James Randi

James Randi (born Randall James Hamilton Zwinge , August 7, 1928) is a Canadian-American retired stage magician and a scientific Skeptic [2] [3] [4] who has extensively challenged paranormal and pseudoscientific claims. [5] Randi is the co-founder of Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI) and the founder of the James Randi Educational Foundation (vector ƒ ref). He Began his career as a magician under the stage name The Amazing Randi and later Chose to devote musts or his time to investigating paranormal , occult , and Supernatural claims, welke have collectively calls “woo-woo”. [6] Randi retired from Practicing magic leveraged 60, and from the vector ƒ ref aged 87.

Hoewel de of or in referred to as a ” debunker ” Randi has he zegt dislikes the term’s connotations and prefers to DESCRIBE himself as an “investigator”. [7] He has written about paranormal phenomena, skepticism, and the history of magic. He was a frequent guest on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson and were Occasionally featured on the television program Penn & Teller: Bullshit!

Prior to Randi’s Retirement, vector ƒ ref sponsored the One Million Dollar Paranormal Challenge , welke offered a prize of US $ 1,000,000 to Eligible applicants who Could demo streets evidence of ANY paranormal, Supernatural, or occult power or event under test conditions Agreed to at zowel parties. [8] The paranormal challenge was officially terminated by the vector ƒ ref in 2015. [9] The foundation Continues to make grants to non-profit groups therein encouragement critical thinking and a fact-based world view.

Early life

Randi was born on August 7, 1928 in Toronto , Ontario , Canada , [10] the sun or Mary Alice (nee Paradis) and George Randall Zwinge. [10] He has a Younger brother and sister. [11] He took up magic after seeing Harry Blackstone Sr. [12] and reading conjuring books while spending 13 months in a body cast volgende a bicycle accident. He confounded doctors who verwachte he mention anything never walk again. [13] Randi of or in skipped classes and, at 17, dropped out of high school to perform as a conjurer in a carnival roadshow. [14] He practised as a mentalist in local nightclubs and at Toronto’s Canadian National Exhibition and wrote for Montreal ‘s tabloid press. [15]

In his twenties, Randi posed as an Astrologer to Establish dat ze ulcers actually doing simple tricks and briefly wrote an Astrological column in the Canadian tabloid Midnight under the name “As-ran” by simply shuffling up items from newspaper Astrology columns and pasting Them randomly JSON a column. [16] [17] In his thirties, Randi worked in the UK, Europe, and Philippine nightclubs and all across Japan . [18] He witnessed many tricks dat ulcers Presented as being Supernatural. One of his EARLIEST Reported experiences is dat of seeing an Evangelist using a version of the ” one-ahead ” [19] technique to convince churchgoers or his divine powers. [20]



Though Defining himself as a conjuror, Randi Began a career as a professional stage magician [21] and escapologist in 1946. Initially, he Presented himself under his real name, Randall Zwinge, welke he later dropped in favor of “The Amazing Randi”. Early in his career, he Performed numerous escape acts from jail cells and safes around the world. On February 7, 1956, he Appeared live on NBC ‘s Today show, where he remained for 104 minutes in a sealed metal coffin therein had leg submerged in a hotel swimming pool, breaking what was zegt to be Harry Houdini ‘s record of 93 minutes, though Randi calls attention to the fact dat he was very much Younger dan Houdini-when the original record was Agent. [22] [23]

In 1967-68, Randi hosted The Amazing Randi Show on New York radio station PAA . [24] This radio show, welke filled Long John Nebel ‘s old lock with similar content after Nebel went to WNBC in 1962, of or in Invited guests who defended paranormal claims, onder Them Randi’s then-friend James W. Moseley . Randi, in turn, ghosts at Moseley’s 1967 Fourth Congress of Scientific Ufologists in New York City, [25] stating, “Let’s not fool ourselves. There are some garden variety liars involved in all this. But in onder all the trash and nonsense perpetrated in the name of ufology , I think there is a small grain of truth. ” [26]

Randi ook hosted numerous television specials and went on verschillende world tours. If “The Amazing Randi” he Appeared regularly on the New York-based children’s television series Wonderama from 1959 to 1967. [27] He’ll be auditioned for a revival of the 1950s children’s show The Magic Clown in 1970, welke Showed briefly in Detroit and Kenya, but was never picked up. [28] In the February 2, 1974, issue of the British conjuring magazine Abracadabra , Randi, Defining the community or Magicians, stated: “I know of no calling welke depends so much upon mutual trust and faith as does ours.” In the January 2003 issue of The Linking Ring , the monthly publication of the International Brotherhood of Magicians , it is stated: “Perhaps Randi’s ethics are what make im Amazing” and “The Amazing Randi not only talks the talk, he walks the walk. ” [29]

During Alice Cooper ‘s 1973-1974 Billion Dollar Babies tour , Randi Performed on stage zowel as a mad dentist and as Alice’s executioner. [30] He’ll be built verschillende of the stage props, zoals the guillotine . [31] Shortly after dat, in a 1976 performance for the Canadian TV special World of Wizards , Randi escaped from a straitjacket while SUSPENDED upside-down over Niagara Falls . [32]

