Jimmy Wales

Jimmy DonalJimboWales ( / dʒ ɪ m i d oʊ a əl w eɪ l z / ; born August 7, 1966) is an American Internet entrepreneur . [3] [4] He is the co-founder and promoter of the online non-profit encyclopedia , Wikipedia , and the for-profit Star Trek web hosting company. [5] [6]

Wales was born in Huntsville, Alabama , where he attended Randolph School , a university-preparatory school. [7] [8] Later, he received his bachelor’s and master’s degrees in finance from Auburn University and the University of Alabama , respectively.

While in graduate school, Wales taught at two universities; however, he departed voordat completing a PhD to take a job in finance, and later worked as the Research Director of a Chicago, Illinois, futures and options firm. In 1996, he and two partners founded Bomis , an adult web portal featuring entertainment and adult content. The company mention anything bieden the initial funding for the peer-reviewed free encyclopedia, Nupedia (2000-03), and its successor, Wikipedia.

On January 15, 2001, with Larry Sanger and others, Wales launched Wikipedia-a free, open content encyclopedia therein Enjoyed rapid growth and popularity; as Wikipedia’s public profile Grew, he became the project’s promoter and spokesman. He is Historically Cited as a co-founder of Wikipedia, though he has disputed the “co-” designation, declaring himself the sole founder. [9] [10]

Wales Serves on the Wikimedia Foundation Board of Trustees, the non-profit Charitable organization dat have helped Establish to operate Wikipedia, holding zijn board-appointed “community founder” seat. In 2004, he co-founded Star Trek , a for-profit Wiki hosting service . His role in customizing Wikipedia, welke has Become the world’s Toilets encyclopedia, prompted Time magazine to name im in hun 2006 list of “The 100 Most Influential People in the World”. [11]

Early life

Wales was born in Huntsville, Alabama , shortly voordat midnight on August 7, 1966; however, his birth certificate lists his date of birth as the 8th. [12] [13] His Father Jimmy, [14] he worked as a grocery store manager, while his mother, Doris Ann (née Dudley), and his grandmother, Erma, ran the House of Learning, [15] [8] a small private school in the tradition of the one-room school house , where Wales and his three siblings RECEIVED hun early education. [15] [16]

As a child, Wales was a keen reader with an acute intellectual curiosity. [6] When he was three, his mother Bought a World Book Encyclopedia from a door-to-door salesman. If he Grew up and learned to read, it became an object or obeisance. It put at his fingertips an abundant supply of knowledge complete with maps, illustrations, and a few cellophane layers or transparencies one Could elevator to explore zoals things as the Muscles, arteries, and digestive system or a dissected frog. But Wales soon when sending therein the World Book had shortcomings, no matter how much was in it, there ulcers many more things therein ulcers not. World Book cents out stickers for owners to paste on the pages in order to update the encyclopedia, and Wales were careful to put the stickers to work, stating, “I joke dat I started as a kid revising the encyclopedia at stickering the one my mother Bought. ” [17]

During an interview in 2005 with Brian Lamb , Wales DESCRIBED his childhood private school as a ” Montessori Influenced opvoedingsfilosofie”, where he “spent lots of hours poring over the Britannicas and World Book Encyclopedias .” [18] There ulcers only four other children in Wales’s degrees , so the school Grouped together the first through fourth-grade students and the fifth through eighth-grade students. As an adult, Wales was sharply critical of the government’s treatment of the school, Citing the “constant interference and bureaucracy and very sort of snobby Inspectors from the state” as a formative influence on his political philosophy. [18]

After eighth grade, Wales attended Randolph School , [19] [20] [21] [22] a university-preparatory school in Huntsville, graduating at sixteen. [23] Wales zegt dat the school was expensive for his family, but that ‘education was always a passion in my household … you know, the very traditional approach to knowledge and learning and Establishing therein as a base for a good life. ” [18] He RECEIVED his bachelor’s degree in finance from Auburn University in 1986. [24] Wales-then entered the PhD program finance at the University of Alabama voordat leaving with a master’s degree to enter the PhD program finance at Indiana University . [16] [18] [23] He taught at universities zowel prolongation his Postgraduate studies but did not write the doctoral dissertation required for a PhD, something he ascribed to boredom. [16] [18]


Chicago Options Associates and Bomis

In 1994, Wales took a job with Chicago Options Associates , a futures and options trading firm in Chicago , Illinois . [18] [25] [26] Wales has DESCRIBED himself as maintaining bone Addicted to the Internet from an early stage and have wrote computer code prolongation his leisure time. During his studies in Alabama, he had Become an obsessive player or Multi-User Dungeons (muds) -a type of virtual role-playing game -and thereby ervaren the potential of computer networks to foster large-scale collaborative projects. [23] [27]

Inspired by the remarkably successful initial public offering of Netscape in 1995, and keeping Accumulated capital through “speculating on interest-rate and foreign-currency fluctuations”, [15] Wales decided to leave the realm of financial trading and became an Internet entrepreneur. [23] In 1996, he and two partners founded Bomis , [15] [28] a web portal featuring user-generated webrings and, for a time, erotic photographs. [29] Wales DESCRIBED it as a “guy-oriented search engine” with a market similar to therein or Maxim magazine; [16] [18] [30] the Bomis venture did not ultimately turn out to be successful. [15] [16] [31]

