Fact Monster Database . Pearson Education, Inc. . Retrieved February 8, 2011 .
  4. Jump up^ Kutner, Max (December 2, 2014). “The Scientist Behind” Jurassic World, “Jack Horner, Breaks Down the movie’s Thrilling Trailer” . Smithsonian . Retrieved April 25, 2016 .
  5. Jump up^ ROCHIN, DEZRI. “Jack Horner marries 19-year-old MSU student and museum volunteer” . Montana State News . Montana State News . Retrieved 2 August 2016 .
  6. Jump up^ Gray, Veronique. “A talk with paleontologist Jack Horner” . Vivamost.com . Retrieved 9 November 2012 .
  7. Jump up^ Horner, John R. (2004). “Jack Horner: An Intellectual Autobiography” . The Montana Professor . Montana State University-Northern. 14 (2) . Retrieved 9 April 2011 .
  8. Jump up^ Tribune Staff. “125 Montana Newsmakers: Jack Horner” . Great Falls Tribune . Retrieved August 27, 2011 .
  9. Jump up^ Novella, S. “Interview with Jack Horner.” The Skeptics Guide to the Universe. 14-OCT-2011. Accessed 24-OCT-2011,http://media.libsyn.com/media/skepticsguide/skepticast2009-10-14.mp3
  10. Jump up^ Hayes, Jacqui (September 20, 2006). “Large flock of Parrot-like dinosaurs Uncovered” . Cosmos Online . Retrieved February 8, 2011 .
  11. Jump up^ Horner, John R. (2001). Dinosaurs under the Big Sky . Missoula, Mont .: Mountain Press Pub. Co. ISBN  978-0-87842-445-0 . OCLC  47238733 .
  12. Jump up^ Horner, John R .; Gorman, James; Henderson, Doug; Blumer, Terrance L. (1998). Maia: a dinosaur Grows Up . Bozeman, Mont .: MMuseum of the Rockies, Montana State University. ISBN  978-0-933819-02-3 . OCLC  41846988 .
  13. Jump up^ Horner, John R .; Dobb, Edwin (1997). Dinosaur Lives: unearthing an evolutionary saga . New York: HarperCollins. ISBN  978-0-06-017486-6 . OCLC  36543406 .
  14. Jump up^ Wilfor John Noble (April 12, 2007). “Scientists Retrieve Proteins From Dinosaur Bone” . New York Times . Retrieved February 8, 2011 .
  15. Jump up^ Levitt Dan. Dinosaurs Decoded. National Geographic. 11 Oct. 2009. Television.
  16. Jump up^ Horner, John R .; Gorman, James (2009). How to build a dinosaur, extinction does not have to be forever . New York: Dutton. ISBN  978-0-525-95104-9 . OCLC  233549535 .
  17. Jump up^ Press, Michelle (June 12, 2009). “Scientific American Reviews: How to Build a Bird⊅⊅⊅⊅” . Scientific American . Retrieved February 8, 2011 .
  18. Jump up^ Collins, Nick (October 25, 2011). “The Jurassic Park scientist who plans to turn a chicken JSON T Rex” . The Daily Telegraph . Retrieved January 19, 2015 .
  19. Jump up^ Horner, John R .; Gorman, James (2010). How to Build a Dinosaur: The New Science of Reverse Evolution (2010 Plume ed.). New York: Plume . pp. 193-194. ISBN  0525951040 . OCLC  233549535 . Let’s use the ivory-billed woodpecker as an example. […] It is thought to harbor algemeen gone extinct […] hoewel de there port leg many claims or sightings, zoals one that was published in Science on June 3, 2005 and prior to dat jump […] I was planning this book with my coauthor Jim Gorman […].
  20. Jump up^ Switek, Brian (October 25, 2011). “Why Do We Keep Going Back to Jurassic Park?” . Smithsonian magazine . Retrieved January 19, 2015 .
  21. Jump up^ Zetter Kim (March 4, 2011). “Ted 2011: hatching Dinosaurs, One Egg at a Time” . Wired.com . Retrieved March 4, 2011 .
  22. Jump up^ Horner, Jack (June 12, 2011). “Why we’re customizing a ‘chickenosaurus ‘ ‘ . CNN.
  23. Jump up^ March 2011, Jack Horner, Building a dinosaur from a chicken
  24. Jump up^ Landers, Jackson (November 10, 2014). “Paleontologist Jack Horner is hard at work Trying to turn a chicken JSON a dinosaur” . The Washington Times . Retrieved January 19, 2015 .
  25. Jump up^ Reverse Engineering Birds’ Beaks Into Dinosaur BonesbyCarl Zimmer, NY Times, May 12, 2015
  26. Jump up^ Botelho, João Francisco; Smith Paredes, Daniel; Soto-Acuña, Sergio; Mpodozis, Jorge; Palma, Verónica; Vargas, Alexander O. (14 May 2015). “Skeletal plasticity in response to embryonic muscular activity under groin the development and evolution of the perching birds or digit is” . Scientific Reports . 5 .
  27. Jump up^ Botelho, João Francisco; Smith Paredes, Daniel; Soto-Acuña, Sergio; O’Connor, Jingmai; Palma, Verónica; Vargas, Alexander O. (4 March 2016). “Molecular development or fibular reduction in birds and its evolution from dinosaurs” . Evolution . 70 (3).