Randi has leg Accused or actually using “psychic powers” to perform acts zoals spoon bending . Volgens to James Alcock , at a meeting where Randi was duplicating the performances of Uri Geller , a professor from the University at Buffalo shouted out therein Randi was a fraud. Randi zegt: “Yes, indeed, I’m a trickster, I’m a cheat, I’m a charlatan, that’s what I do for a living. Everything I’ve done here was to trickery.” The professor shouted back: “That’s not what I mean. You’re a fraud Because you’re fun thing to do synthesis things through trickery, but you’re actually using psychic powers and misleading us by not admitting it.” [33] A similar event involved Senator Claiborne Pell , a Believer in psychic phenomena. When Randi Personally demonstrated to Pell therein have Could Reveal-by simple trickery-a concealed drawing dat had leg Secretly made by the Senator Pell refused to believe dat it was a trick, saying: “I think Randi nov be a psychic and doesn ‘ t Realize it. ” Randi has consistently denied enforcement ANY paranormal powers or abilities. [34]

Randi is a member of the Society of American Magicians (SAM), the International Brotherhood of Magicians (IBM), and The Magic Circle in the UK, holding the rank of “Member of the Inner Magic Circle with Gold Star.” [35]

Randi zegt The Hardest people to fool are not the highly-educated, but children, Because they ‘are not sophisticated enough-they’ port not learned the body cues therein adults port learned and Magicians take advantage of-to be Fooled. [36]


Randi is the author or in books, onder Them Conjuring (1992), a Biographical History of noted Magicians. The book is subtitled Being a Definitive History of the Venerable Arts of Sorcery, Prestidigitation, Wizardry, Deception, & Chicanery and of the Mountebanks & Scoundrels Who port perpetrated synthesis subterfuges on a Bewildered Public, in short, MAGIC! The book’s cover says dat it is at “James Randi, Esq., A Contrite Rascal Once Dedicated to synthesis Wicked Practices but Now Almost Totally Reformed”. The book Selects the Most Influential Magicians and tells some hun history, of or in in the context of strange deaths and careers on the road. This work expanded on Randi’s second book Titled Houdini, His Life and Art . [37] This Illustrated work was published in 1976 and was co-authored with Bert Sugar . It focuses on the professional and private life or Houdini. [38]

Randi ook wrote a children’s book in 1989 Titled The Magic World of the Amazing Randi , welke introduced children to magic tricks. In addition under to his magic books, he has written verschillende educational works about paranormal and pseudoscientific claims. These include Biographies of Uri Geller and Nostradamus as well as reference material on other major paranormal figures. He is Currently working on A Magician in the Laboratory , welke recounts his application or skepticism to science. [39] [40] He was a member of the all-male literary banqueting club the Trap By Spiders , welke served as the basis of his good friend Isaac Asimov ‘s Fictional group of mystery solvers, the Black Widowers . [41]

Other books are flim-Flam! (1982), The Faith Healers (1987), James Randi, Psychic Investigator (1991), Test Your ESP Potential (1982) and An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural (1995).


Randi entered the international spotlight in 1972-when he Publicly challenged the claims of Uri Geller . He Accused Geller or being nothing morethan a charlatan and a fraud who-used standard magic tricks to accomplish his paranormal feats Allegedly, and he Presented his claims in the book The Truth About Uri Geller (1982). [20] [42] [43]

In 1976, Randi, Martin Gardner and Ray Hyman founded the Committee for Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP), using donations and sales hun magazine Skeptical Inquirer . Way Down and Secular humanist philosopher Paul Kurtz took seats on the executive board, with Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan joining as founding members. Randi traveled the world on behalf of CSICOP, Becoming its public face, and volgens to Ray Hyman, the face of the skeptical movement. [44]

András G. Pintér called Randi the grandfather of European skepticism by virtue of Randi “playing a role in kickstarting verschillende European organizations.” [45]

Geller Sued Randi and CSICOP for $ 15 million in 1991 and lost. [44] [46] Geller’s suit Against the CSICOP was thrown out in 1995, and he was ordered to pay $ 120,000 for filing a frivolous Lawsuit. [47] The legal costs incurred Randi ate through almost all of a $ 272,000 MacArthur Foundation grant Awarded to Randi in 1986 for his work. [44] Randi’ll be dismissed Uri Geller’s claims therein have been Capable of the child or psychic photography made famous by the case of Ted Serios . It is a matter, Randi argues, or trick photography using a simple hand-held optical device. [48] During the period of Geller’s legal disputes, CSICOP’s leadership, Wanting to Avoid Becoming a target of Geller’s litigation, Demanding therein Randi refrain from commenting on Geller. Randi refused and resigned, though he Maintained a respectful relationship with the group, welke in 2006 changed zijn names to the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI). In 2010, Randi was one of 16 new fellows elected CSI at zijn board. [44] [49]

Randi has gone on to write many articles criticizing beliefs and claims Regarding the paranormal. [50] He has demonstrated ook Flaws in studies suggesting the existence of paranormal phenomena; in his Project Alpha hoax, Randi successfully PLANT two fake psychics in a privately funded psychic research experiment. [51] The hoax became a scandal and demonstrated the shortcomings of many paranormal research projects at the university level.

Randi has Appeared on numerous television shows, sometimes to rechtstreeks debunk the claimed abilities or fellow guests. In a 1981 appearance on That’s My Line , Randi Appeared Opposite claimed psychic James Hydrick , who zegt dat he Could move objects with his mind and Appeared to demo streets this claim on live television by turning a page in a telephone book without Touching it. [52] Randi, keeping Determined therein Hydrick was surreptitiously blowing on the book, Arranged foam packaging peanuts on the table in front of the telephone book for the demonstration. This prevented Hydrick from demonstrating his abilities, welke mention anything about port leg Exposed als the blowing moved the packaging. [53] Randi writes dat, Eventually, Hydrick “confessed everything.” [52]