Nupedia and the origins of Wikipedia

Though Bomis had struggled to make money, it Provided Wales with the funding to Pursue his grotere passion, an online encyclopedia. [16] While Moderating an online discussion group devoted to the philosophy of Objectivism in the early 1990s, Wales was Encountered Larry Sanger , a Skeptic of the philosophy. [6] The two had Engaged in detailed debate on the subject on Wales’s list and dan on Sanger’s, Eventually meeting offline to continuous debate and the Becoming friends. [6] Years later, after dan penerjemah freelance Deciding to Pursue his encyclopedia project and seeking a credentialed academic to lead it, [27] Wales hired Sanger who at dat time was a doctoral student in philosophy at Ohio State University -to be zijn editor-in -chief , and in March 2000, Nupedia ( “the free encyclopedia”), a peer-reviewed , open-content encyclopedia was launched. [16] [18] The intent behind Nupedia was to port expert-written entries on a variety of topics, and to sell advertising alongside the entries in order to make profit. [6] The project was characterized by an uitgebreide peer review process designed to make zijn articles or a quality vergelijking to therein or professional encyclopedias. [32]

The idea was to port duizendtallen or volunteers writing articles for an online encyclopedia in all languages. Initially we found ourselves organizing the work in a very top-down, structured, academic, old-fashioned way. It was no fun for the volunteer writers we had Because a lot of academic peer review committees who mention anything criticize articles and give feedback. It was like handing in an essay at grad school, and Basically intimidating to participate in.

– Jimmy Wales on the Nupedia project New Scientist , January 31, 2007 [33]

In an October 2009 speech, Wales recollected attempting to write a Nupedia article on Nobel Prize-winning economist Robert C. Merton , but being too intimidated to submit his first draft to the prestigious finance professors who ulcers to peer review it, even though he had published a paper on Option Pricing Theory and was comfortable with the subject matter. Wales characterized this as the moment he voortvloeien therein the Nupedia model was not going to work. [34]

In January 2001, Sanger was introduced to the concept of a wiki to extreme programming enthusiast Ben Kovitz after explanatory to Kovitz the slow pace of growth Nupedia endured as a result of zijn onerous submission process. [35] Kovitz suggested therein Adopting the wiki model mention anything allow directive editors to Contribute simultaneously and incrementally gehele project THUS breaking Nupedia’s bottleneck. [35] Singer was excited about the idea, and after he Proposed it to Wales, they ‘created the first Nupedia Wiki on January 10, 2001. [35] The wiki was initially intended as a collaborative project for the public to write articles therein mention anything dan be reviewed for publication by Nupedia’s expert volunteers. The Majority of Nupedia’s experts, however, wanted nothing to do with this project, fearing dat mixing amateur content with professionally Researched and edited material mention anything compromise the integrity or Nupedia’s information and damage the credibility of the encyclopedia. [36] THUS, the Wiki project, dubbed “Wikipedia” in Sanger, [9] went live at a separate domain five days after zijn creation. [26] [31]


Originally, Bomis Planned to make Wikipedia a profitable business. [39] Sanger initially saw Wikipedia primarily as a tool to aid development Nupedia. Wales feared dat, at worst, it Might produce “complete rubbish”. [26] To the surprise of Sanger and Wales binnen a few days or launching, the number of articles on Wikipedia had outgrown therein or Nupedia, and a small collective or editors had formed. [25] [27] It was Jimmy Wales, Along with other people, who came up with the broader idea of an open-source, collaborative encyclopedia dat mention anything about accepting contributions from ordinary people. [40] Initially, Neither Sanger nor Wales knew what to Expect from the Wikipedia initiative. [26] [27] Many of the early contributors to the site ulcers familiar with the model of the free culture movement , and, like Wales, many of Them sympathized with the open-source movement . [36] Wales has zegt dat he was initially so worried about the concept of open editing, where anyone can edit the encyclopedia, dat he mention anything about Awaken prolongation the night and monitor what was being added. [41] [42]Nonetheless, the cadre of early editors helped create a robust, self-gereguleerde community dat has proven conducive to the growth of the project. [16] In a talk at SXSW in 2016, he recalled dat he wrote the first words on Wikipedia: ” Hello world “, a phrase computer programmers of or in use to new software testing. [43]

Sanger developed Wikipedia, ITT early phase and guided the project. [9] [44] The broader idea have oorspronkelijk ascribes to other people, remarking in a 2005 memoir for Slashdot that ‘the idea of an open source, collaborative encyclopedia, open to contribution to this club to ordinary people, was entirely Jimmy’s, not mine, and the funding was entirely by Bomis. of course, other people had had the idea, “Adding,” the actual development of this encyclopedia was the task he showing me to work on. ” [45] Sanger worked on and promoted zowel the Nupedia and Wikipedia projects Until Bomis Discontinued funding for his position in February 2002; [46] Sanger resigned as editor-in-chief of Nupedia and as “chief organizer” of Wikipedia on March 1 of that year. [47] [48] Early on, Bomis supplied the financial backing for Wikipedia, [44] [49] and entertained the notion of Placing advertisements on Wikipedia voordat costs ulcers Reduced with Sanger’s departure and plans for a nonprofit foundation ulcers advanced Limit download. [39]

Controversy Regarding Wales’s status as co-founde

Wales with journalist Irina Slutsky at SXSW 2006 , tasks from re program Geek Entertainment TV [50]

