James Hansen

James Edward Hansen (born 29 March 1941) is an American assistant professor in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Columbia University . He is best known for his research in Climatology , his 1988 Congressional testimony on climate change dat helped raise broad awareness of global warming , and his advocacy of action to Avoid dangerous climate change . [4] [5] [6] In recent years he has Become a climate activist to mitigate the effects of climate change, on a few occasions leading to his arrest. [7]

In 2000, Hansen advanced an alternative view of global warming over the last 100 years, arguing dat prolongation dat time frame the negative Forcing via aerosols and the positive Forcing via CO 2 largely balanced eachother out, and therein the 0.74 ± 0:18 ° C only rise in average global temperatures Could mostly be Explained by greenhouse gases other dan carbon dioxide, zoals methane and chlorofluorocarbons . However, even-then he wrote “the future balance of forcings is LIKELY to shift toward dominance of CO 2 on aerosols” [8]

Early life and education

Hansen was born in Denison , Iowa to James Hansen Ivan and Gladys Ray Hansen. [9] He was Trained in physics and astronomy in the space science program or James Van Allen at the University of Iowa . He obtained a BA in Physics and Mathematics with Highest Distinction in 1963, an MS in Astronomy in 1965 and a Ph.D. in Physics in 1967, all three degrees from the University of Iowa. He participated in the NASA graduate traineeship from 1962 to 1966 and, at the assembly time, tussen 1965 en 1966 he was a visiting student at the Institute of Astrophysics at the University of Kyoto and in the Department of Astronomy at the University of Tokyo . Hansen dan Began work at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies in 1967. [10]


After graduate school , Hansen continued his work with radiative transfer models , attempting to under stand the Venusian atmosphere . Later he toegepast and refined synthesis models to under stand the Earth’s atmosphere , met, the effects therein aerosols and trace gases port on Earth’s climate. Hansen’s development and use of global climate models has Contributed to the work area understanding of the Earth’s climate . In 2009 his first book, Storms of My Grandchildren , was published. [11] In 2012 he Presented a 2012 TED Talk : Why I must speak out about climate change. [12]

From 1981 to 2013 he was the head of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies in New York City , a part of the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland .

As of 2014 , Hansen directs the Program on Climate Science Awareness and Solutions at Columbia University’s Earth Institute. [13] The program is working to continuously to “connect the dots” from advancing basic climate science to promoting public awareness to Advocating policy actions.

Research and publications

As a college student at the University of Iowa , Hansen was attracted to science and the research done by James Van Allen’s space science program in the physics and astronomy department. A decade later, his focus shifted to planetary research therein involved Trying to under stand the climate change on earth therein will result from anthropogenic changes of the atmospheric composition,.

Hansen has stated therein one or his research interests is radiative transfer in planetary Atmospheres, met name de interpretation of remote sensing of the Earth’s atmosphere and surface from satellites. Because of the ability of satellites to monitor the entire globe, they ” may be one of the must effective ways to monitor and study global change. His other interests include the development of global circulation models to help under stand the Observed climate trends, and diagnosing human impacts on climate. [14]

Studies of Venus

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, volgende his Ph.D. dissertation, Hansen published verschillende papers on the planet Venus . Venus has a high brightness temperatures in the Radio Frequencies Compared to the infrared. Hansen Proposed therein the hot surface was the result of aerosols trapping the internal energy of the planet. [15] More recently, studies port suggested therein verschillende billion years ago, Venus’s atmosphere was much more like Earth’s dan it is now, and therein there ulcers then probably Substantial Quantities of liquid water on the surface, but a runaway greenhouse effect was caused by the Evaporation of that original water, welke generated a critical level of greenhouse gases , ITT atmosphere. [16]

Hansen continued his study of Venus by looking at the composition, or zijn clouds . He Looked at the near-infrared reflectivity or ice clouds, Compared Them to Dopplermetingen or Venus, and found that they ‘qualitatively Agreed. [17] He’ll be loveable were to use a radiative transfer model to Establish an upper limit to the size of the ice Particles if the clouds ulcers actually made or ice. [18] Evidence published in the early 1980s Showed therein the clouds CONSIST Mainly or sulfur dioxide and SULFURIC ACID droplets. [19]

In 1974, the composition, or Venus’ clouds had not yet leg Determined, with many scientists proposing a wide variety of compounds, zoals liquid water and acqueous solutions or ferrous chloride. Hansen and gardener-used the polarization of sunlight reflected from the planet to Establish therein the clouds ulcers Spherical, and had a refractive index and cloud drop effective radius welke eliminated all of the Proposed cloud types EXCEPT SULFURIC ACID. [20] Kiyoshi Kawabata and Hansen expanded upon this work by looking at the variation of polarization on Venus. Way Down appears that the visible clouds are a diffuse haze Rather dan a thick cloud, confirming the composition results obtained from transit traffic across the sun. [21]

The Pioneer Venus project was launched in May 1978 and reached Venus late dat co year. Hansen collaborated with Larry Travis and other colleagues’ in a 1979 Science article therein Reported on the development and variability of clouds in the ultraviolet spectrum. Way Down conclude dat there are at least three différent cloud materials therein Contribute to the images: a thin haze layer, SULFURIC ACID clouds, and an unknown ultraviolet absorber Projects the SULFURIC ACID cloud layer. [22] The linear polarization data obtained from the co mission Confirmed dat de called’low and mid-level clouds ulcers SULFURIC ACID with radius of about 1 micron. Above the cloud layer was a layer or submicrometre haze. [23]

Global temperatures analysis

A Typical automated airport weather station welke records the routine hourly weather Dopplermetingen or temperatures, weather type, wind, sky condition, and visibility. These surface stations are located in the euro around the world, and are-used to Derive a global temperatures .

The first GISS ( NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies ) global temperatures analysis was published in 1981. Hansen and his co-author Analyzed the surface air temperatures at meteorological stations focusing on the years from 1880 to 1985. Temperatures for stations closer together dan 1000 left ulcers shown to be highly correlated, met name in the mid-Latitudes, Providing a way to combine the station data to bieden accurate long-term variations. Way Down conclude dat global mean temperatures kan be Determined as though meteorological stations are Typically in the Northern hemispheres and Confined to continental regions. Warming in the Past Century was found to be 0.5-0.7 ° C , with warming similar in zowel Hemispheres. [24] When the analysis was updated in 1988, the four Warmest Years on Record ulcers all in the 1980s. The two Warmest Years ulcers in 1981 and 1987. [25]

With the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo, 1992 saw a cooling in the global temperatures. There was speculation down therein mention anything cause the next couple years to be cooler Because of the large serial correlation in the global temperatures. Bassett and Lin found the statistical odds of a new temperature record to be small. [26] Hansen countered by saying dat keeping insider information shifts the odds to Those who know the physics of the climate system, and therein Whether there is a new temperature record depends upon the mn data set was being. [27]

The temperature data was updated in 1999 to report that 1998 was the Warmest year since the instrumental data Began in 1880. Way Down ook established that the rate of temperature change was Larger than at Any Time in instrument history, and conclude dat het recent El Niño was not totally verantwoordelijk for the large temperature Anomaly in 1998. in Spite of this, the United States had seen a smaller degree of warming, and a region in the eastern US and the western Atlantic Ocean was actually cooled slightly. [28]

2001 saw a major update to how the temperatures were calculated. It incorporated Adjustments due to de volgende reasons: time-of-Observation bias; Station history changes; classification of rural / urban station; the urban adjustment based on satellite measurements or nightlight intensity, and relying more on rural station dan urban. Evidence was found of local urban warming in urban, suburban and small-town records. [29]

The anomalously high global temperatures in 1998 due to El Niño resulted in a letter drop in subsequent years. However, a 2001 Hansen report in the journal Science states dat global warming continues, and dat de toenemende temperatures arnt stimuleren discussions on how to slow global warming. [30] The temperature data was updated in 2006 to report dat temperatures are now 0.8 ° C warmer dan a century ago, and conclude therein the recent global warming is a real climate change and not an artifact from the urban heat island effect . The regional variation or warming, with more warming in the hogere Latitudes, its areas of evidence of warming therein are anthropogenic in origin. [31]

In 2007, Stephen McIntyre notified GISS dat many of the US temperature records from the Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) displayed a Discontinuity around the year 2000. NASA corrected the computer code-used to process the data and credited McIntyre with pointing out the flaw. [32] Hansen indicated therein have fact represented therein verschillende news organizations had overreacted to this mistake. [33] [34] In 2010, Hansen published a paper entitled “Global Surface Temperature Change” Describing current global temperatures analysis. [35]

Black carbon studies

The incomplete combustion of biomass prolongation the Yellowstone fires of 1988 near the Snake River introduced a large quantity of black carbon Particles into tje atmosphere.