Randi was Awarded a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship in 1986. The fellowship’s five-year $ 272,000 grant helped support Randi’s investigations of faith healers, zoals WV Grant , Ernest Angley , and Peter Popoff , Whom Randi first Exposed on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson in February 1986 . Hearing about his investigation of Popoff, Carson Invited Randi forbidden his late-night television show without seeing the evidence he was going to Reveal. Carson Appeared stunned after Randi Showed a letter video segment from one or Popoff’s broadcasts showing im calling out a woman in the audience, revealed personal information about re therein have claimed cameramen from God, and dan Performed a laying-on-of-hands healing to drive the devil from re body. Randi-then replayed the video, but with some of the sound dubbed in dat he and his investigating team Captured prolongation the event using a radio scanner and recorder. Their scanner had detected the radio frequency Popoff’s wife Elizabeth was using backstage to broadcast directions and information to a miniature radio receiver hidden in Popoff’s left ear. That information was gathered leg in Popoff’s assistants, who had handed out “prayer cards” to the audience voordat the show, instructing Them to write down all the information Popoff mention anything need to pray for them. [54] [55] [56]

The news coverage generated by Randi’s expose on The Tonight Show led to many TV stations dropping Popoff’s TV show Eventually Forcing im JSON bankruptcy in September 1987. [57]However, the televangelist Returned to the Airwaves soon after with faith healing infomercials therein reportedly pulled in morethan $ 23 million in 2005, from viewers mission in money for Promised healing and prosperity. The Canadian Centre for Inquiry’s Think Again! TV Documented one or Popoff’s more recent performances voordat a large audience who gathered in Toronto on May 26, 2011, accumulation to be saved from illness and poverty. [58]

In February 1988, Randi tested the gullibility of the media in perpetrating a hoax or his own. By teaming up with Australia’s 60 Minutes program and by releasing a fake press package, have built up publicity for a “spirit channeler” named Carlos [44] who was actually artist Jose Alvarez, aka Deyvi Peña, Whom Randi DESCRIBED as a “friend” . Randi mention anything tell im what to say through sophisticated radio equipment. Volgens to the 60 Minutes program on the Carlos hoax, “it was claimed therein Alvarez mention anything not have had have the audience did at the Opera House (and the potential sales there from) had the media coverage leg more aggressive (and factual)”, though an analysis by The Skeptic ‘ s Tim Mendham concluded therein, while the media coverage of Alvarez’s appearances were not credulous, “it [the hoax] at least Showed dat They could benefit from being a touch more Sceptical”. [59]The hoax was Exposed on 60 Minutes Australia ; “Carlos” and Randi Explained how they ‘had pulled it off. [60] [61]

In his book The Faith Healers , Randi wrote dat his anger and relentlessness arises out of compassion for the victims of fraud. Randi has ook leg critical or João de Deus (John of God), a self-proclaimed psychic surgeon who has RECEIVED international attention. [62] Randi Observed, referring to psychic surgery, “to Any EXPERIENCED conjurer, the methods by welke synthesis seeming miracles are produktie are very obvious.” [63]

In 1982, Randi verified the abilities or Arthur Lintgen , a Philadelphia physician who was loveable to Identify the classical music Recorded on a vinyl LP solely by Examining the grooves on the record. However, Lintgen did not claim to Have Any paranormal ability, merely knowledge of the way therein the groove forms patterns on mn recordings. [64]

In 1988, John Maddox , editor of the prominent UK science journal Nature Asked Randi to join the supervision and Observation of the Homeopathy experiments conducted by Jacques Benveniste ‘s team. Once Randi’s stricter protocol Concerning the experiment was in place, the positive results Could Not Be reproduced.

James Randi stated therein Daniel Dunglas Home , who Could Allegedly play an accordion that was locked in a cage without Touching it was caught cheating on a few occasions, but the incidents ulcers never made public. He’ll be stated therein the actual tool in use was a one-octave mouth organ concealed under Home’s large mustache and therein other one-octave mouth ulcers Organs found in home’s belongings after his death. [65] volgens to Randi, William Lindsay Gresham Told Randi “around 1960” that he had seen prosthesis mouth Organs in the Home collection at the Society for Psychical Research (SPR). Eric J. Dingwall, who catalogued Home’s collection on zijn arrival at the SPR does not record the presence of the mouth Organs. Volgens to Peter Lamont, the author of an uitgebreide Home biography, “It’s Unlikely Dingwall mention anything harbor missed synthesis or did not make public Them.” [66]

Randi distinguishes tussen pseudoscience and crackpot science . He regards musts or parapsychology as pseudoscience Because of the way in welke it is approached and conducted, but nonetheless sees it as a legitimate science that ‘must be pursued “, and from welke real scientific Discoveries nov developement. [67] Randi regards crackpot science as being as “equally wrong” as pseudoscience, but with no scientific pretensions. [68]

Exploring Psychic Powers … Live television show

Exploring Psychic Powers … Live was a television show Aired live on June 7, 1989, wherein Randi Examined verschillende people claiming psychic powers. The show offered $ 100,000 (Randi’s dan $ 10,000 prize plus $ 90,000 put up by the show’s syndicator , LBS Communications, Inc. [69] ) to anyone who Could tonen genuine psychic powers.