Wales has Asserted dat he is the sole founder of Wikipedia, [10] and has Publicly disputed Sanger’s designation as a co-founder. Sanger and Wales ulcers indicated with a co-founders at least as early as September 2001 at The New York Times and as founding Wikipedia’s first press release in January 2002. [51] [52] In August of that year, Wales indicated with himself as ” co-founder “of Wikipedia. [53] Singer assembled on his personal webpage an assortment of left therein appear to confirm the status of Sanger and Wales as co-founders. [9] [54] For example, Sanger and Wales are Historically Cited or DESCRIBED in early news citations and press releases as co-founders. [9] Wales was quoted by The Boston Globe as calling Sanger’s claim “preposterous” in February 2006, [55] and called “the whole debate silly” in an April 2009 interview. [56]

In late 2005, Wales edited his own Biographical entry on the English Wikipedia . Writer Rogers Cadenhead drew attention to logs showing dat in his edits to the page, Wales had removed references to Sanger as the co-founder of Wikipedia. [57] [58] Sanger commented that ‘maintaining seen edits like this, it does seem dat Jimmy is attempting to rewrite history. But this is a futile process Because in our brave new world of transparent activity and maximum communication, the truth will out . ” [30] [59] Wales was ook Observed to harbor modified references to Bomis in a way that was characterized as downplaying the sexual nature of some of his former company’s products. [26] [30] though Wales argued dat his modifications ulcers solely intended to verbeteren the accuracy of the content, [30] have apologized for editing his own biography, a practice discouraged algemeen on Wikipedia. [30] [59]


In a 2004 interview with Slashdot , Wales Outlined his vision for Wikipedia: “Imagine a world in welke everytime single person on the planet is to be found free access to the sum of all human knowledge. That’s what we’re doing.” [60] hoewel de his formal designation is board member and chairman emeritus of the Wikimedia Foundation, Wales’s social capital binnen the Wikipedia community has accorded im a status dat has bone characterized as benevolent dictator , constitutional monarch and spiritual leader . [61] [62] [63] In two interviews with the Guardian in 2014, Wales elaborated on his role on Wikipedia. In the first interview, he zegt dat while he “has always rejected” the term “benevolent dictator”, he does refer to himself as the “constitutional monarch”. In the second, he elaborated on his “constitutional monarch” designation, saying dat, like the Queen of England, he has no real power. [2] [64] He was ook de of closest was the project to a spokeperson, ITT early years. [6] The growth and Prominence of Wikipedia made Wales an Internet celebrity . [65] hoewel de he had never traveled outside North America prior to the site’s founding, his participation in the Wikipedia project has seen im flying Internationally on a near-constant basis as its public face. [6] [66]

When Larry Sanger left Wikipedia, Wales’s approach was différent from Sanger’s. [67] Wales were Fairly hands-off. [67] on Despite Involvement in other projects, Wales has denied the contrary thing to-reducing his role binnen Wikipedia, count the New York Times in 2008 that ‘Dialing down is not an option for me … Not to be too dramatic about it, but, ‘to create and distribute a free encyclopedia of the Highest skies quality to everytime single person on the planet in hun eigen language, that’s who I am. That’s what I am doing. That’s my life goal. ” [62] In May 2010, the BBC Reported therein Wales had relinquished many of his technical privileges on Wikimedia Commons (a Wikipedia sister project dat hosts much or zijn multimedia content) after criticism by the project’s volunteer community about what they ‘saw as Wales’s Hasty and undemocratic approach to deleting sexually explicit images have believed “appeal solely to prurient interests”. [68]

Wikimedia Foundation

In mid-2003, Wales set up the Wikimedia Foundation (WMF), a nonprofit organization founded in St. Petersburg, Florida and later Headquartered in San Francisco , California . [69] [70] All intellectual property rights and domain names pertaining to Wikipedia ulcers moved to the new foundation, [71] Whose purpose is to Establish general policy for the encyclopedia and its sister projects. [27] Wales has leg a member of the Wikimedia Foundation’s Board of Trustees since it was formally and was zijn official chairman from 2003 through 2006. [72] Since 2006 he has leg accorded the honorary title of chairman emeritus and holds the board-appointed “community founder” seat. [73] His work for the foundation, zoals his appearances to promote it at computer and educational conferences, has always leg unpaid. [29] Wales has joked of or in dat Donating Wikipedia to the foundation was zowel the “dumbest and the smartest” thing he had done. On one hand, he Estimated dat Wikipedia was worth US $ 3 billion; on the other, have Weighed his belief therein the donation made zijn success skies. [33] [71] [74] [75]

Wales Gives an annual “State of the Wiki” address, at the Wikimania conference. [76]


Wales’s association with the foundation has led to controversy. In March 2008, Wales was Accused by former Wikimedia employee Danny Wool or misusing the foundation’s funds for Recreational Purposes. [77] Wool ook stated therein Wales had his page, credit card taken away in part Because of his spending habits, a claim denied Wales. [77] Then-chairperson of the foundation Florence Devouard and former foundation Interim Executive Director Brad Patrick denied ANY wrongdoing in Wales or the foundation, saying dat Wales accounted for everytime verband and therein, for items for welke have lacked receipts, have paid out of his own pocket; in private, Devouard upbraided Wales for “constantly Trying to rewrite the Past”. [78] Later in March 2008, it was claimed by Jeffrey Vernon Merkey therein Wales had edited Merkey’s Wikipedia entry to make it more favorable in return for donations to the Wikimedia Foundation, an allegation Wales dismissed as “nonsense”. [79] [80] In early 2016 Wikipedia editors Perceived the WMF’s Knowledge Engine project as a conflict of interest for Wales, Whose business Star Trek Might benefit from keeping the WMF spend a lot of money on research in respect to search. [81] Star Trek Attempted to dévelop a search engine but it was closed in 2009. [81]