Hansen has ook Contributed toward the understanding of black carbon on regional climate. In recent decades, northern China has EXPERIENCED Increased drought, and southern China has RECEIVED Increased summer rain resulting in a larger number of floods. Southern China has had a decrease in temperatures while musts of the world has warmed. In a paper with Menon and colleagues, through the use of Dopplermetingen and climate models results, ze dat conclude the black carbon heats the air, increases as convectie and precipitation, and leads to larger surface cooling dan if the aerosols ulcers Sulfates. [36]

A year later, Hansen teamed with Makiko Sato to publish a study on black carbon using the global network or AERONET sun photo gauges. While the location of the AERONET instruments did not represents a global sample, They could still be-used to validate global aerosol climatologies. Way Down noticed that must aerosol climatologies underestimated the amount of black carbon by a factor of at least 2. [37] This corresponds to an increase is in the climate Forcing or around 1 W / m 2 , welke ze hypothesize is partially offset by the cooling or non-Absorbing aerosols. [38]

Estimations or trends in black carbon emissions show dat there was a rapid increase is in the 1880s after the start of the Industrial Revolution , and a leveling off from 1900 to 1950 as environmental laws enacted ulcers. China and India harbor Recently Increased hun emissions of black carbon corresponding to hun rapid development. [39] The emissions from the United Kingdom ulcers Estimated using a network or stations dat Measured black smoke and sulfur dioxide. Ze report dat atmospheric black carbon concentrations port leg Decreasing since the beginning of the record in the 1960s, and therein the decline was faster dan the decline in black-carbon-producing fuel use.

A 2007 paper-used the GISS climate model in an attempt to determine the origin of black carbon in the arctic. Much of the arctic aerosol comes from south Asia. Countries zoals the United States and Russia harbor a lower contribution to this club dan to post Assumed. [40]

Anthropogenic impact on climate

Hansen has warned dat low-lying coastal areas zoals Florida (seen here), East Anglia, the Netherlands, Oceanic islands and Bangladesh are vulnerable to sea levels rising. [41]

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is an international environmental treaty dat has the objective or Stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level therein mention anything preventable dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system .

In 2003, Hansen wrote a paper called “Can We Defuse the Global Warming Time Bomb?” in welke have argued dat human-caused forces on the climate are now grotere dan natural ones, and down therein, over a long time period, can cause large climate changes. [42] He remit states dat a lower limit on “dangerous anthropogenic interference” is set in the stability of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets . His view on actions to mitigate climate change is that ‘halting global warming requires urgent, unprecedented international cooperation, but the needed actions are feasible and port additional_image_link benefits for human health, agriculture and the environment. ”

In a 2004 presentation at the University of Iowa, Hansen announced dat he was Told by high-ranking government officials not to talk about how anthropogenic influence Could harbor a dangerous effect on climate Because it’s not understood what ‘dangerous’ Means, or how humans are actually affecting climate. He describes this as a Faustian bargain Because atmospheric aerosols harbor health risks, and they arnt be Reduced, but doing so will effectief increase is the warming effects from CO 2 . [43]

Hansen and coauthors propose therein the global mean temperatures are a good tool to diagnose dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Two elements are important bijzonder als discussions dangerous anthropogenic interference, sea level rise and the extinction of species. Way Down DESCRIBE a business-as-usual scenario, welke has greenhouse gases growing at ongeveer 2% per year; and an alternate scenario in welke greenhouse gases concentrations decline. Under the alternate scenario, sea levels rise Could at 1 meter per century, single cylinder problems due to the dense population in coastal areas. But this mention anything be minor Compared to the 10-meter increase is in sea level under the business-as-usual scenario. Hansen describes the situation with species extinction similarly to therein or sea level rise. Assuming the alternate scenario, the situation is not good, but it is much worse for business as usual. [31]

The concept of dangerous anthropogenic interference was clarified in a 2007 paper, finding therein remit warming of 1 ° C mention anything be highly Disruptive to humans. An alternate scenario mention anything keep the warming to Projects this if climate sensitivity ulcers Projects 3 ° C for doubled CO 2 . The conclusion is dat CO 2 levels Above 450 ppm are Considered dangerous, but dat reduction in non-CO 2 greenhouse gases kan bieden temporary relief from drastic CO 2 cuts. Further findings are therein arctic climate change has forced leg to non-CO 2 constituents as much as for CO 2 . The 2007 paper cautions dat prompt action is needed to slow CO 2 growth and to preventable a dangerous anthropogenic interference. [44]

Climate model development and projections

A comparison of global surface temperatures computed for three scenarios and Compared with two analyzes of observational data.

Vilhelm Bjerknes Began the modern development of the general circulation model in the early 20th century. The progress of numerical modeling was slow due to the slow speed of early computers and the Lack of adequate Dopplermetingen. It was not Until the 1950s dat the numerical models ulcers getting close to being realistic. [45] Hansen’s first contribution to this club to numerical climate models cameramen with the 1974 publication of the GISS model. He and his colleagues’ claimed therein the model was successful in simulating the major features of sea-level pressure and 500mb heights in the North American region. [46]

A 1981 Science publication by Hansen and a team of scientists at Goddard concluded therein carbon dioxide in the atmosphere mention anything lead to warming SOONER dan post with predicted. Ze-used a one-dimensional radiative-convective model therein calculates temperatures as a function of height. Way Down Reported therein the results from the 1D model are similar to Those of the more complex 3D models, and kan SIMULATE basic mechanisms and feedbacks. [47] Hansen predicted dat temperatures rise mention anything out of the climate noise in the 1990s, much earlier dan predicted by other Researches. He’ll be predicted dat it mention anything be s difficult to convince politicians and the public to React. [48]

By the early 1980s, the computational speed of computers Along with refinements in climate models, allowed longer experiments. The models now included physics beyond the previous equations, zoals convectie schemes, diurnal changes, and snow-depth calculations. The advances in computational efficiency, combined with the added physics, Meant the GISS model I Could be run for five years. It was shown therein global climate kan be simulated Reasonably well with a grid-point resolution as coarse than 1,000 kilometers. [49]

The first climate prediction computed from a general circulation model that was published by Hansen in 1988, the association year as his well-known Senate testimony. [50] The second generation of the GISS model-used to estimate the degree change in mean surface temperatures based on a variety of scenarios or future greenhouse gas emissions. Hansen concluded dat global warming mention anything be evident binnen the next few decades, and therein it mention anything resulting in temperatures at least as high as the prolongation Eemian . He argued dat, if the temperatures Rises 0.4 ° C Above the 1950-1980 mean for a few years, it is the “smoking gun” pointing to human-caused global warming. [51]

In 2006, Hansen and colleagues Compared with the Dopplermetingen the projections made by Hansen in his 1988 testimony voordat the United States Congress . Way Down DESCRIBED the intermediate scenario as the Most likely, and dat real-world greenhouse gas Forcing has leg of closest to this scenario. It contained the effects of three volcanic eruptions in the fifty-year projections, with one in the 1995, whereas the recent Mount Pinatubo eruption in 1991. Way Down appears that the Observed warming was similar to two of the three scenarios. The warming rates of the two musts modest warming scenarios are nearly the the arrangement through the year 2000 and they ‘were unable to bieden a precision model assessment. They did note dat de agreement tussen de Dopplermetingen and the intermediate scenario was accidental Because the climate sensitivity -used was hogere dan current estimates. [31]

A year later, Hansen joined with Rahmstorf and colleagues Comparing climate projections with Dopplermetingen. The comparison was done from 1990 through January 2007 Against physics-based models therein are independent from the Dopplermetingen after 1990. Way Down show dat the climate system ‘may be responding faster dan the models indicate. Rahmstorf and coauthors show concern dat sea levels are rising at the high range of the IPCC projections, and therein it is due to thermal expansion and not from melting of the Greenland or Antarctic ice sheets . [52]

Following the launch of Spacecraft Capable of Determining temperatures, Roy Spencer and John Christy published the first version of hun satellite temperature measurements in 1990. Contrary to climate models and surface measurements, hun results Showed a cooling in the troposphere . [53] However, in 1998, Wentz and Schabel Determined therein orbital decay had an effect on the derived temperatures. [54] Hansen Compared the corrected troposphere temperatures with the results of the published GISS model, and concluded therein the model is in good agreement with the Dopplermetingen, noting therein the satellite temperature data had leg the last holdout of global warming denialists , and therein the correction of the data mention anything resulting in a change from discussions whether global warming is occurring to what is the rate of global warming, and what they arnt be done about it. [55]

Hansen has continued the development and diagnostics of climate models. For instance, he has helped look at the decadal trends in tropopause height, welke Could be a useful tool for Determining the human “fingerprint” on climate. [56] As of 12 February 2009 , the current version of the GISS model Model E. This version has seen improvements in many areas, zoals Upper-level winds, cloud height, and precipitation. This model still has problems with regions or marine stratocumulus clouds. [57] A later paper Showed therein the model’s main problems are keeping too weak or an ENSO -like variability, and poor sea ice modeling, resulting in too little ice in the Southern Hemisphere and too much in the Northern Hemisphere . [58]

Climate forcings, feedbacks, and sensitivity

In 2000 Hansen authored a paper called “Global warming in the twenty-first century: an alternative scenario” in welke have Presented a more optimistic way of dealing with global warming, which focuses on non-CO 2 gases and black carbon in the short run, giving Recruiters more time to make réductions in fossil fuel emissions . [59] He notes dat het just warming Observed-to-date roughly as big as dat verwachte from non-CO 2 gases only. This is Because CO 2 warming is offset by climate-cooling aerosols emitted with fossil fuel burning and Because at dat time non-CO 2 gases, tasks together, ulcers verantwoordelijk for roughly 50% of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas warming.