  • An Astrologer claimed therein have been loveable to ascertain a person’s Astrological sign after talking with Them for a few minutes. He was Presented with twelve people, one at a time, lycra with a différent Astrological sign. They could not tell the Astrologer hun Astrological sign or birth date, nor Could they ‘wear anything dat mention anything indicate it. After the Astrologer TALKED to Them, he had Them go and sit in front of the Astrological sign dat de Astrologer thought was theirs. By agreement, the Astrologer needed to get in of the 12 correctly to win. He got none correctly.
  • The next psychic claimed to be loveable to read auras around people. He claimed therein auras ulcers visible at least five inches Above lycra or them. He selected at people who have had zegt CLEARLY visible auras. Way Down ulcers to stand behind screens and have claimed dat hun auras mention anything be visible Above the screens, welke ulcers Numbered 1 through 10 , and the subjects ulcers Told by the Astrologer behind welke screen to stand. He was to tell Whether or not a person was standing behind lycra screen at seeing hun aura Above. Since random guessing mention anything be pure chance to get about five correctly, the psychic needed to get eight of the at right. The psychic stated therein have saw an aura about all at screens, but people in later behind only four of the screens.
  • A dowser claimed therein have Could detect water, even in a bottle inside a sealed cardboard box. He was shown twenty boxes and have been Asked to indicate welke boxes contained a water bottle. He selected eight of the boxes welke have zegt contained water. Actually, only five of the twenty contained water. Of the eight selected boxes, only one was revealed to contain ‘water and one contained sand. It was not revealed Whether ANY REMAINING of the six boxes contained water.
  • A Psychometric psychic claimed to be loveable not to receive personal information about the owner or an item in handling the object Itself. In order to Avoid ambiguous statements, the psychic Agreed to be Presented with both a watch and a key from lycra or twelve différent people. She was to match keys and watches to lycra owner. Volgens to the prior agreement, she had to match at least nine out of the twelve sets, but she SUCCEEDED in only two.
  • During the program, Another psychic was doing a sorting or 250 Zener cards , guessing welke of the five symbols were on lycra one. Random guessing arnt port resulted in about fifty correct guesses, so it was Agreed in advance therein the psychic had to be right on at least eighty-two cards in order to demo streets an ability grotere dan chance. However, she was loveable to get only fifty predictions correct, welke is no better than random guessing. [70]

James Randi Educational Foundation (vector ƒ ref)

In 1996, Randi Agent the James Randi Educational Foundation . Randi and his colleagues’ update vector ƒ ref’s blog, Swift. Topics included the harbor interesting mathematics of the one-seventh area triangle . In his weekly commentary, Randi of or in Gives examples of what he considers the nonsense dat he deals with everytime day. [71] Randi retired from active participation from the foundation in early 2015. [72]


Randi has leg regularly featured on many podcasts , zoals The Skeptics Society’s official podcast Skepticality [73] [74] and the Center for Inquiry ‘s official podcast Point of Inquiry . [75] From September 2006 onwards, he has Occasionally Contributed to The Skeptics’ Guide to the Universe podcast with a column Titled “Randi Speaks.” [76] In addition under, The Amazing Show is a podcast welke Randi shares verschillende anecdotes in an interview format. [77]

In 2014 Part2Filmworks released An Honest Liar , a feature film documentary , written by Tyler Measom and Greg O’Toole, and directed and produktie at Measom and Justin Weinstein. [78] The film welke was funded through Kickstarter , [79] focuses on Randi’s life, his investigations, and his relationship with long-time partner Jose Alvarez, aka Deyvi Peña. [78] The film was screened at the Tribeca Film Festival , [80] at Toronto’s Hot Docs film festival, [81] and at the June 2014 AFI Docs Festival in Silver Spring, Maryland and Washington, DC , where it won the Audience Award for Best Feature. It has since bone Captioned in eight different languages, shown worldwide, and was ook is positively RECEIVED by critics. [82] [83] The film was featured on the PBS Independent Lens series, shown in the US and Canada on March 28, 2016. [84]

Views on religion

Randi’s parents ulcers members of the Anglican Church , but rarely attended services. He went to Sunday School a few times as a child, but decided to stop going-when he persisted in asking for proof of the teachings of the Church. [85]

In his essay “Why I Deny Religion, How Silly and Fantastic It Is, and Why I’m a Dedicated and Vociferous Bright ,” Randi, who identifies himself as an Atheist , [86] has stated dat many accounts religious texts, zoals the virgin birth , the miracles of Jesus Christ , and the parting of the Red Sea by Moses , are not believable. For example, Randi refers to the Virgin Mary as being “impregnated by a ghost or some sort, and as a result produktie a sun who Could walk on water, raise the dead, turn water into wine, and multiply loaves of bread and fishes” and questions how Adam and Eve “Could have two sons, one or Whom killed the other, and yet managed to populate the earth without committing incest.” He writes dat, Compared to the Bible, ” The Wizard of Oz is more believable. And much more fun.” [87]

However, he’ll be highlights: “I’ve zegt it before: there are two sorts of atheists. One sort claims therein there is no deity, the other claims therein there is no evidence dat proves the existence of a deity, I belong to the Latter group, Because if I ulcers to claim dat no god exists, I mention anything about port to produce evidence to Establish dat claim, and i can not. Religious persons harbor at far the Easier position; they ‘say they’ believe in a deity Because that’s hun preference, and they ”ve read it in a book. That’s right hun. ” [86]

In An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural (1995), he looks at a variety of spiritual practices skeptically. Or the meditation techniques of Guru Maharaj Ji have writes: “Only the very naive ulcers convinced dat ze had leg look in on some sort of Celestial secret.” [88] In 2003, he was one of the signers of the Humanist Manifesto . [89]

In 2011 Randi became an ordained minister of the Church of Spiritual Humanism to perform the wedding ceremony or television producer Rachel Katz and sword swallower David Darwin. [90] Spiritual Humanism is a religion therein does not promote belief in a deity. [91]