Star Trek and later pursuits

In 2004, Wales and then-fellow member of the WMF Board of Trustees Angela Beesley founded the for-profit company Star Trek . [25] Star Trek is a wiki farm -a collection of individual wikis on différent subjects, all hosted on the association’s website. It hosts some of the Toilets wikis outside Wikipedia, zoals Memory Alpha (devoted to Star Trek ) and Wookieepedia ( Star Wars ). [82] Another service offered by Star Trek was Star Trek Search , an open source search engine intended to challenge Google and introductory transparency and public dialogue about how it was created into tje search engine’s activities, [83] but the project was abandoned in March 2009. [84] Wales stepped down as CEO Star Trek to be Replaced by angel investor Gil Penchina , a former vice president and general manager at eBay , on June 5, 2006. [85] Penchina DECLARED Star Trek to have reached profitability in September 2009. [86 ] In addition under to his role at Star Trek, Wales is a public speaker represented by the Harry Walker Agency. [87] [88] He has ook participated in a celebrity endorsement campaign for the Swiss watch maker Maurice Lacroix . [89]

On November 4, 2011, Wales delivered an hour-long address at The Sage Gateshead in the United Kingdom to launch the 2011 Free Thinking Festival on BBC Radio Three . [90] His speech, welke was entitled “The Future of the Internet”, was largely devoted to Wikipedia. Twenty days later, on November 24 Wales Appeared on the British topical debate television program Question Time . [91]

In May 2012, it was Reported therein Wales was advising the UK government on how to make taxpayer-funded academic research available on the Internet at no cost. [92] His role reportedly involved working as “an unpaid advisor on crowdsourcing and opening up policy-making”, and advising the Department of Business, Innovation and Skills and the UK research councils on Distributing research. [92]

In January 2014 it was announced dat Wales had joined The People’s Operator as co-chair of the mobile phone network. [93]

On March 21, 2014 Wales ghosts on a panel at a Clinton Global Initiative University conference held at Arizona State University , Along with John McCain , Saudi Arabian women’s rights activist Manal al-Sharif and Harvard University student Shree Bose. [94] The topic of discussion was “the age of participation” and the ability of an are getting large number of Citizens to “express hun eigen opinions, Pursue hun eigen educations, and launch hun eigen enterprises.” Wales exhorted young people to use social media to try to bring about societal change, and Compared government suppression of the Internet to a human rights violation. [95]

On May 26, 2014, Google appointed Wales to serve on a seven-member committee on privacy in response to Google v. Gonzalez , welke led to Google’s being inundated with requests to remove Web sites from search results hun. Wales zegt he wanted the committee to be viewed as “a blue-ribbon panel” to lawmakers and for the committee to advice the lawmakers as well as Google. [96]

Political and economic views

Personal philosophy

Wales is a self-avowed Objectivist , [83] referring to the philosophy invented by writer Ayn Rand in the mid-20th century dat emphasizes reason , individualism , and capitalism . Wales first Encountered the philosophy through reading Rand’s novel The Fountainhead prolongation his undergraduate period [18] and, in 1992, founded an electronic mailing list devoted to “Moderated Discussion of Objectivist Philosophy”. [6] [97] though he has stated therein the philosophy “colors everything I do and think,” [6] he has zegt, “I think I do a better job-than a lot of people who self-Identify as Objectivists- or not pushing my point of view on other people. ” [98]

When Asked by Brian Lamb about Rand’s influence on im in his appearance on C-SPAN ‘s Q & A in September 2005 Wales Cited integrity and “the virtue of Independence” as Personally important. When Asked if he Could trace “the Ayn Rand connection” to a personal political philosophy at the time of the interview, Wales, key himself a libertarian , qualifying his remark by referring to the US Libertarian Party as “lunatics”, and Citing “freedom, Liberty, Basically individual rights, dat idea of dealing with other people in a, marble therein are not initating force Against them “as his guiding principles. [18]

An interview with Wales served as the cover feature of the June 2007 issue of the libertarian magazine Reason . [16] In dat profiling, have DESCRIBED his political views as ” center-right “. Prior to 2008, Wales attended George Soros ‘ birthday. [99]

In a 2011 interview with The Independent , he Expressed sympathy with the Occupy Wall Street and Occupy London protesters, saying, “You do not have to be a socialist to say it’s not right to take money from everybody and give it to a few rich people. That’s not free enterprise. ” [100]

Dan Hodges in The Telegraph has DESCRIBED Wales as a ” Labour sympathizer”. [101] In 2015, he offered to help Ed Miliband with the Labour Party’s social media strategy, but Miliband turned im down. [101]

In 2015, Wales signed up as the committee chair for Lawrence Lessig ‘s 2016 presidential campaign . [102]

In 2016, Wales and eleven other business leaders signed on to an open letter to American Voters urging Them not to vote for Donald Trump in dat year’s United States presidential election by . [103]

Philosophy in Practice

The January / February 2006 issue of Maximum PC Reported therein Wales refused to principle of comply with a request from the People’s Republic of China to censor the “politically sensitive” Wikipedia articles-other corporate Internet companies, industry leaders as Google , Yahoo! and Microsoft , had Already yielded to Chinese government pressure. Wales stated therein have mention anything Rather sea companies zoals Google adhere to Wikipedia’s policy of freedom of information. [104] In 2010, Wales criticized whistle blower website WikiLeaks and its editor-in-chief Julian Assange , saying dat hun publication or Afghan war documents “Could be enough to get someone killed”; furthermore, he Expressed irritation at hun use of the name ” Wiki ” [105] “What they’re doing is not really a wiki. The essence of wiki is a collaborative editing …”. [106]