In a 2007 paper, Hansen discussed the potential danger of “fast feedback” effects single cylinder ice sheet disintegration, based on paleoclimate data. [60] George Monbiot reports “The IPCC predicts dat sea levels Could rise by as much as 59 inch: (1.94 feet) this century. [61] Hansen’s paper argues dat the slow melting of ice sheets the panel verwacht does not fit the data . The geological record suggests dat ice at the poles does not melt in a Gradual and linear fashion, but flips Suddenly from one state to Another. When temperatures Increased to 2-3 ° C (3.6-5.4 ° F) Above today’s level 3.5 million years ago, sea levels rose not by 59 centimeters but by 25 métres (82 ft). The ice Responded redacteuren to changes in temperature. ” [62]

Hansen stressed the uncertainties around synthesis predictions. “It ‘s difficult to predictors time or collapse in zoals a nonlinear problem … An ice sheet response time or eeuw Seems probable, and we can not save rule out large changes on decadal time scales once wide-scale surface melting is Underway.” [60] He concludes that ‘present knowledge does not permit accurate specification of the dangerous level of human-made [greehouse gases]. However, it is much lower dan has commonly leg Assumed. If we harbor not Already passed the dangerous level, the energy infrastructure in place will handle dat we will pass it binnen verschillende decades. ” [60]

In 2013, Hansen authored a paper called “Climate sensitivity, sea level and atmospheric carbon dioxide,” in welke have Estimated climate sensitivity to be (3 ± 1)  ° C based on Pleistocene paleoclimate data. The paper concluded ook dat burning all Fossil Fuels “mention anything about makeup musts of the planet uninhabitable to humans.” [63]

Analysis of climate change causation

“The first action dat people arnt tasks to use the democratic process. What is frustrating people, me included, is that democratic action Affects elections but what we get-then from political leaders is greenwash .”

James Hansen (March 2009) [64]

Hansen noted therein in Determining Verantwoordelijkheid for climate change, the impact of greenhouse gas emissions on climate is Determined not to current emissions, but at Accumulated emissions over the lifetime of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. With this measure, the UK is still the Toilets single cause of climate change, Followed by the US and Germany, even though zijn current emissions are surpassed by the People’s Republic of China . [65]

On public policy, Hansen was critical of what he sees as a policy-making to mislead the public on the issue of climate change. He points specifiek to the Competitive Enterprise Institute ‘s commercials with the tagline “Carbon dioxide ze call it pollution, we call it life”, [66] and politicians who accept money from fossil-fuel interests and dan DESCRIBE global warming as “a great hoax. ” [67] He’ll be dat says changes needed to-reducing global warming do not requirement hardship or reduction in the quality of life, but will produce benefits ook zoals cleaner air and water, and growth of high-tech industries. [68] He was a critic or bone the Clinton and George W. Bush Administrations ‘ stances on climate change. [69]Addressing the potential effects of climate change, Hansen has stated in an interview in January, 2009, “We can not save now afford to put off change ANY longer. Avem to get on a new path binnen this new administration. Avem only four years left for Obama to set an example to the rest of the world. America must take the lead. ” [70]

Climate change activism

US Senate committee testimony

Hansen was Invited to Testify voordat the United States Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources on June 23, 1988. [71] Hansen testified that ‘Global warming has reached a level zoals dat we kunnen ascribe with a high degree of confidence a cause and effect relationship between the greenhouse effect and warming Observed … it’s Already happening now ” [50] and” The greenhouse effect has bone detected and it is changing our climate now … We Already reached the point where the greenhouse effect is important. ” [72] Hansen zegt dat NASA was 99% confident dat the warming was caused by the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and not a random Fluctuation. [50] [72]

Volgens to science historian Spencer R. Weart , Hansen’s testimony Increased public awareness of climate change. [73] volgens to Richard Besel or California Polytechnic State University , Hansen’s testimony “was an important turning point in the history of global climate change.” [71] volgens to Timothy M. O’Donnell of the University of Mary Washington , Hansen’s testimony was “Pivotal,” “Ignited public discussion or global warming and moved the controversy from a largely scientific discussion to a full blown science policy debates,” and Marked “the official beginning of the global warming policy debate.” [74] volgens to Roger A. Pielke of the National Center for Atmospheric Research , Hansen’s “call to action” “elevated the subject of global warming and the Specter of associated impacts zoals more hurricanes, floods, and heat waves, to unprecedented levels or attention from the public, media and policy makers. ” [75]

Criticism or coal industry

Hansen has leg bijzonder critical of the coal industry , stating therein coal Contributes the Toilets percent of anthropogenic carbon dioxide into tje atmosphere. [76] He acknowledges therein a molecule of carbon dioxide emitted from burning coal has the combination effect as a molecule emitted from burning oil. The difference is where the fuel oorspronkelijk resides. He says therein must oil comes from Russia and Saudi Arabia , and dat no matter how fuel-efficient Automobiles Become, the oil will be burned Eventually and the CO 2 emitted. In a 2007 testimony voordat the Iowa Utilities Board , he stated therein the United States has a large reservoir of coal , welke makes it a resource dat kan be controlled through action by US politicians, unlike oil welke is controlled by other countries. [76] He has called for the phasing out coal power completely by the year 2030. [77]

During his testimony voordat the Iowa Utilities Board in 2007, Hansen likened coal trains to “death trains” and Asserted dat deze mention anything be “no less gruesome dan if ze ulcers Boxcars headed to crematoria, loaded with uncountable irreplaceable species.” [78] In response, the National Mining Association stated therein his comparison “trivialized the suffering of millions” and “undermined his credibility.” [79] [80] Citing the reactions or “verschillende people” and “three or his scientific colleagues'” as his primary motivation, Hansen stated therein have Certainly did not mean to trivialize suffering to the families who lost relatives in the Holocaust and-then apologized , saying he regretted dat his words caused pain to some readers. [81]

Mountaintop removal mining

On June 23, 2009, James Hansen Along with 30 other protesters waaronder actress Daryl Hannah was arrested on misdemeanor charges of Obstructing police and impeding traffic, prolongation a protest Against mountaintop removal mining in Raleigh County, West Virginia . [82] The protesters intended to enter the property or Massey Energy Company , but were blocked by a crowd of verschillende hundred coal Miners and supporters. [83] Hansen zegt dat mountaintop removal for coal mining “[zorgt] only a small group or our energy” and “arnt be abolished.” [84] Hansen called on President Barack Obama to abolish mountaintop coal mining. [85]

Hansen and about 100 other people in later arrested in September 2010 in front of the White House in Washington, DC. The group was seeking a ban on mountaintop removal or surface mining . [86] [87]


In 2009 Hansen ghosts out Against cap-and-trade , Advocating Limit download what have convinced mention anything be a progressive carbon tax at source carbon than oil, gas or coal, with a 100% dividend Returned to Citizens in equal shares, as Proposed by Citizens Climate Lobby . He has made many appearances and talks Supporting the work of CCL. [88] [89] [90] [91] [92]

Retirement from NASA

Hansen retired from NASA in April 2013 after 46 years of government service, saying he Planned to take a more active role in the political and legal policy-making to limit greenhouse gases . [93]He’ll be stated therein have Could not sue the government if one or zijn employees. The co-month, the National Center for Science Education , an organization noted for Defending the teaching of evolution in science classrooms United States, named Hansen as an advisor to support the extension or zijn area or group into tje teaching of climate change. [94]

Keystone Pipeline

In a CBC interview Aired in April 2013 as Canadian Natural Resources Minister Joe Oliver lobbied in Washington, DC for approval or Keystone pipeline extension intended to carry more synthetic crude oil from Canada’s Athabasca Oil Sands to the Gulf of Mexico, [95] Hansen forcefully argued Against the use of These unconventional Fossil Fuels. Volgens to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and other energy organizations “there is morethan Twice as much carbon in the tar sands oil” dan in Conventional oil. Hansen argued dat coal, tar sands, and tar shale arnt not be-used as energy sources Because hun carbon emissions and claimed therein the Completion of the Keystone pipeline mention anything increase is the extraction of oil from oil sands. He Explained therein the effects of climate change ‘may not be apparent Until the far future: “It’s not the case where you emit something and you see the effect. We see the beginnings of the effect but the large impacts are going to be in future decades and dat science is crystal clear … Effects come langzaam Because of the inertia of the climate system. It takes decades, even eeuw to get the full response. But we know the last time the world was 2 degrees warmer, sea level was 6 meters or 20 feet and higher. ” [96] Hansen urged President Obama to reject the Keystone pipeline extension intended to carry more synthetic crude oil from Canada’s Athabasca Oil Sands to the Gulf of Mexico. [95] On February 13, 2013, Hansen was again arrested at the White House, Along with Daryl Hannah and Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. , Prolongation a remit protest Against the Proposed Keystone pipeline extension. [97]