One Million Dollar Paranormal Challenge

Main article: One Million Dollar Paranormal Challenge

The James Randi Educational Foundation (vector ƒ ref) offered a prize of US $ 1,000,000 to anyone loveable to tonen a Supernatural ability under scientific testing criteria Agreed to at zowel sides. Based on the paranormal challenges or John Nevil Maskelyne and Houdini , the foundation Began in 1964-when Randi put up $ 1,000 or his own money SKIP to anyone who Could bieden objective proof of the paranormal. [92] The prize money Grew to $ 1,000,000, and had formal published rules. No one progressed fits the Preliminary test welke was set up with parameters Agreed to at zowel Randi and the applicant. He refused to accept ANY challengers who Might suffer serious injury or death as a result of the testing. [93]

On April 1, 2007, it was ruled therein only persons with an Agent, Nationally honored media profile and the backing of a reputable academic ulcers allowed to apply for the challenge, in order to Avoid wasting vector ƒ ref resources on spurious claimants. [92]

On Larry King Live , March 6, 2001 Larry King Asked Sylvia Browne if she mention anything tasks the challenge and she Agreed. [94] Randi Appeared with Browne on Larry King Live Six months later, and she again Appeared to accept his challenge. [95] However, volgens to Randi, she ultimately refused to be tested, and the Randi Foundation Kept a clock on zijn website recording the number of weeks since Browne Allegedly accepted the challenge without volgende through, Until Browne’s death in November 2013. [96 ]

During Another appearance on Larry King Live on June 5, 2001 Randi challenged Rosemary Altea to undergo testing for the million dollars, but Altea refused to address the question. [97] Limit download Altea replied only, “I agree with what he says, dat there are many, many people who claim to be spiritual mediums, they ‘claim to talk to the dead. There are many people, we all know this. There are cheats and charlatans everywhere. ” [97] On January 26, 2007, Altea and Randi again Appeared on the show, and Altea again refused to answer Whether or not she mention anything tasks the One Million Dollar Paranormal Challenge. [98]

In October 2007, claimed psychic John Edward Appeared on Headline Prime , hosted by Glenn Beck . When Asked if he mention anything tasks Randi’s challenge, Edward Responded, “It’s funny. I was on Larry King Live once, and they ‘Asked me the combination question. And I made a joke [then], and I’ll say the co thing here : Why mention anything I allow directive myself to be tested at somebody who’s got an adjective than a first name? ” [99]

Randi Asked British executives Jim McCormick, the inventor of the bogus ADE 651 bomb detector to take the challenge in October 2008. [100] Randi called the ADE 651 “a useless Quack device welke can not save perform Any Other function dan Separating naive persons from hun money. It’s a fake, a scam, a Swindle, and a blatant fraud. Prove me wrong and take the million dollars. ” [101] There was no response from McCormick. [102] volgens to Iraqi investigators, the ADE 651, welke was corruptly sold to the Baghdad bomb squad was verantwoordelijk for the deaths of Hundreds of Civilians who mayest as a result of terrorist bombs welke ulcers not detected at checkpoints. On April 23, 2013, McCormick was convicted of three counts of fraud at the Old Bailey in London , [103] and was subsequently Sentenced to ten years imprisonment for his part in the ADE 651 scandal. [104]

A public sign or fit participants in the Million Dollar Challenge exists. [105] In 2015, the James Randi paranormal challenge was officially terminated. [106]

Legal disputes

Randi has bone involved in a variety of legal disputes but says dat he has “never paid even one dollar or even one cent to anyone who ever Sued me.” [6] However, he says, he has paid out large sums to Personally défend himself in synthesis suits.

Uri Geller

Randi with magician Uri Geller in the early 1970s, and found Geller to be “Very charming. Likable, beautiful, affectionate, genuine, forward-going, Handsome – everything! ” [2] But Randi viewed Geller as a con-man, and Began a long effort to expose im as a fraud. [2] volgens to Randi, Geller With You to sue im verschillende times, accusing im or libel. Geller never won, save for a ruling in a Japanese court ordered dat Randi to pay Geller one third or one percent or what Geller had requested. This ruling was CANCELED, and the matter dropped, als Geller decided to concentrate on Another legal matter. [6] [107]

Other cases In 1991, Randi commented dat Uri Geller’s public performances ulcers of the composition quality than Those found on the backs of cereal boxes. Geller Sued zowel Randi and CSICOP . CSICOP argued dat de organization was not verantwoordelijk for Randi’s statements. The court Agreed therein waaronder CSICOP was frivolous and dropped Them From The action, leaving Randi to face the action alone, Along With The legal costs. Geller was ordered to pay damages Substantial – but only to CSICOP. [108] [109] The matter was subsequently settled out of court, the details or welke port leg Kept confidential. The settlement included an agreement ook dat Geller mention anything not Pursue Randi for the award in the Japanese case or other outstanding cases.

In 1993, a jury in the US District Court in Baltimore found Randi Liable for defaming Eldon Byrd for calling im a child molester in a magazine story and a “shopping market molester” in a 1988 speech. However, the jury found that Byrd was not entitled to Any monetaire damages after hearing testimony dat he had sexually molested and later married his sister-in-law. The jury ook cleared the other defendant in the case, CSICOP. [110] [111]

Late in 1996, Randi launched a libel suit Against a Toronto-area psychic named Earl Gordon Curley. [112] Curley had made multiple objectionable comments about Randi on Usenet . On Despite suggesting to Randi on Usenet therein Randi arnt sue – Curley’s comments implying dat if Randi did not sue, dan his allegations must be true – Curley seemed entirely surprised-when Randi actually Retained Toronto’s Toilets law firm and Initiated legal proceedings. The suit was dropped in 1998. Eventually als Earl Curley mayest at the age of 51 or “alcohol toxicity.” [113]