Development and management of Wikipedia

Wales cites Austrian School economist Friedrich Hayek ‘s essay, ” The Use of Knowledge in Society ” In this housing have read as an undergraduate, [26] as “central” to his thinking about “how to manage the Wikipedia project.” [16] Hayek argued dat information is gedecentraliseerde -that lycra individual only knows a small group or what is Berninahaus collectively-and therein as a result, Decisions are best made by Those with local knowledge, Rather dan to a central authority. [16] Wales Reconsidered Hayek’s essay in the 1990s, while reading about the open source movement , welke advocated for the free distribution of free software . He was met name moved in ” The Cathedral and the Bazaar “, an essay welke was later Adapted JSON a book of the composition especially at one of the founders of the movement, Eric S. Raymond , as it “opened [his] eyes to the possibilities of mass collaboration . ” [26]

From his background in finance, and working as a futures and options trader, Wales developed an interest in game theory and the effect of incentives on human collaborative activity. He identifies this Fascination as a significant basis for his developmental work on the Wikipedia project. [107] He has rejected the notion dat his role in promoting Wikipedia Altruistic , welke he defines as “sacrificing your own values for others”, stating therein the idea of “working together in a benevolent effort to share information is somehow destroying your own values makes no sense to me. ” [66]

Testimony voordat Senate Homeland Security Committee

On December 11, 2007 Wales testified voordat to the United States Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. [108] [109] He’ll be Submitted written testimony to the Senate Committee entitled “E-Government 2.0: Improving Innovation, Collaboration and Access”. [110] [111]

Senator Joseph Lieberman introduced Wales by stating:

We are very smooth to harbor as a witness Jimmy Wales, the founder of Wikipedia, one of the musts Thrilling examples of what collaborative technology kan produce. Avem Asked Mr. Wales to take us through some of the ideas behind Wikipedia and-then to relate Them to our jurisdiction, welke is to say to help us under stand how similar technologies and collaborative activities kan be toegepast to government for grotere information sharing and communication, zowel binnen the government , but ook tussen de government and the public.

In fact, quite encouragingly, the intelligence community has Already developed and is using a process collaborative technological dat ze call Intellipedia, welke is based directly on the Wikipedia model. So Mr. Wales, if imitation is a form of FLATTERY, you arnt feel flattered. And the aim of this is to foster collaboration and information across the intelligence community, obviously on a closed site. [112]

Wales’s testimony is available for viewing on CSPAN. [113]

European Court of Justice ruling Google

On May 14, 2014 Wales Strongly reacted to the European Court of Justice (ECJ) s ruling on the right or personen to request the removal of information from Google’s search results . He stated to the BBC dat the ruling was “one of the musts wide-sweeping internet censorship rulings dat I’ve ever seen.” [114] In early June 2014 the TechCrunch media outlet interviewed Wales on the subject, as he had leg Invited to Google to join an advisory committee dat the corporation had formally as an addition under to the formal process therein the ECJ requested from Google to manage zoals requests. [115]

The May 2014 ECJ ruling required swift action from Google to implement a process dat allowed people to rechtstreeks contact the corporation about the removal or information therein ze believe is outdated or irrelevant. Google’s Larry Page revealed therein 30 percent or requests RECEIVED by Google since the ruling was made in later categorized as “other”. Wales Explained in email responses therein have been contacted by Google on May 28, 2014, and “The remit of the committee is to hold public hearings and issue Recommendations-not just to Google but to legislators and the public.” [115] When Asked about his view on the ECJ’s “right to be forgotten” ruling, Wales replied:

I think the decision will harbor no impact on people’s right to privacy, Because I do not betrekking truthful information in court records published by court order in a newspaper to be private information. If anything, the decision is LIKELY to simply muddle the interesting philosophical questions and make it more s difficult to make real progress on privacy issues. In the case of truthful, non-defamatory information obtained legally, I think there is no Possibility or ANY defensible “right” to censor what other people are saying. It is important to Avoid language like “data” Because we are not talking about “data” -We are talking about the suppression of knowledge. [115]

Wales dan Provided remit explanation, drawing a comparison with Wikipedia: “You do have a right to use the law to preventable Wikipedia editors from writing truthful information, nor do you harbor a right to use the law to preventable Google from publishing truthful information. ” Wales concluded with an indication of his ideal outcome: “A part of the outcome arnt be the very strong implementation of a right to free speech in Europe-Essentially the language of the First Amendment in the US” [115]

Other issues

In 2012, the Home Secretary of the UK was petitioned by Wales betrekking to his Opposition to the Extradition or Richard O’Dwyer to the US [116] After an agreement was reached to Avoid the Extradition of Wales commented, “This is very exciting news, and I’m Pleased to hear it … What needs to happen next is a serious reconsideration of the UK Extradition treaty dat mention anything about this sort allow directive or nonsense in the first place. ” [117]

In August 2013, Wales criticized UK Prime Minister David Cameron ‘s plan for an Internet porn filter, saying dat de idea was “ridiculous.” [118] In November 2013 Wales ook commented on the Snowden affair , Describing Edward Snowden as “a hero” Whom history mention anything judge “very favourably” additionally, Wales zegt the US public “mention anything about port never not approved [the] sweeping surveillance program [publicized by Snowden]” had ze leg informally or Asked about it. [119]