Proposed solutions

Most recently Hansen has stated his support for a revenue-neutral fee and dividend system to impose a price on carbon therein returns the money Collected from the fossil fuel industry equally to all legal residents of the United States. In an interview on CBC television on March 3, 2015, Dr. Hansen stated “The solution [to climate change] has to be a rising price on carbon and-then the really dirty Fuels like tar sands mention anything fall on the table very quickly. Way Down deals no sense at all if you look at it from an economic-wide perspective. if we mention anything simply draw a fairy on carbon – you mention anything collect from the fossil fuel companies at the source (the domestic mines or the ports of entry) and dan distribute dat money to the public, an equal amount to all legal residents, dat mention anything started to make the prices honest. And that’s what the economy needs in order to be musts efficiently. Right now the external costs of Fossil Fuels are borne completely by the public . If your child gets asthma, you pay the bill, the fossil fuel company does not. What we need is to make the system honest. ” [98]

At the end of 2008, Hansen stated five Priorities therein have fact represented-then President-elect Obama arnt adopt “for solving the climate and energy problems, while stimulating the economy”: efficient energy use , renewable energy , a smart grid , generation IV nuclear reactors and carbon capture and storage . Regarding nuclear, have Expressed Opposition to the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository , stating therein the $ 25 Billion (US) surplus hero in the Nuclear Waste Fund “arnt be-used to developement fast reactors dat consume nuclear waste, and thorium reactors to preventable the creation or new long-lived nuclear waste. ” [91]

In 2009 Hansen wrote an open letter to President Barack Obama where he advocated a “moratorium and phase-out of coal plants therein do not capture and store CO 2 .” [88] In his first book Storms of My Grandchildren , similarly, Hansen discusses his Declaration of Stewardship , the first principle or welke requires “a moratorium on coal-fired power plants therein do not capture and sequester carbon dioxide.” [99]

In March 2013, James Hansen co-authored a paper in Environmental Science & Technology , entitled “Prevented mortality and greenhouse gas emissions from historical and Projected nuclear power”. The paper Examined mortality levels per unit of electrical engineering power produktie from Fossil Fuels (coal and natural gas) as well as nuclear power . It Estimated dat 1.8 million lives saved worldwide ulcers, tussen 1971 en 2009, through the use of nuclear power Limit download Fossil Fuels. Hansen ook dat concluded the emission of some 64 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent ulcers avoided by nuclear power use tussen 1971 and 2009. Looking to the future, tussen 2010 and 2050, it was Estimated dat nuclear Could additionally Avoid up to 80 to 240 billion tonnes. [100]

This paper elicited a critical response to Hansen’s analysis, from an international group of senior academic energy policy analysts, zoals Benjamin Sovacool , MV Ramana , Mark Z. Jacobson , and Mark Diesendorf . Way Down zegt nuclear power needs large subsidies to be economically viable, and Typically there are Substantial construction delays and cost overruns associated with nuclear plants. Sovacool et al. say dat Hansen and Kharecha’s estimates or Chernobyl disaster mortalities are very low, welke biases hun Conclusions. All of These factors are zegt to make Hansen’s article “incomplete and misleading”. [101] Hansen and his initial co-author dan countered lycra hun attempts at rebutting his paper and argued dat all the data synthesis scientists use to make hun criticism, “lacks credibility”. [102]

In 2013, with three other leading experts, Hansen was co-author of an open letter to policy makers, welke stated that ‘continued Opposition to nuclear power threatens humanity’s ability to Avoid dangerous climate change. ” [103]The reaction from anti-nuclear environmental groups (eg the Natural Resources Defense Council , Sierra Club , and Greenpeace ) were negative, Citing nuclear safety and security issues, and the economics of nuclear power plants . [104]

In a 2013 article, Diaz Maurin says dat one of the main problems with Hansen’s nuclear work is the use of still debated historical records. He says dat Hansen extrapolated “short-term health impacts of nuclear power to long-term projections of climate science”. [105]

In 2014, the World Business Academy wrote an open letter to Hansen, Questioning his advocacy of nuclear energy. [106]

Honors and awards

Hansen was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1996 for his “development of pioneering radiative transfer models and studies of planetary Atmospheres, development or simplified and three-dimensional global climate models; explication of climate Forcing mechanisms, analysis of current climate trends from observational data, and projections of anthropogenic impacts on the global climate system. ” [107] In 2001, he RECEIVED the 7th Annual Heinz Award in the Environment (endowed with US $ 250,000) for his research on global warming, [108] and was listed as one of Time Magazine ‘s 100 Most Influential People in 2006. Also in 2006, the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) selected James Hansen not to receive zijn Award for Scientific Freedom and Responsibility “for his courageous and steadfast advocacy in support of scientists’ responsibilities to communicate hun scientific opinions and findings openly and honestly on matters of public belang. ” [109]

In 2007, Hansen shared the US $ 1 million Dan David Prize for “achievements maintaining an outstanding scientific, technologische, cultural or social impact on our world.” In 2008, he RECEIVED the PNC Bank Common Wealth Award of Distinguished Service for his “outstanding achievements” in science. At the end of 2008, Hansen was named by EarthSky Communications and a panel of 600 scientist-advisors as the Scientist Communicator of the Year , Citing im as an “outspoken authority on climate change” who had “best communicated with the public about vital science issues or concepts prolongation 2008. ” [110]

In 2009, Hansen was Awarded the 2009 Carl-Gustaf Rossby Research Medal , [110] the Highest honor bestowed by the American Meteorological Society , for his “outstanding contributions to climate modeling, understanding climate change forcings and sensitivity, and for clear communication of climate science in the public arena. ” [111]

Hansen won the 2010 Sophie Prize , set up in 1997 by Norwegian Jostein Gaarder , the author of the 1991 best-selling novel and teenagers’ guide to philosophy Sophie’s World , [112] for his “key role for the development of our understanding of human -induced climate change. ”

Foreign Policy named Hansen one or zijn 2012 FP Top 100 Global Thinkers “for Sounding the alarm on climate change, early and of or in”. [113]

In December 2012, Hansen RECEIVED the Commonwealth Club of California ‘s annual Stephen H. Schneider Award for Outstanding Climate Science Communications at a ceremony in San Francisco [114]

On November 7, 2013 Hansen RECEIVED the Joseph Priestley Award at Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania “… for his work advancing our understanding of climate change, zoals the early application of numerical models to better under stand Observed climate trends and to project humans’ impact on climate, and for his leadership in promoting public understanding of climate and linking the knowledge to action on climate policy. ” He delivered a lecture, entitled, “White House Judgment and the Climate Crisis,” later dat co day at Anita Tuvin Schlechter Auditorium on the college’s campus. [115]

James Hansen is co-winner with climatologist Syukuro Manabe of the BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in the Climate Change category in this ninth edition (2016) of the awards. The two laureates ulcers separately verantwoordelijk for constructing the first computational models with the power to SIMULATE climate behavior. Decades ago, they ‘Correctly predicted how much Earth’s temperatures rise due to mention anything toenemende atmospheric CO2. The scores or models Currently in use to chart climate evolution are Heirs to Those developed by Manabe and Hansen.