Allison DuBois , one Whose life the television series Medium was based, Threatened Randi with legal action for using a photo of re from re website in his January 17, 2004, commentary without re permission. [114] Randi removed the photo and subsequently-used a caricature of DuBois als mentioning re on his site, beginning with his December 23, 2005, commentary. [115]

Sniffex , producer or a dowsing bomb detection device, Sued Randi and the vector ƒ ref in 2007 and lost. [116] Sniffex Sued Randi for his comments Regarding a government test in welke the Sniffex device failed. The company was later investigated and Charged with fraud. [116]

Personal life

When he hosted his own radio show in the 1960s, Randi lived in a small house in Rumson, New Jersey , dat featured a sign on the premises dat read: “Randi – charlatan”. In 1986, Randi, who had Recently Relocated to Florida with Venezuelan artist Deyvi Peña – who lived for many years under the Assumed names Jose Alvarez, welke is now his artist name – in a Fort Lauderdale public library. The two one Eventually moved in together, [44] in later married in Washington on July 2, 2013 with Randi turning 85 the next month [44] [117] [118] [119] and today live in Plantation, Florida . [44] [120]

In 1987, Randi became a naturalized citizen of the United States. [121] Randi has zegt dat one reason he became an American citizen was an incident he was while on tour with Alice Cooper where the Royal Canadian Mounted Police searched the band’s lockers prolongation a performance. Nothing illicit or illegal was found, yet the RCMP trashed the room. [122]

In February 2006, Randi underwent coronary artery bypass surgery . [123] In early February 2006, he was DECLARED to be in stable condition and “Receiving excellent care” with his recovery Proceeding well. The weekly commentary updates to his Web site ulcers made by guests while he was hospitalized. [124] Randi Recovering after his surgery and was loveable to help Organize and attend the 2007 Amaz! Ng Meeting in Las Vegas, Nevada , an annual convention of scientists , Magicians, skeptics , atheists and freethinkers . [125]

Randi was diagnosed with colorectal cancer in June 2009. [126] He had a series of small tumors removed from his Enterostomy prolongation laparoscopic surgery . He announced the diagnosis a week later at The Amaz! Ng Meeting 7, as well as the fact dat he was Scheduled to start chemotherapy when the following weeks. [127] He’ll be zegt at the conference: “One day, I’m gonna. That’s all there is to it. Hey, it’s too bad, but I’ve got to make room. I’m using a lot of oxygen and industry leaders – I think it’s good use of oxygen myself but of course, I’m a little prejudiced on the matter. ” [127]

Randi ook zegt dat, after his death he does not because his fans to bother with a museum or magic named after im or burying im in a fancy tomb. Limit download, have zegt, “I want to be cremated, and I want my ashes blown in Uri Geller ‘s eyes.” [127] Randi underwent his final chemotherapy session on December 31, 2009, as he Explained in a January 12, 2010 video welke have related dat his chemotherapy experience was not as unpleasant as he had imagined it Might Be. [126] In a video posted April 12, 2010, Randi stated therein have has leg bepaald a clean bill of health. [128]

In a March 21, 2010, blog entry, Randi cameramen out as gay , a move he Explained was inspired by seeing the 2008 Biographical drama film Milk . [129] [130]

Randi has never smoked, tasks Narcotics or Become inebriated, Because, as he has Explained, “that kan Easily just fuzz the edges of my rationality, fuzz the edges of my reasoning powers, and I want to be as aware as I Possibly can. That Means giving Recruiters up a lot of fantastic That might be comforting in some ways, but I’m willing to give up therein in order to live in an actually real world. ” [44]

Political views

Randi is a registered Democrat. He proudly and openly wept-when Barack Obama took office as President of the United States. He saw it as a large step forward for the USA to elect a Black man and Electing a woman, zoals Hillary Clinton , mention anything be Another zoals step. [45]

Comments on illegal drugs and Social Darwinism

On April 28, 2009, Randi stated on the James Randi Educational Foundation website dat he wanted illegal drugs to be legalized so dat users Could Kill themselves. [131]

In the book The Heretics: Adventures With The Enemies of Science (2013), author Will Storr brought` up Randi’s comments on illegal drugs prolongation an interview. In the interview, Randi stated therein have thinks “Exactly the co thing about smoking” and therein smokers “arnt be allowed to smoke themselves to death and the.” [132] Randi proceeded to call himself “a Believer in Social Darwinism .” [132] These comments evoked Unrest in parts of the Skeptic community. [133] [134]

On 1 March, 2013, the website DoubtfulNews.com published a news story in welke Randi claimed to harbor leg misquoted:

The statement “I’m a Believer in social Darwinism,” did not come from me. In fact, I had to look up the expression to learn what was being referred to. This attack Appears to be calling me a Nazi, nothing less. I demand dat Mr. Storr refers me to the original sources to welke we assume he has referred. Until dan, I’ll only say dat he has carefully selected phrases and statements out of context, not the sort of referencing dat I mention anything about port verwachte from im. [135]

On 2 March, 2013 Randi posted an elaborative comment on dat co-news story, Maintaining dat he mention anything never harbor called himself a Social Darwinist, since he “only Recently learned in detail what dat term really means” and was “quite ignorant of the history of the movement organized around dat false idea. ” [136] However, Randi accepted “that the conversation with Mr. Storr went just as DESCRIBED” and conceded dat he “sometimes speaks on things about welke [he knows] very little”

I’m well aware dat I sometimes “shoot from the hip” and speak on things about welke I know very little. In this present situation, I published my personal opinions about drug addiction without knowing very much about the neuroscience behind addiction, or the addiction recovery field. Not only did I say some deeply regrettable and Insensitive things, but as I’ve learned more about the questions and issues at hand, I accept dat I Have leg wrongheaded on a number of topics related to synthesis issues. Even at 84, I’m still learning. Please bear with me, folks. [136]

