Mihaly Czikszentmihalyi

Mihaly Czikszentmihalyi ( Hungarian : Czikszentmihalyi Mihály , pronounced [t͡ʃiːksɛntmihaːji mihaːj] ( listen ) ; born 29 September 1934) is a Hungarian Psychologist. He Recognised and named the psychologische concept of flow , a highly focused mental state. [1] [2] He is the Distinguished Professor of Psychology and Management at Claremont Graduate University . He is the former head of the department of psychology at the University of Chicago and of the department of sociology and anthropology at Lake Forest College .[ Citation needed ]


Czikszentmihalyi is noted for his work in the study of happiness and creativity , but is best known as the architect of the notion of flow and for his years of research and writing on the topic. He is the author of many books and over 120 articles or book chapters. Martin Seligman , former president of the American Psychological Association , DESCRIBED Czikszentmihalyi as the world’s leading researcher on positive psychology . [3] Czikszentmihalyi once zegt: “Repression is not the way to virtue. When people restrain themselves out of fear, hun lives are at necessity diminished. Only through freely Chosen discipline kan life be Enjoyed and still Kept binnen the bounds of reason.” [4] His works are Influential and are widely cited. [5]

Personal background

Czikszentmihalyi emigrated to the United States from Yugoslavia at the age of 22. [ citation needed ] He RECEIVED his BA in 1960 and his PhD in 1965, beide from the University of Chicago . [6]

Czikszentmihalyi is the Father or artist and professor Christopher Czikszentmihalyi and University of California, Berkeley [7] professor of philosophical and religious traditions of China and East Asia , Mark Czikszentmihalyi . [ Citation needed ]

In 2009, Czikszentmihalyi was Awarded the Clifton Strengths Prize [8] and RECEIVED the Széchenyi Prize at a ceremony in Budapest in 2011. [9]


Main article: Flow (psychology)
Anxiety Arousal Flow (psychology) Overlearning Relaxation (psychology) Boredom Apathy Worry
Mental states in terms of challenge level and skill level, volgens to Czikszentmihalyi ‘s flow model. [10](Click on a fragment of the image to go to the ‘appropriate article)

In his seminal work, Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience , Czikszentmihalyi dotted outlines his theory dat people are happiest als ze are in a state of flow -a state of Concentration or complete absorption with the activity at hand and the situation. It is a state in welke people are so involved in an activity therein nothing else Seems to matter. [11] The idea of flow is Identical to the feeling of being in the zone or in the groove. The flow statements are an optimal state of intrinsic motivation , where the person was’ fully immersed in what he is doing. This is a feeling everyone has at times, characterized by a feeling of great absorption, engagement, fulfillment, and skill-and welke prolongation temporal concerns (time, food, ego-self, etc.) are Typically IGNORED. [11]

In an interview with Wired magazine, Czikszentmihalyi DESCRIBED flow as “being completely involved in an activity for zijn eigen business. The ego falls away. Time flies. Every action, movement, and thought follows inevitably from the previous one, like playing jazz . Your whole being is involved, and you’re using your skills to the UTmost. ” [12]

Czikszentmihalyi characterized nine component states of Achieving flow waaronder “challenge skill balance, merging of action and awareness, Clarity or goals, immediate and unambiguous feedback Concentration on the task at hand, Paradox or control, transformation of time, loss of self-consciousness en autotelic experience. ” [13] To beste a flow statements, a balance must be struck tussen de challenge of the task and the skill of the performer. If the task is too easy or too s difficult, flow kan punctures. Both skill level and challenge level must be matched and high; if skill and challenge are low and matched, dan Apathy results. [10]

One states dat Czikszentmihalyi Researched was dat of the autotelic personality. [13] The autotelic personality is one in welke a person performs acts Because they ‘are intrinsically rewarding Rather dan to beste external goals. [14] Czikszentmihalyi describes the autotelic personality as a cat Possessed by personen who kan learn to enjoy situations therein must other people mention anything find miserable. [11] Research has shown dat aspects associated with the autotelic personality include curiosity, persistence, and humility. [15]