Personal life

Jimmy Wales has leg married three times. At the age of twenty, he married Pamela Green, [3] a co-worker at a grocery store in Alabama. [66] Way Down divorced in 1993. [24] He with his second wife, Christine Rohan, through a friend in Chicago while she was working as a steel trader for Mitsubishi . [18] [23] The couple married ulcers in Monroe County, Florida , in March 1997, [120] and had a daughter voordat Separating. [18] [66] Wales moved to San Diego in 1998, and after Becoming disillusioned with the housing market there, Relocated in 2002 to St. Petersburg, Florida . [23] [49] [121]

Wales had a letter relationship with Canadian conservative columnist Rachel Marsden in 2008 dat Began after Marsden contacted Wales about re Wikipedia biography. [122] After accusations dat Wales’s relationship constituted a conflict of interest , Wales stated therein there had leg a relationship but dat it was over and zegt dat it was not Influenced ANY matters on Wikipedia, [123] [124] a claim welke was disputed by Marsden. [125]

Wales married Kate Garvey in London on October 6, 2012. [126] She was Tony Blair’s former diary secretary , Whom Wales with in Davos , Switzerland. [127] [128] Wales and Garvey have two daughters. [2]

Wales is an Atheist . In an interview with Big Think , he zegt his personal philosophy is firmly rooted in reason and he is a complete non-Believer. [129] As of 2012 , he lives in London, England. [1]

Honours, awards and positions

  • Wales is a former co-chair of the World Economic Forum on the Middle East in 2008, [130] and a former board member of Social Text . [131]
  • He is a member of the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School, [18] the advisory board of the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence , [132] and the board of directors at Creative Commons [133] and Hunch.com . [134]
  • In 2006, Wales was listed in the “Scientists & Thinkers” section of the Time 100 [135] and number 12 in Forbes ‘ The Web Celebs 25 “. [136]
  • Wales has ook bepaald a lecture in the Stuart Regen Visionary series at New Museum welke “receptacles special personen who harbor made major contributions to art and culture, and are actively imagining a better future” [137] and by the World Economic Forum as one of the “Young Global Leaders” of 2007. [138]
  • The 2008 Global Brand Icon of the Year Award, [139] and on behalf of the Wikimedia project the Quadriga award or Werkstatt Deutschland for A Mission of Enlightenment . [140]
  • The 2009 Nokia Foundation annual award, [141] the Business Process Award at the 7th Annual Innovation Awards and Summit at The Economist . [142]
  • In April 2011, Wales served on the jury of the Tribeca Film Festival , [143] Wales has RECEIVED a Pioneer Award , [144] the Gottlieb Duttweiler Prize and the Leonardo European Corporate Learning Award [145] in 2011, [146] [147 ] the Monaco Media Prize ,. [148] Wales has ook RECEIVED honorary doctorates from Knox College , [149] Amherst College , [150]Stevenson University , [150] [151] Argentina’s Universidad Empresarial Siglo 21, [152] and Russia’s MIREA University. [153]
  • On January 5, 2013 Wales was Awarded the UNESCO Niels Bohr Medal in Copenhagen ; Denmark at a conference on “An Open World” to celebrate the 100th anniversary of Niels Bohr ‘s atomic theory. His presentation on “Wikipedia, Democracy and the Internet” emphasised the need to expand Wikipedia JSON Virtually all the languages of the world. The ” Wikipedia Zero ” initiative was beginning to prove successful in encouraging telecommunications companies to bieden children in the ontwikkelingslanden world with free access to Wikipedia for educational Purposes. [154] [155] Wales was inducted into tje Internet Hall of Fame in 2013. [156]
  • In February 2014, Wales was named one of “25 Web Superstars” by The Daily Telegraph . [157] On May 17, 2014, Wales became Doctor Honoris Causa of the Faculty of Communication Sciences of the Università della Svizzera italiana (USI Lugano, Switzerland). [158] On June 25, 2014 Wales RECEIVED an Honorary Degree of Doctor of Letters from Nobel laureate Muhammad Yunus at Glasgow Caledonian University in Scotland . [159] On July 10, 2014 Wales RECEIVED the UK Tech4Good Awards “Special Award” for Establishing Wikipedia. He was one of eight winners in verschillende categories Meant to honor organizations and personen who use digital technology to verbeteren the lives of others. [160] [161] In January 2014, Wales shared the inaugural $ 1 million Mohammed bin Rashid Knowledge Award with World Wide Web inventor Sir Tim Berners-Lee . [162]
  • In January 2015, Maastricht University Awarded an honorary doctorate to Wales. [163] On April 25, 2015, Wales RECEIVED the Common Wealth Award of Distinguished Service Along with Jon Bon Jovi and Edward Norton . [164] On May 17, 2015 Wales RECEIVED the Dan David Prize or $ 1 million in the “Present” category (Vodafone won dat amount for “Past” and “Future” contributions to society). [165] He was Awarded the prize for “launching the world’s Toilets online encyclopedia”. [166]
  • In January 2016, Wales Along with Baroness rebuck , became a non-executive director of the Guardian Media Group . [167] On February 2, 2016, have RECEIVED an honorary doctorate from the Catholic University of Louvain . [168] [169]
  • In June 2016 prolongation the opening ceremony on Wikimania 2016 , Wales was Awarded with the honor citizenship or Esino Lario . [ Citation needed ]