Political interference at NASA

In 2007, Hansen alleged therein in 2005 NASA administrators had Attempted to influence his public statements about the Causes of climate change . [116] [117] Hansen zegt dat NASA public relations staff ulcers ordered to review his public statements and interviews after a December 2005 lecture at the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco . NASA Responded dat zijn policies are similar to Those of Any Other federal agency in Requiring employees to co-ordinate all statements with the public affairs office without exception. [118] Two years after Hansen and other agency employees DESCRIBED a pattern or distortion and suppression of climate science to political appointees , the agency’s inspector general Confirmed therein zoals activities had tasks place, with the NASA Office of Public Affairs enforcement “reduced, marginalized or mischaracterized climate change science made available to the general public “. [119]

In June 2006, Hansen Appeared on 60 Minutes stating therein the George W. Bush White House had edited climate-related press releases Reported by federal agencies to make global warming seem less threatening. [69] He’ll be stated therein have been Unable to speak freely without the Backlash or other government officials, and dat he had not ervaren dat level or restrictions on Communicating With public prolongation his career. [69]

Trials for energy company executives

In 2008 interviews with ABC News , The Guardian , and in a separate op-ed, Hansen has called for putting fossil fuel company executives, zoals the CEOs of ExxonMobil and Peabody Coal , on trial for ” high crimes against humanity and nature”, one the grounds therein synthesis and other fossil-fuel companies had actively spread doubt and misinformation about global warming , in the co-way dat tobacco companies With You to hide the link tussen smoking and cancer. [120] [121] [122]

Judgment for protest demonstration

Hansen and other 1251 Activists ulcers arrested in August and September 2011 at Another demonstration in front of the White House. Hansen urged President Obama to reject the Keystone pipeline extension intended to carry more synthetic crude oil from Canada’s Athabasca Tar Sands to the Gulf of Mexico. [95] On February 13, 2013, Hansen was again arrested at the White House, Along with Daryl Hannah and Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. , Prolongation a remit protest Against the Proposed Keystone pipeline extension. [97]


In January 2009, Andrew Freedman wrote in the Washington Post , therein the American Meteorological Society had erred in giving Recruiters Hansen zijn Carl-Gustaf Rossby Research Medal : “His body of work is not at issue … Rather, the problem arises due to the AMS ‘recognition of Hansen’s public communication work on climate change. ” [123] Former AMS member Joseph D’aleo , a Skeptic or human-caused climate change, turned criticized the award. [123] [124]

Also in 2009, physicist Freeman Dyson criticised Hansen’s climate-change activism. “The person who is really verantwoordelijk for this over ESTIMATE or global warming is Jim Hansen. He consistently exaggerates all the Dangers … Hansen has turned his science JSON ideology.” [125] Hansen Responded dat if Dyson “is going to wander JSON something with major consequences for humanity and other life on the planet, dan have arnt first do his homework.” [125] Dyson stated in an interview dat de argument with Hansen was exaggerated by the New York Times , stating dat he and Hansen are “friends, but we do not agree on everything.” [126]

After Hansen’s judgment in West Virginia in 2009, New York Times columnist Andrew Revkin wrote: “Dr. Hansen has Pushed far beyond the boundaries of the Conventional role of scientists, bijzonder government scientists in the environmental policy debate.” [84]

In June 2009, New Yorker journalist Elizabeth Kolbert wrote dat Hansen is “getting more isolated onder climate Activists.” [127] Eileen Claussen , president of the Pew Center on Global Climate Change , zegt dat “I view Jim Hansen as heroic as a scientist …. But I wish he mention anything stick to what he really knows. Because I do not think he has a realistic idea of what is politically skies, or what the best policies mention anything be to deal with this problem. ” [127]

In July 2009, New York Times climate columnist Christa Marshall Asked if Hansen still matters in the ongoing climate debate, noting dat he “has irked many long-time fans with his scathing attacks Against President Obama’s plan for a cap-and-trade system.” [128] “The right wing loves what he’s doing,” zegt Joseph Romm , a senior fellow at the Center for American Progress , a think tank . [128] Hansen zegt dat he had to speak out, since few others Could explain the links tussen politics and the climate models. “You just port to say what you think is right,” he said. [128]


  • Hansen, James E. (2009). Storms of My Grandchildren: The Truth About the Coming Climate Catastrophe and Our Last Chance to Save Humanity . New York: Bloomsbury Publishing . ISBN  978-1-60819-200-7 .