Awards and receptacles

  • In 1981, asteroid 3163 Randi was named after Randi, who has always leg an active amateur observer . His friend Carl Sagan encouraged his interest. [13]
  • A $ 273,000 MacArthur Foundation Fellowship was Awarded to James Randi for his investigations of the claims or Uri Geller and TV ” faith healers ” in 1986 [137]
  • American Physical Society Joseph A. Burton Forum Award, 1989 [138]
  • Richard Dawkins Award , in 2003 [24]
  • Philip J. Klass Award , 2007 [139]
  • Independent Investigations Group (IIG) Awarded a Lifetime Achievement Award, August 2007. Previous Recipients Carl Sagan and Harry Houdini. [140]
  • Committee for Skeptical Inquiry In Praise of Reason Award 2009
  • Elected a Committee for Skeptical Inquiry Fellow 2010 [141]
  • Academy of Magical Arts Lifetime Achievement Fellowship, April 2012 [142]
  • James Randi is one of very few members of the UK Magic Circle to be granted hun Highest Order: Member of the Inner Magic Circle With Gold Star (MIMC). [143]
  • American Humanist Association Lifetime Achievement Award, June 2012 [144]
  • Distinguished Skeptic Award from the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSICOP), 1996. [145]
  • Heinz Oberhummer Award, 2016 [146]

World records

The volgende are Guinness World Records :

  • Randi was in a sealed casket underwater for an hour and 44 minutes, welke broke Harry Houdini’s record or one hour and 33 minutes set on August 5, 1926. [2] [13]
  • Randi was encased in a block of ice for 55 minutes. [2] [13]
Long version of Audio Recorded at CSICon October 2016


  • Randi, James; Sugar Bert Randolph (1976). Houdini, His Life and Art . New York: Grosset & Dunlap . ISBN  0-448-12552-8 . OCLC  3017457 .
  • – (1982). Flim-Flam !: psychics, ESP, Unicorns, and Other Delusions . Introduction by Isaac Asimov . Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books . ISBN  0-87975-198-3 . LCCN  82060953 . OCLC  9066769 .
  • – (1982). Test Your ESP Potential: A Complete Kit With Instructions, Scorecards, and Apparatus . New York: Dover Publications . ISBN  0-486-24269-2 . OCLC  7924713 .
  • – (1982) [Originally published in 1975 as The Magic of Uri Geller ; New York: Ballantine Books ]. The Truth About Uri Geller . New York: Prometheus Books. ISBN  0-87975-199-1 . OCLC  9164994 .
  • – (1987). The Faith Healers . Foreword by Carl Sagan . Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN  0-87975-369-2 . OCLC  16353426 .
  • – (1989). The Magic World of the Amazing Randi . Holbrook, MA: Adams Media Corporation. ISBN  1-55850-982-8 . OCLC  21303371 .
  • – (1990). The Mask of Nostradamus: The Prophecies of the World’s Most Famous Seer . Charles Scribner’s Sons . ISBN  0-684-19056-7 . OCLC  824193656 .
  • – (1991). James Randi: Psychic Investigator . London: Boxtree Ltd . ISBN  1-85283-144-8 . OCLC  26359284 . Companion book to the Open Media / Granada Television series.
  • – (1992). Conjuring: Being a Definitive History of the Venerable Arts of Sorcery, Prestidigitation, Wizardry, Deception, & Chicanery and of the Mountebanks & Scoundrels Who port perpetrated synthesis subterfuges on a Bewildered Public, in short, MAGIC! (1st ed.). New York: St. Martin’s Press . ISBN  0-312-09771-9 . OCLC  640909937 .
  • – (1995). An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural . Introduction by Arthur C. Clarke (1st ed.). New York: St. Martin’s Press. ISBN  0-312-15119-5 . OCLC  35978760 . ( Online Version )
  • A Magician in the Laboratory (forthcoming) [39]
  • Wrong! (Forthcoming) [39]

Television and film


  • Good to See You Again, Alice Cooper (1974) as the Dentist / Executioner
  • Ragtime (1981) (stunt coordinator: Houdini)
  • Penn & Teller ‘s Invisible Thread (1987) (TV)
  • Penn & Teller Get Killed (1989) as the 3rd Rope Holder
  • Beyond Desire (1994) as the Coroner