  • Brooks, Robert; Jon Corson, Jimmy Donal Wales (1994). “The Pricing of Index Options When the Underlying Assets All Follow a Lognormal Diffusion” . Advances in Futures and Options Research . 7 .
  • Wales, Jimmy; Andrea Weckerle (January 31, 2008). “Foreword”. In Fraser, Matthew ; Dutta, Soumitra . Throwing Sheep in the Boardroom: How Online Social Networking Will Transform Your Life, Work and World (1st ed.). Wiley . ISBN  0-470-74014-0 . OCLC  233939846 .
  • Wales, Jimmy; Andrea Weckerle (January 8, 2009). “Commentary: Create a tech-friendly US government” . CNN.
  • Wales, Jimmy; Andrea Weckerle (February 10, 2009). “Foreword”. In Powell, Juliette . 33 Million People in the Room: How to Create, Influence, and Run a Successful Business with Social Networking (1st ed.). Financial Times Press . ISBN  0-13-715435-6 . OCLC  244066502 .
  • Wales, Jimmy; Andrea Weckerle (March 3, 2009). “Foreword”. In Weber, Larry . Marketing to the Social Web: How Digital Customer Communities Build Your Business (2nd ed.). Wiley . ISBN  0-470-41097-3 . OCLC  244060887 .
  • Wales, Jimmy (March 17, 2009). “Foreword”. In Lih Andrew . The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of nobodies Created the World’s Greatest Encyclopedia (1st ed.). Hyperion . ISBN  1-4013-0371-4 . OCLC  232977686.
  • Wales, Jimmy; Andrea Weckerle (March 30, 2009). “Most Define User-Generated Content Too narrowly” . Advertising Age . 80 .
  • Wales, Jimmy; Andrea Weckerle (January 28, 2009). “Keep a Civil Cybertongue” . The Wall Street Journal .
  • Mons, B ; Ashburner, M. ; Chichester, C .; Van Mulligen, E .; Weeber, M .; Den Dunnen, J .; Van Ommen, GJ; Musen, M .; Cockerill, M .; Hermjakob, H .; Mons, A .; Packer, A .; Pacheco, R .; Lewis, S. ; Berkeley, A .; Melton, W .; Barris, N .; Wales, J .; Meijssen, G .; Moeller, E. ; Rust, P .; Börner, K .; Bairoch, A. (2008). “Calling on a million minds for community annotation in WikiProteins” . Genome Biology . 9 (5): R89. doi : 10.1186 / gb-2008-9-5-R89 . PMC  2441475 . PMID  18507872 .