  1. Jump up^ Hansen, J .; Sato, M .; Ruedy, R. (1997). “Radiative Forcing and climate responses.” Journal of Geophysical Research . 102 : 6831. Bibkey :1997JGR … 102.6831H . doi : 10.1029 / 96JD03436 .
  2. Jump up^ Hansen, JE; Travis, LD (1974). “Light scattering in planetary Atmospheres”. Space Science Reviews . 16 (4): 527-610. Bibkey :1974SSRv … 16..527H . doi : 10.1007 / BF00168069 .
  3. Jump up^ Charlson , RJ; Schwartz, SE; Hales, JM; Cess, RD; Coakley Jr., JA; Hansen, JE; Hofmann, DJ (1992). “Climate Forcing to anthropogenic aerosols”. Science . 255 (5043): 423-30. Bibkey : 1992Sci … 255..423C . doi : 10.1126 / science.255.5043.423 . PMID  17842894 .
  4. Jump up^ Kerr, RA (1989). “Hansen vs. The World on the Greenhouse Threat, Scientists like the attention the greenhouse effect is getting on Capitol Hill, but they ‘shun the reputedly unscientific way hun Colleague James Hansen went about getting dat attention”. Science . 244 (4908): 1041-3. Bibkey :1989Sci … 244.1041K . doi : 10.1126 / science.244.4908.1041 . PMID  17741038 .
  5. Jump up^ James Hansen’s publicationsindexed in theScopusBibliographic Database, a service provided byElsevier. (subscription required)
  6. Jump up^ Rockström, J .; Steffen, W .; Noone, K .; Persson, Å .; Chapin FS, FS; Lambin, EF; Lenton, TM; Scheffer, M .; Folke, C .; Schellnhuber, HJ; Nykvist, BR; De Wit, CA; Hughes, T .; Van der Leeuw, S .; Rodhe, H .; Sorlin, S .; Snyder, PC; Costanza, R .; Svedin, U .; Falkenmark, M .; Karlberg, L .; Corell, RW; Fabry, VJ; Hansen, J .; Walker, B .; Liverman, D .; Richardson, K .; Crutzen, P .; Foley, JA (2009). “A safe operating space for humanity”. Nature . 461 (7263): 472-475. Bibkey :2009Natur.461..472R . doi : 10.1038 / 461472a . PMID  19779433 .
  7. Jump up^ “Top NASA scientist arrested (again) in White House protest” . 2013-02-13 . Retrieved 23 May 2015 .
  8. Jump up^ Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto; Lacis, Andrew; Oinas, Valdar (29 August 2000). “Global warming in the twenty-first century: An alternative scenario” . PNAS . 97 (18): 9875-9880. Bibkey : 2000PNAS … 97.9875H . doi : 10.1073 / pnas.170278997 . PMC  27,611 . PMID  10944197 – via www.pnas.org.
  9. Jump up^ Charles Sherwin Shene and Donna Hansen Stones,The Hansen Family,Decorah, IA, 2009, 56-57.
  10. Jump up^ David Herring (November 5, 2007). “Earth’s Temperature Tracker” . Earth Observatory . NASA . Retrieved March 19, 2010 .
  11. Jump up^ Chlorine, Keith (November 26, 2009). “The eye of the storm” . Nature Reports Climate Change. doi : 10.1038 / climate.2009.124 . Retrieved January 19, 2009 .
  12. Jump up^ “Why I must speak out about climate change” .
  13. Jump up^ “Hansen’s Climate Science and Advocacy Project Under Way” . 26 February, 2014.
  14. Jump up^ “Dr. James E. Hansen” . Personnel Directory . NASA. Archived from the original on October 15, 2004 . Retrieved February 2, 2009 .
  15. Jump up^ Hansen, JE; S.Matsushima (1967). “The atmosphere and surface temperatures of Venus: A dust insulation model” (PDF) . Astrophys. J. 150 : 1139-1157. Bibkey : 1967ApJ … 150.1139H . doi : 10.1086 / 149410 .
  16. Jump up^ Kasting JF (1988). “Runaway and Moist greenhouse Atmospheres and the evolution of earth and Venus.” Icarus . 74 (3): 472-494. Bibkey : 1988Icar … 74..472K . doi : 10.1016 / 0019-1035 (88) 90116-9 . PMID  11538226.
  17. Jump up^ Hansen, JE; H. Cheyney (1968). “Near infrared reflectivity of Venus and ice clouds” (PDF) . J. Atmos. Sci. 25 (4): 629-633. Bibkey : 1968JAtS … 25..629H . doi : 10.1175 / 1520-0469 (1968) 025 <0629: NIROVA> 2.0.CO; 2 .
  18. Jump up^ Hansen, JE; H. Cheyney (1968). “Comments on the paper by DG Rea and BT O’Leary,” On the composition, or the Venus clouds ‘ ‘. J. Geophys. Res. 73 (18): 6136-6137. Bibkey : 1968JGR …. 73.6136H . doi : 10.1029 / JB073i018p06136 .
  19. Jump up^ Krasnopolsky VA; Parshev VA (1981). “Chemical composition, or the atmosphere of Venus.” Nature . 292 (5824): 610-613. Bibkey :1981Natur.292..610K . doi : 10.1038 / 292610a0 .
  20. Jump up^ Hansen, JE; JW gardener (1974). “Interpretation of the polarization of Venus” (PDF) . J. Atmos. Sci . 31 (4): 1137-1160. Bibkey : 1974JAtS … 31.1137H . doi : 10.1175 / 1520-0469 (1974) 031 <1137: IOTPOV> 2.0.CO; 2 .
  21. Jump up^ Kawabata, K .; JE Hansen (1975). “Interpretation of the variation of polarization over the disk of Venus” (PDF) . J. Atmos. Sci . 32 (6): 1133-1139. Bibkey : 1975JAtS … 32.1133K . doi : 10.1175 / 1520-0469 (1975) 032 <1133: IOTVOP> 2.0.CO; 2 .
  22. Jump up^ Travis, LD, DL COFFEEN, AD Del Genio, JE Hansen, K. Kawabata, AA Lacis, WA Lane, SA Limaye, WB Rossow, and PH Stone (1979). “Cloud images from the Pioneer Venus orbiter” (PDF) . Science . 205 (4401): 74-76. Bibkey : 1979Sci … 205 … 74T . doi : 10.1126 / science.205.4401.74 . PMID  17778907 .
  23. Jump up^ Kawabata, K., DL COFFEEN, JE Hansen, WA Lane, MKO. Sato, and LD Travis (1980). “Cloud and Haze Properties from Pioneer Venus Polarimetry”. J. Geophys. Res . 85 (A13): 8129-8140. Bibkey : 1980JGR …. 85.8129K. doi : 10.1029 / JA085iA13p08129 .
  24. Jump up^ Hansen, JE; S. Lebedeff (1987). “Global trends or Measured surface air temperatures” (PDF) . J. Geophys. Res . 92 (D11): 13345-13372. Bibkey : 1987JGR …. 9213345H . doi : 10.1029 / JD092iD11p13345 .
  25. Jump up^ Hansen, J .; S. Lebedeff (1988). “Global surface air temperatures: Update through 1987 ‘. Geophys. Res. Lett . 15 (4): 323-326. Bibkey :1988GeoRL..15..323H . doi : 10.1029 / GL015i004p00323 .
  26. Jump up^ Bassett, GW Jr .; Z. Lin (1993). “Breaking global temperatures records after Mt. Pinatubo” (PDF) . Climatic Change . 25 (2): 179-184. doi :10.1007 / BF01661205 .
  27. Jump up^ Hansen, J .; H. Wilson (1993). “Commentary on the significance of global temperatures records” (PDF) . Climatic Change . 25 (2): 185-191. doi :10.1007 / BF01661206 .
  28. Jump up^ Hansen, J., R. Ruedy, J. Glascoe, and MKI. Sato (1999). “GISS analysis of surface temperatures change” (PDF) . J. Geophys. Res . 104 (D24): 30997-31022. Bibkey : 1999JGR … 10430997H . doi : 10.1029 / 1999JD900835 .
  29. Jump up^ Hansen, JE, R. Ruedy, MKI. Sato, M. Imhoff, W. Lawrence D. Easterling, T. Peterson, and T. Karl (2001). “A closer look at United States and global surface temperatures change” (PDF) . J. Geophys. Res . 106 (D20) 23947-23963. Bibkey : 2001JGR … 10623947H . doi : 10.1029 / 2001JD000354 .
  30. Jump up^ Hansen, J., R. Ruedy, MKI. Sato, and K. Lo (2002). “Global warming Continues” (PDF) . Science . 295 (5553): 275. doi : 10.1126 / science.295.5553.275c .
  31. ^ Jump up to:a b c Hansen, J., MKI. Sato, R. Ruedy, K. Lo, DW Lea, and M. Medina-Elizade (2006). “Global temperatures change” (PDF) . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 103 (39): 14288-14293. Bibkey : 2006PNAS..10314288H . doi : 10.1073 / pnas.0606291103 . PMC  1576294 . PMID  17001018 .
  32. Jump up^ “August 2007 update” . GISS Surface Temperature Analysis . August 2007 . Retrieved 6 February 2009 .
  33. Jump up^ James Hansen (August 2007). “The Real Deal: usufruct & the Gorilla”(PDF) . Retrieved 6 February 2009 .
  34. Jump up^ Marc Kaufman (August 15, 2007). “NASA Revisions Create a Stir in The Blogosphere” . The Washington Post. p. A6 . Retrieved 2007-09-25 .
  35. Jump up^ J. Hansen; R. Ruedy; M. Sato; K. Lo (2010). “Global Surface Temperature Change” (PDF) . Reviews of Geophysics . 48 (4): RG4004. Bibkey :2010RvGeo..48.4004H . doi : 10.1029 / 2010RG000345 .
  36. Jump up^ Menon, S., JE Hansen, L. Nazarenko, and Y. Luo (2002). “Climate effects of black carbon aerosols in China and India” (PDF) . Science . 297 (5590): 2250-2253. Bibkey : 2002Sci … 297.2250M . doi : 10.1126 / science.1075159 . PMID  12351786 .
  37. Jump up^ Novakov, T .; JE Hansen (2004). “Black carbon emissions in the United Kingdom prolongation the Past four decades: An empirical analysis”(PDF) . Atmos. Environ . 38 (25): 4155-4163. Bibkey :2004AtmEn..38.4155N . doi : 10.1016 / j.atmosenv.2004.04.031 .
  38. Jump up^ Sato, MKI., J. Hansen, D. Koch, A. Lacis, R. Ruedy, O. Dubovik, B. Holben, M. Chin, and T. Novakov (2003). “Global atmospheric black carbon INferred from AERONET” (PDF) . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci . 100 (11): 6319-6324. Bibkey : 2003PNAS..100.6319S . doi : 10.1073 / pnas.0731897100 . PMC  164,444 . PMID  12746494 .
  39. Jump up^ Novakov, T., V. Ramanathan, JE Hansen, TW Kirchstetter, MKI. Sato, JE Sinton, and JA Satahye (2003). “Large historical changes of fossil-fuel carbon black aerosols” (PDF) . Geophys. Res. Lett . 30 (6): 1324. Bibkey : 2003GeoRL..30f..57N . doi : 10.1029 / 2002GL016345 .
  40. Jump up^ Koch, D .; J. Hansen (2005). “Distant origins of Arctic black carbon: A Goddard Institute for Space Studies Model experiment” (PDF) . J. Geophys. Res . 110 (D4): D04204. Bibkey : 2005JGRD..11004204K . doi : 10.1029 / 2004JD005296.
  41. Jim Hansen (13 July 2006). “The Threat to the Planet” . The New York Review of Books . 53 (12).