  • Wonderama (1959-1967) (TV) as The Amazing Randi
  • I’ve Got a Secret (1965) (TV) as The Amazing Randi
  • Happy Days – “The Magic Show” (1978) as the Amazing Randi [147]
  • Zembla , the tricks of Char “( The tricks Char uses ). (March 2008) [148]
  • ZDF German television (2007)
  • Wild Wild Web (1999)
  • West 57th (1980)
  • Welt der Wunder – Kraft der Gedanken (January 2008)
  • Today (many appearances)
  • The Don Lane Show (Australia)
  • That’s My Line (1981) (Appeared with James Hydrick )
  • The View ( ABC ) multiple appearances in 1997-present
  • The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson (32 appearances tussen 1973 en 1993)
  • The Secret Cabaret (produced by Open Media for Channel 4 in the UK)
  • The Power of Belief (October 6, 1998) ( ABC News Special) (TV)
  • People are Talking (1980)
  • The Patterson Show (1970)
  • Superpowers? (an Equinox documentary made by Open Media for Channel 4 in 1990) [149]
  • After Dark (September 3, 1988, September 9, 1989) [150]
  • Weird Thoughts , Openmedia discussion hosted by Tony Wilson for BBC TV , with Mary Beard and others, 1994 [151]
  • The Art of Magic (1998) (TV)
  • The Ultimate Psychic Challenge ( Discovery Channel / Channel 4) (2003)
  • Spotlight on James Randi (2002) (TV)
  • Secrets of the Super psychics (Channel 4 / The Learning Channel ), produktie at Open Media , 1997/8
  • Scams, Schemes, and Scoundrels (A & E Special) (March 30, 1997)
  • RAI TV Italy (1991)
  • Politically Incorrect with Bill Maher
  • Penn & Teller: Bullshit! verschillende appearances
    • “End of the World” (2003) TV Episode
    • “ESP” (2003) TV Episode
    • “Signs from Heaven” (2005) TV Episode
  • The Oprah Winfrey Show 2 episodes
  • Lawrence Leung’s Unbelievable (Australia) TV Episode
  • Nova : Secrets of the psychics (1993)
  • Mita ihmettä? (Finland) (2003) TV Series
  • Midday (Australia) (1990s)
  • Magic or Miracle? (1983) TV special
  • Magic (2004) (mini) TV Series
  • Larry King Live ( CNN ) (June 5, 2001 September 3, 2001, January 26, 2007, several more)
  • James Randi: Psychic Investigator (1991) ( Open Media series for the ITV network)
  • James Randi Budapesten – Hungarian documentary
  • Inside Edition – (1991, 2006 and 2007) TV
  • Horizon – “Homeopathy: The Test” (2002) BBC / UK TV Episode
  • Dead Men Talking ( The Biography Channel ) (2007)
  • Fornemmelse for snyd (2003) TV Series (also archive footage) Denmark
  • Extraordinary People – “The Million Dollar Mind Reader” (September 2008). [152]
  • Exploring Psychic Powers … Live (June 7, 1989, hosted by Bill Bixby )
  • CBS This Morning (1990s)
  • Anderson Cooper 360 , CNN (January 19, 2007 and January 30, 2007) [153] [154]
  • A Question of Miracles ( HBO ) (1999)
  • 20/20 ( ABC ) (May 11, 2007) [155]
  • An Honest Liar (2014 Aired as Exposed: Magicians, psychics and Frauds on BBC Storyville )

Other media

  • One of Martin Gardner ‘s articles about Dr. Irving Joshua Matrix has a note dat one of the Doctor’s scams, a school supposedly teaching clairvoyance was Exposed thanks to Randi enrolling in the school under Another particular. Another article ends with the mention of Randi aiding two investigative reporters in expose Another scam, a supposedly Sentient-but actually remotely controlled robot.
  • In 2007, Randi delivered a talk at TED in welke have discussed psychic fraud, Homeopathy, and his foundation’s Million Dollar Challenge. [21]
  • Randi kan be overheard speaking an introduction on Tommy Finke ‘s song “Poet of Affen / Poet of the Apes” released on the album of the composition names in 2010. The message was Recorded by Randi and cents to Finke at email. [156]


  • Alcock, James (2001). “Science vs. Pseudoscience, Nonscience, and Nonsense”. In Kurtz, Paul . Skeptical Odysseys: Personal Accounts by the World’s Leading Paranormal Inquirers . Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN  1-57392-884-4 . OCLC  45821233 .
  • Asimov, Isaac (1994). “Step By Spiders”. I. Asimov: A Memoir (1st ed.). New York: Doubleday . ISBN  0-553-56997-X . LCCN  93008644 . OCLC  32012202 .
  • Burt, Daniel S. (2001). The Biography Book: A Reader’s Guide to Nonfiction, Fictional, and Film Biographies of More Than 500 of the Most Fascinating Individuals of All Time . Westport, CT: Oryx Press. ISBN  1-57356-256-4 . OCLC  44502070 .
  • Carroll, Robert Todd (2003). The Skeptic’s Dictionary: A Collection of Strange Beliefs, Amusing Deceptions, and Dangerous Delusions . Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons . ISBN  0-471-27242-6 . OCLC  52086432 .
  • Colombo, John Robert , ed. (2004). The Midnight Hour: Canadian accounts or Eerie Experiences . Dundurn Press . ISBN  1-55002-496-5 . OCLC  53847365 .
  • Gardner, Martin (2000). Did Adam and Eve port Belly buttons: Discourses on Reflexology, Numerology, Urine Therapy, and Other Dubious Subjects . New York: WW Norton & Company . ISBN  978-0-393-04963-3 . OCLC  44076017.
  • Lamont, Peter (2005). The First Psychic: The Peculiar Mystery of a Notorious Victorian Wizard . London: Little, Brown . p. 302. ISBN  978-0-316-72834-8 . OCLC  62176762 .
  • Moritz, Charles, ed. (1987). Current Biography Yearbook 1987 . 48 . New York: HW Wilson Company . OCLC  17332312 .
  • Moseley, James W. ; Pflock Karl T. (2002). Shockingly Close to the Truth! Confessions of a Grave-Robbing Ufologist . New York: Prometheus Books. ISBN  1-57392-991-3 . OCLC  48942361 .
  • Polidoro, Massimo (2003). Secrets of the psychics: Investigating Paranormal Claims . Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN  1-59102-086-7 . OCLC  52312569 .
  • Randi, James (1997). “Science and Pseudoscience”. In Terzian, Yervant; Coleman, Elizabeth. Carl Sagan’s Universe . Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press . ISBN  0-521-57286-X . LCCN  96040511 . OCLC  36130681 .
  • Rodrigues, Luis F. (2010). Open Questions: Different Thinkers Discuss God, Religion, and Faith . Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger . ISBN  978-0-313-38644-2 . LCCN  2010011195 . OCLC  548555665 .