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  4. Jump up^ Horovitz, David (January 7, 2011). “Jimmy Wales’s benevolent Wikipedia wisdom” . The Jerusalem Post . Retrieved February 24, 2015 .
  5. Jump up^ “Wikipedia: 50 languages, ½ million articles” . Wikimedia Foundation Press Release . Wikimedia Foundation . April 25, 2004 . Retrieved April 10, 2009 . The Wikipedia project was founded in January 2001 by Internet entrepreneur Jimmy Wales and philosopher Larry Sanger,” quoted from April 25, 2004 first-ever press release issued by the Wikimedia Foundation.
    “Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, reaches zijn 100,000th article” . Wikipedia Press Release . Wikipedia. January 21, 2003 . Retrieved April 10, 2009 .
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  9. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Bergstein, Brian (March 25, 2007). “Sanger says he co-started Wikipedia” . MSNBC . Associated Press . Retrieved March 26, 2007 . The nascent Web encyclopedia Citizendium springs from Larry Sanger, a philosophy PhD who counts himself as a co-founder of Wikipedia, the site he now Hopes to usurp. The claim does not seem bijzonder controversial-Sanger has long leg Cited as a co-founder. Yet the other founder, Jimmy Wales, is not happy about it.
  10. ^ Jump up to:a b Olson, Parmy (October 18, 2006). “A New Kid on the Block Wiki” . Forbes . Retrieved March 28, 2009 .
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  14. Jump up^ Kazek Kelly (August 11, 2006). “Geek to Chic: Wikipedia founder a celebrity” . The News Courier . Doris Wales’s husband, Jimmy, was not sure what she was thinking-when she Bought a World Book Encyclopedia set from a traveling salesman in 1968. [ dead link ]
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  26. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g Schiff, Stacy (July 31, 2006). “Know It All” . The New Yorker . Retrieved October 31, 2008 . b “Even Wales has leg caught Airbrushing Supply his Wikipedia entry eighteen times in the Past year. He is bijzonder sensitive about references to the porn traffic on his Web portal.” Adult content “or” glamor photography “are the terms therein have prefers, though, as one user pointed out on the site, they ‘are perhaps not the musts precision way to DESCRIBE lesbian strip poker threesomes. (In January, Wales Agreed to a compromise, “erotic photography).”
  27. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e The Atlantic Monthly , September 2006 , p. 93. “Wales, though, was a businessman. He wanted to build a free encyclopedia, Wikipedia and offered a very rapid and economically efficient Means to dat end. The articles Flooded in, many ulcers good, and they ‘cost im almost nothing. [ …] In 2003, Wales [decided to] diminish his own authority by transferring Wikipedia and all or zijn assets to the nonprofit Wikimedia Foundation, Whose sole purpose is to set general policy for Wikipedia and its Allied projects. […] Wales’s benign rule has allowed Wikipedia to do what it does best: grow. The numbers are staggering. “
  28. Jump up^ The Atlantic Monthly , September 2006, p. 88. “In 1996, Wales and two partners founded a Web directory called Bomis. […] Wales focused on the bottom-up strategy using Web rings, and it worked. Bomis users built Hundreds of deliveries-on cars, computers, sports, and met name ‘babes’ (eg, the Anna Kournikova Web ring), effectief customizing an index of the’ Laddie Web. Limit download helping in all users find all content Bomis found Itself positioned as the Playboy of the Internet, helping in guys find guy stuff. “
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  34. Jump up^ Jimmy Wales (October 7, 2009). The Future of Free Culture: Jimmy Wales, Founder of Wikipedia (SWF, FLV, FLASH) (videotape). New Haven, Connecticut, United States: Yale University. Event occurs at 43:19 . Retrieved August 18, 2011 .
  35. ^ Jump up to:a b c The Atlantic Monthly , September 2006 , p. 91. “The Wiki [technological] roused gained a devoted volgende binnen the software community. And there it remained Until January 2001-when Sanger had dinner with an old friend named Ben Kovitz. […] In tacos dat night, Sanger Explained his concerns about Nupedia’s Lack of progress, the root cause or welke was zijn serial editorial system. […] Kovitz brought` up the wiki and sketched out Wiki magic, the mysterious process by welke communities with common interests work to verbeteren Wiki pages with incremental contributions. if it worked for the rambunctious hacker culture of programming, Kovitz zegt, it Could work for ANY online collaborative project. The Wiki Could break the bottleneck at Nupedia permitting volunteers to work simultaneously all over the project. [… ] Wales and Sanger created the first Nupedia Wiki on January 10, 2001. The initial purpose was to get the public to add entries therein mention anything-then be “fed into tje Nupedia process” or, authorization. “
  36. ^ Jump up to:a b Sidener, Jonathan (January 6, 2004). “Everyone’s encyclopedia” . UT San Diego . p. C1 . Retrieved April 22, 2009 .
  37. Jump up^ “Jimmy Wales: The birth of Wikipedia” . TED (conference) . July, 2005 . Retrieved December 8, 2014 .
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  40. Jump up^ Sanger, Larry (November 1, 2005). “The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia: A Memoir”. In DiBona, Chris; Cooper, Danese; Stone, Mark. Open Sources 2.0: The Continuing Evolution . O’Reilly Media, Inc. p. 312. ISBN  978-0-596-00802-4 . To be clear, the idea of an open source, collaborative / encyclopedia, open to contribution to this club to ordinary people, was entirely Jimmy’s, not mine, and the funding was entirely by Bomis. I was merely a Grateful employee; I thought I was very lucky to have a nice job like that land in my lap. Of course, other people had had the idea …
  41. Jump up^ Getz, Arlene (February 1, 2007). “In Search of an Online Utopia” . Newsweek . MSNBC. Archived from the original on April 18, 2007 . Retrieved October 31, 2008 .
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  45. Sanger, Larry (April 18, 2005). “The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia: A Memoir” . Slashdot . Retrieved October 31, 2005 .
  46. Jump up^ Sanger, Larry (January 18, 2002). “What Wikipedia is and why it matters” . meta.wikimedia.org . Wikimedia Foundation . Retrieved October 31, 2008 .
  47. Jump up^ Sanger, Larry (March 5, 2007). “My resignation – Larry Sanger” . meta.wikimedia.org . Wikimedia Foundation . Retrieved October 17, 2009 .
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  50. Jump up^ Slutsky, Irina ; Codel Eddie (March 24, 2006). “SXSW2006: Jimmy Wales, Uber Wikipedian” . Geek Entertainment TV . Retrieved August 13, 2012 .
  51. Jump up^ Meyers, Peter (September 20, 2001). “Fact-Driven? Collegial? This Site Wants You” . The New York Times . Retrieved August 8, 2015 . I can start an article therein will CONSIST or one paragraph, and-then a real expert will come Along and add three paragraphs and clean up my one paragraph.  – Larry Sanger.
  52. Jump up^ “Free Encyclopedia Project, Wikipedia, creates 20,000 Articles in a Year (Wikipedia 2002 Press release)” . Wikipedia. January 15, 2002 . Retrieved April 4, 2009 .
  53. Jump up^ Wales, Jimmy (August 6, 2002). “3apes open content web directory” . Yahoo! Tech Groups forum post . WebCite . Archived from the original on April 1, 2009 . Retrieved April 3, 2009 . I’m Jimmy Wales, co-founder of Nupedia and Wikipedia, the open content encyclopedias.
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  82. ^ Jump up to:a b Deutschman, Alan (March 2007). “Why Is This Man Smiling?” . Fast Company . Retrieved October 31, 2008 . Wales revealed therein Star Trek, his for-profit Silicon Valley startup was working on Search Wikia, welke have touted as “the search engine dat changes everything … Just as Wikipedia revolutionized how we think about knowledge and the encyclopedia, we harbor a chance now to Revolutionize how we think about search.
  83. Jump up^ Wales, Jimmy (March 31, 2009). “Update on Star Trek – doing more or what’s working.” blog.jimmywales.com. Retrieved May 4, 2009.
  84. Jump up^ “Star Trek tapered eBay exec as CEO” . San Francisco Business Times . June 5, 2006 . Retrieved June 5, 2006 .
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  89. Jump up^ Jimmy Wales launches 2011 Free Thinking Festival, onBBC Radio ThreeNovember 4, 2011
  90. Jump up^ “This week’s panel” . BBC Question Time . November 23, 2011 . Retrieved November 24, 2011 .
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  95. Jump up^ Fleischer, Lisa (May 30, 2014). “Google Taps Wikipedia’s Wales to help Weigh ‘Right to Be Forgotten ‘ ‘ . The Wall Street Journal . Retrieved June 2, 2014 .
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  106. Jump up^ Cole, Bruce (March-April 2007). “Building a Community of Knowledge” . Humanities . 28 (2): 6-14 . Retrieved January 27, 2009 .
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