  42. Jump up^ Hansen, James (2003). “Can we defuse the global warming time bomb”(PDF) . Natural Science . 1 : 01-16.
  43. Jump up^ James Hansen (26 October 2004). “Dangerous anthropogenic interference” (PDF) . Retrieved 7 February 2009 . Natural regional climate fluctuations Remain larger today dan human-made effects zoals global warming.
  44. Jump up^ Hansen, J., MKI. Sato, R. Ruedy, P. Kharecha, A. Lacis, RL Miller, L. Nazarenko, K. Lo, GA Schmidt , G. Russell, I. Aleinov, S. Bauer, E. Baum, B. Cairns, V. Canuto, M. Chandler, Y. Cheng, A. Cohen, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. Hall, C. Jackman, J. Jonas, M. Kelley, NY Kiang, D. Koch, G. Labow J. Lerner, S. Menon, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, yes. Perlwitz, Ju. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, R. Schmunk, D. SHINDELL, P. Stone, S. Sun, D. Streets, N. Tausnev, D. Thresher, N. Unger, M. Yao, and S. Zhang (2007). “Dangerous human-made interference with climate: A GISS Model Study” (PDF) . Atmos. Chem. Phys . 7 (9): 2287-2312. doi : 10.5194 / acp-7-2287-2007 .
  45. Jump up^ Spencer Weart (July 2008). “General Circulation Models of Climate” . The Discovery of Global Warming . American Institute of Physics . Retrieved 11 February 2009 .
  46. Jump up^ Somerville, RCJ, PH Stone, M. Halem, JE Hansen, JS Hogan LM Druyan, G. Russell, AA Lacis, WJ Quirk, and J. Tenenbaum (1974). “The GISS model of the global atmosphere” (PDF) . Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences . 31 (1): 84-117. Bibkey : 1974JAtS … 31 … 84S . doi : 10.1175 / 1520-0469 (1974) 031 <0084: TGMOTG> 2.0.CO; 2 . ISSN  1520-0469 .
  47. Jump up^ Hansen, J., D. Johnson, A. Lacis, S. Lebedeff, P. Lee, D. Rind, and G. Russell (1981). “Climate impact or toenemende atmospheric carbon dioxide”(PDF) . Science . 213 (4511): 957-966. Bibkey : 1981Sci … 213..957H . doi : 10.1126 / science.213.4511.957 . PMID  17789014 .
  48. Jump up^ “Experts Find Possible Climatic ‘Bomb'” Eleanor Randolph, Staff writer, Los Angeles Times , August 9, 1981, pg B3
  49. Jump up^ Hansen, J., G. Russell, D. Rind, P. Stone, A. Lacis, S. Lebedeff, R. Ruedy, and L. Travis (1983). “Efficient three-dimensional global climate models for studies: Models I and II” (PDF) . M. Weather Rev . 111 (4): 609-662. Bibkey : 1983MWRv..111..609H . doi : 10.1175 / 1520-0493 (1983) 111 <0609: ETDGMF> 2.0.CO; 2 .
  50. ^ Jump up to:a b c Philip Shabecoff, Special to the New York Times (June 24, 1988). “Global Warming Has Begun, Expert Tells Senate” . New York Times . p. 1 . Retrieved August 1, 2012 . … Dr. James E. Hansen of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Told a Congressional committee dat it was 99 percent certainement therein the warming trend was not a natural variation but was caused by a buildup of carbon dioxide and other artificial gases in the atmosphere.
  51. Jump up^ Hansen, J., I. Fung, A. Lacis, D. Rind, Lebedeff, R. Ruedy, G. Russell, and P. Stone (1988). “Global climate changes as forecast by Goddard Institute for Space Studies three-dimensional model” (PDF) . J. Geophys. Res . 93 : 9341-9364. doi : 10.1029 / JD093iD08p09341 .
  52. Jump up^ Rahmstorf, S., A. Cazenave, JA Church, JE Hansen, RF Keeling, DE Parker and RCJ Somerville (2007). “Recent climate Dopplermetingen Compared to projections” (PDF) . Science . 316 (709): 709. Bibkey :2007Sci … 316..709R . doi : 10.1126 / science.1136843 . PMID  17272686 . Previous projections, as Summarized from IPCC port not exaggerated but nov in some respects may harbor underestimated the change.
  53. Jump up^ Spencer, RW And JR Christy (1990). “Precise Monitoring of Global Temperature Trends from Satellites”. Science . 247 (4950): 1558-1562. Bibkey : 1990Sci … 247.1558S . doi : 10.1126 / science.247.4950.1558. PMID  17782811 .
  54. Jump up^ Wentz, FJ; M. Schabel (1998). “Effects of orbital decay on satellite-derived lower-tropospheric temperature trends.” Nature . 394 (6694): 661-664. Bibkey : 1998Natur.394..661W . doi : 10.1038 / 29267 .
  55. Jump up^ Hansen, JE, MKI. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, and J. Glascoe (1998). “Global climate data and models: A reconciliation” (PDF) . Science . 281 (5379): 930-932. doi : 10.1126 / science.281.5379.930 .
  56. Jump up^ Santer, BD, R. Sauces, TML Wigley, JS Boyle, K. AchutaRao, C. Doutriaux, JE Hansen, GA Meehl, E. Roeckner, R. Ruedy, G. Schmidt, and KE Taylor (2003). “Behavior of tropopause height and atmospheric temperatures in models, reanalyses, and observations: decadal changes”(PDF) . J. Geophys. Res . 108 (D1): 4002. Bibkey :2003JGRD..108.4002S . doi : 10.1029 / 2002JD002258 .
  57. Jump up^ Schmidt, GA, R. Ruedy, JE Hansen, I. Aleinov, N. Bell, M. Bauer, S. Bauer, B. Cairns, V. Canuto, Y. Cheng, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi , AD Friend, TM Hall, Y. Hu, M. Kelley, NY Kiang, D. Koch, AA Lacis, J. Lerner, KK Lo, RL Miller, L. Nazarenko, V. Oinas, yes. Perlwitz, Ju. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, GL Russell MKI. Sato, DT SHINDELL, PH Stone, S. Sun, N. Tausnev, D. Thresher, and M.-S. Yao (2006). “Present day atmospheric simulations using GISS Model: Comparison to in-situ, satellite and reanalysis data” (PDF) . J. Climate . 19 (2): 153-192. Bibkey :2006JCli … 19..153S . doi : 10.1175 / JCLI3612.1 .
  58. Jump up^ Hansen, J., MKI. Sato, R. Ruedy, P. Kharecha, A. Lacis, RL Miller, L. Nazarenko, K. Lo, GA Schmidt, G. Russell, I. Aleinov, S. Bauer, E. Baum, B. Cairns, V. Canuto, M. Chandler, Y. Cheng, A. Cohen, A. Del Genio, G. Faluvegi E. Fleming, A. Friend, T. Hall, C. Jackman, J. Jonas, M. Kelley, NY Kiang, D. Koch, G. Labow J. Lerner, S. Menon, T. Novakov, V. Oinas, yes. Perlwitz, Ju. Perlwitz, D. Rind, A. Romanou, R. Schmunk, D. SHINDELL, P. Stone, S. Sun, D. Streets, N. Tausnev, D. Thresher, N. Unger, M. Yao, and S. Zhang (2007). “Climate simulations for 1880-2003 with GISS Model” (PDF) . Clim. Dynam . 29 (7-8): 661-696. arXiv : physics / 0610109 . Bibkey : 2007ClDy … 29..661H . doi : 10.1007 / s00382-007-0255-8 .
  59. Jump up^ Hansen, James; et al. (2000). “Global warming in the twenty-first century: An alternative scenario” . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci . 97 (18): 9875-9880. Bibkey : 2000PNAS … 97.9875H . doi : 10.1073 / pnas.170278997 . PMC  27,611 . PMID  10944197 .
  60. ^ Jump up to:a b c Hansen, James; et al. (2007). “Climate change and trace gases”(PDF) . Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A . 365 (1856): 1925-1954. Bibkey : 2007RSPTA.365.1925H . doi : 10.1098 / rsta.2007.2052 . PMID  17513270 .
  61. Jump up^ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (February 2007). “Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis – Summary for Policymakers. Table SPM-3.” (PDF) .
  62. Jump up^ George Monbiot (3 July 2007). “A Sudden Change of State.” .
  63. Jump up^ Hansen, J .; Sato, M .; Russell, G .; Kharecha, P. (2013). “Climate sensitivity, sea level and atmospheric carbon dioxide.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences . 371 (2001): 20120294. arXiv : 1211.4846 . Bibkey : 2013RSPTA.37120294H . doi : 10.1098 / rsta.2012.0294 .
  64. Jump up^ Adam, David (18 March 2009). “Leading climate scientist,” democratic process is not working ‘ ‘ . The Guardian . London . Retrieved 2009-03-19 .
  65. Jump up^ “Hansen’s Kingsnorth testimony” (PDF) . Retrieved 2 February 2009 .
  66. Jump up^ Sutherland, JJ (May 23, 2006). “They Call It Pollution. We Call It Life” . NPR . Retrieved February 2, 2009 .
  67. Jump up^ Hansen, James (November 21, 2006). “The Threat to the Planet: How Can We Avoid Dangerous Human Made Climate Change?” (PDF) . Remarks or James E. Hansen on 21 November 2006 On Acceptance of WWF Duke of Edinburgh Conservation Medal . Columbia University . Retrieved February 5, 2009 .
  68. Jump up^ Hansen, James (February 10, 2006). “Can We Still Avoid Dangerous Human Made Climate Change?” (PDF) . Retrieved February 10, 2009 .
  69. ^ Jump up to:a b c Catherine Herrick / Bill Owens (June 30, 2006). “Rewriting the Science” . CBS . Retrieved February 7, 2009 .
  70. Jump up^ McKie, Robin (January 18, 2009). ” ‘ Avem only four years left to act on climate change – America has to lead ‘ ‘ . London: The Guardian . Retrieved February 2, 2009 .
  71. ^ Jump up to:a b Besel, Richard D. (2013). “Accommodating climate change science: James Hansen and the Rhetorical / political emergence of global warming” . Science in Context . Cambridge University Press . 26 (1): 137-152. doi : 10.1017 / S0269889712000312 . Retrieved February 20, 2016 .
  72. ^ Jump up to:a b Weisskopf, Michael (June 24, 1988). “Scientist Says Greenhouse Effect Setting in” . The Washington Post . Retrieved February 20, 2016 .
  73. Jump up^ Weart, Spencer R. (2008). The Discovery of Global Warming . Harvard University Press . ISBN  9780674044975 .
  74. Jump up^ O’Donnell, Timothy M. (2000). “Whether loaded dice and Heated arguments: Putting the Hansen Michaels global warming debate in context”(PDF) . Social Epistemology . 14 (2-3): 109-127. doi : 10.1080 / 02691720050199199 . Retrieved February 20, 2016 .
  75. Jump up^ Pielke, Roger A. (2000). “Policy History of the US global change resea
  76. O’Donnell, Timothy M. (2000). “Of loaded dice and heated arguments: Putting the Hansen-Michaels global warming debate in context” (PDF). Social Epistemology. 14 (2–3): 109–127. doi:10.1080/02691720050199199. Retrieved February 20, 2016.
  77. Jump up^ Pielke, Roger A. (2000). “Policy history of the US global change research program: Part I. Administrative development” (PDF). Global Environmental Change. 10 (1): 9–25. doi:10.1016/s0959-3780(00)00006-6. Retrieved February 20, 2016.
  78. ^ Jump up to:a b “Direct Testimony of James E. Hansen” (PDF). State of Iowa: Before the Iowa Utilities Board. Retrieved February 2, 2009.
  79. Jump up^ Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Kharecha, P.; Beerling, D.; Berner, R.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Pagani, M.; Raymo, M.; Royer, D. L.; Zachos, J. C. (2008). “Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim?”. The Open Atmospheric Science Journal. 2: 217–231. arXiv:0804.1126Freely accessible. Bibcode:2008OASJ….2..217H. doi:10.2174/1874282300802010217.
  80. Jump up^ Revkin, Andrew (November 26, 2007). “Climate, Coal and Crematoria”. The New York Times. Retrieved February 2, 2009.
  81. Jump up^ “Hansen’s correspondence with NMA re “coal crematoria”” (PDF). Retrieved February 2, 2009.
  82. Jump up^ More from NASA’s Hansen on coal Des Moines Register / Knight Science Journalism at MIT, November 7, 2007, Retrieved November 23, 2012
  83. Jump up^ Hansen, James (November 28, 2007). “Averting Our Eyes” (PDF). James Hansen. Retrieved February 6, 2009.
  84. Jump up^ “Hannah, Hansen arrested in mountaintop removal protest”. West Virginia Public Broadcasting. June 23, 2009.
  85. Jump up^ “Daryl Hannah, scientist among 30 arrested at W.Va. mine protest”. Charleston Gazette. June 23, 2009.
  86. ^ Jump up to:a b Revkin, Andrew C. (June 23, 2009). “Hansen of NASA Arrested in Coal Country”. New York Times. Retrieved May 5, 2010.
  87. Jump up^ “A Plea To President Obama: End Mountaintop Coal Mining”. Environment 360. Yale University. 22 June 2009.
  88. Jump up^ Associated Press. “About 100 arrested in DC mountaintop mining rally”. Los Angeles Times.
  89. Jump up^ “Police Arrest Dozens Of People Protesting Mountaintop Mining”. Nasdaq. Dow Jones. September 27, 2010. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
  90. ^ Jump up to:a b “James Hansen. Letter to Obaman” (PDF). Retrieved December 10, 2009.
  91. Jump up^ Bone, James (December 3, 2009). “Climate scientist James Hansen hopes summit will fail”. Timesonline. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
  92. Jump up^ Randerson, James (January 2, 2009). “Nasa climate expert makes personal appeal to Obama”. The Guardian. London. Retrieved December 10, 2009.
  93. ^ Jump up to:a b James Hansen. Tell Barack Obama the Truth – The Whole Truth. http://www.columbia.edu/~jeh1/mailings/20081229_Obama_revised.pdfaccessed 10 December 2009.
  94. Jump up^ Kloor, Keith (November 26, 2009). “The Eye of the Storm”. Nature Reports Climate Change. Retrieved December 11, 2009.
  95. Jump up^ Gillis, Justin (April 1, 2013). “Climate Maverick to Quit NASA”. New York Times. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
  96. Jump up^ National Center for Science Education (5 April 2013). “Three new climate advisors for NCSE”. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
  97. ^ Jump up to:a b c “Climate test for Obama: 1,252 people arrested over notorious oil pipeline”. Mongabay. September 6, 2011.
  98. Jump up^ Fitzpatrick, Meagan (27 April 2013). “Top U.S. climate expert calls Conservatives ‘Neanderthal’ Former NASA scientist James Hansen fires back at Natural Resources Minister Joe Oliver”. CBC News.
  99. ^ Jump up to:a b Suzanne Goldenberg (February 13, 2013). “Daryl Hannah leads celebrity Keystone XL protest at White House gates”. The Guardian. London. Retrieved April 13, 2013.
  100. Jump up^http://www.cbc.ca/player/News/TV+Shows/Power+%26+Politics+with+Evan+Solomon/ID/2656936485/
  101. Jump up^ Hansen, James (2009). Storms of My Grandchildren. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 242. ISBN 1-4088-0745-9.
  102. Jump up^ Pushker A. Kharecha and James E. Hansen. (March 15, 2013). “Prevented Mortality and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Historical and Projected Nuclear Power”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47 (9): 4889. Bibcode:2013EnST…47.4889K. doi:10.1021/es3051197.
  103. Jump up^ Benjamin K. Sovacool, M.V. Ramana, Mark Z. Jacobson, and Mark Diesendorf; et al. (May 22, 2013). “Comment on “Prevented Mortality and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Historical and Projected Nuclear Power”” (PDF). Environ. Sci. Technol. pp. 6715–6717.
  104. Jump up^ Pushker A. Kharecha and James E. Hansen. (May 22, 2013). “Response to Comment on “Prevented Mortality and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Historical and Projected Nuclear Power””. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47: 130603150610001. doi:10.1021/es402211m.
  105. Jump up^ “Top climate change scientists issue open letter to policy influencers – CNN.com”. CNN. November 3, 2013. The letter was signed by Hansen, Ken Caldeira, Kerry Emanuel, and Tom Wigley.
  106. Jump up^ John Upton (7 Nov 2013). “More nukes? Are you kidding? Enviros push back against Hansen’s call”. Grist (magazine). Retrieved 20 December 2015.
  107. Jump up^ Fancois Diaz-Maurin (December 23, 2013). “Going beyond the nuclear controversy”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 48: 25. doi:10.1021/es405282z.
  108. Jump up^ Rinaldo Brutoco, “https://worldbusiness.org/nuclear-power-totally-unqualified-to-combat-climate-change/ Nuclear power: Totally unqualified to combat climate change”, World Business Academy, September 14, 2014.
  109. Jump up^ “Directory of the National Academy of Sciences”. Retrieved 2007-06-19.
  110. Jump up^ “The Heinz Awards, James Hansen profile”. Retrieved 2008-09-27.
  111. Jump up^ “AAAS Award for Scientific Freedom and Responsibility: James Hansen”. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved 5 February 2009.
  112. ^ Jump up to:a b “NASA Climate Scientist Honored by American Meteorological Society”. NASA. 14 January 2009. Retrieved 5 February 2009.
  113. Jump up^ “AMS Awards” (PDF). American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 5 February 2009.
  114. Jump up^ “Climate scientist Hansen wins $100,000 prize”. Reuters. 7 April 2010. Retrieved 7 April 2010.
  115. Jump up^ “The FP Top 100 Global Thinkers”. Foreign Policy. 26 November 2012. Archived from the original on 28 November 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
  116. Jump up^ Baker, David R (December 5, 2012). “Climate guru slams cap and trade”. San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Newspapers. Retrieved January 1, 2013.
  117. Jump up^ “Sounding the Alarm”. Dickinson College. 7 November 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
  118. Jump up^ Juliet Eilperin (January 18, 2005). “Putting Some Heat on Bush”. Washington Post. Retrieved June 20, 2007.
  119. Jump up^ Andrew Revkin (January 29, 2006). “Climate Expert Says NASA Tried to Silence Him”. The New York Times. Retrieved June 20, 2007. They feel their job is to be this censor of information going out to the public.
  120. Jump up^ Bill Blakemore (January 29, 2006). “Top NASA Scientist Says He’s Being Silenced on Global Warming”. ABC News. Retrieved June 20, 2008.
  121. Jump up^ Andrew C. Revkin (June 3, 2008). “NASA Office Is Criticized on Climate Reports”. The New York Times.
  122. Jump up^ Clayton Sandell (June 23, 2008). “Global Warming 20 Years Later”. ABC News. Retrieved 2008-06-23.
  123. Jump up^ Ed Pilkington (23 June 2008). “Put oil firm chiefs on trial, says leading climate change scientist”. London: The Guardian. Retrieved 6 February 2009.
  124. Jump up^ James Hansen (2008-06-23). “Guest Opinion: Global Warming Twenty Years Later”. Worldwatch Institute. Retrieved 2008-06-23. In my opinion, these CEOs should be tried for high crimes against humanity and nature.
  125. ^ Jump up to:a b Freedman, Andrew (January 29, 2009). “Science Group Erred Giving Hansen Top Honor”. Washington Post.
  126. Jump up^ Revkin, Andrew (January 14, 2009). “Weather Mavens Honor Climate Maven”. New York Times.
  127. ^ Jump up to:a b Dawidoff,, Nicholas (March 25, 2009). “The Civil Heretic”. New York Times.
  128. Jump up^ A conversation with theoretical physicist and mathematician Freeman Dyson. Charlie Rose. August 14, 2009. Retrieved November 21, 2010.
  129. ^ Jump up to:a b Kolbert, Elizabeth (June 29, 2009). “The Catastrophist”. The New Yorker.
  130. ^ Jump up to:a b c Marshall, Christa (July 14, 2009). “Does NASA’s James Hansen Still Matter in Climate Debate?”. New York Times.