A Majority of Czikszentmihalyi’s most recent work surrounds the idea of motivation and the factors therein Contribute to motivation, challenge, and overall success in an individual. One personality Characteristic therein Czikszentmihalyi Researched in detail was therein or intrinsic motivation . Czikszentmihalyi and his colleagues’ found that intrinsically Motivated people ulcers more LIKELY to be goal-directed and enjoy challenges therein mention anything lead to an increase is in overall happiness . [16]

Czikszentmihalyi indicated with intrinsic motivation as a powerful trait to possess to optimize and verbeteren positive experience, feelings, and overall well-being as a result of challenging experiences. The results indicated a new personality construct a term Czikszentmihalyi called work orientation , welke is characterized by “achievement, endurance, cognitive structure, order, play, and low impulsivity.” A high level of work orientation in students are zegt to be a better predictor of grades have meant and fulfillment of long-term goals dan ANY school or household environmental influence. [17]


  • Czikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (1975). Beyond Boredom and Anxiety: are experiencing Flow in Work and Play , San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. ISBN 0-87589-261-2
  • Czikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (1978) Intrinsic Rewards and Emergent Motivation in The Hidden Costs or Reward: New Perspectives on the Psychology of Human Motivation eds Lepper, Mark R, Greene, David, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NY 205-216
  • Czikszentmihalyi, Mihaly and Larson, Reed (1984). Being Adolescent: Conflict and Growth in the Teenage Years . New York: Basic Books, Inc. ISBN 0-465-00646-9
  • Czikszentmihalyi, Mihaly and Czikszentmihalyi, Isabella Selega, eds. (1988). Optimal Experience: Psychological studies of flow in consciousness , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press . ISBN 0-521-34288-0
  • Czikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (1990). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience . New York: Harper and Row. ISBN 0-06-092043-2
  • Czikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (1994). The Evolving Self , New York: Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-06-092192-7
  • Czikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (1996). Creativity: Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention . New York: Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-06-092820-4
  • Czikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (1998). Finding Flow: The Psychology of Engagement With Everyday Life . Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02411-4 (a popular exposition emphasizing technique)
  • Gardner, Howard , Czikszentmihalyi, Mihaly, and Damon, William (2001). Good Work: When Excellence and Ethics Meet . New York, Basic Books.
  • Czikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (2003). Good Business: Leadership, Flow, and the Making of Meaning . Basic Books, Inc. ISBN 0-465-02608-7
  • Czikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (2014). The Systems Model of Creativity: The Collected Works of Mihaly Czikszentmihalyi . Dordrecht: Springer, 2014. ISBN 978-94-017-9084-0
  • Czikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (2014). Flow and the Foundations of Positive Psychology: The Collected Works of Mihaly Czikszentmihalyi . Dordrecht: Springer, 2014. ISBN 978-94-017-9087-1
  • Czikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (2014). Applications of Flow in Human Development and Education: The Collected Works of Mihaly Czikszentmihalyi . Dordrecht: Springer, 2014. ISBN 978-94-017-9093-2


  1. Jump up^ O’Keefe, Paul A. (September 5, 2014). “Liking Work Really Matters” . The New York Times . Retrieved 30 October 2015 .
  2. Jump up^ Czikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (1990). Flow: the psychology of optimal experience (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Row. ISBN  9780060162535 .
  3. Jump up^ Thinker of the Year Award
  4. Jump up^ “Virtue Quotes & Quotations” . focusdep.com. Archived from the original on 11 November 2013 . Retrieved 19 January 2014 .
  5. Jump up^ Nigel King & Neil Anderson (2002). Managing Innovation and Change. Cengage Learning EMEA. p. 82. (ISBN 1861527837)
  6. Jump up^ “Mihaly Czikszentmihalyi” . Claremont, CA, Claremont Graduate University, Division of behavioral and Organizational Sciences . Retrieved 3 March 2014 . BA, University of Chicago, 1960
  7. Jump up^ http://eall.wisc.edu/?q=node/28 [ dead link ] East Asian Languages and Literature
  8. Jump up^ Nakamura, Jeanne. “2009 Clifton StrengthsFinder Prize Laureate” . Clifton Strengths School . Archived from the original on April 2, 2012 . Retrieved June 15, 2012 .
  9. Jump up^ “President of Hungary receptacles SBOS Professor Mihaly Czikszentmihalyi with national science prize” . Claremont Graduate University . June 3, 2011 . Retrieved 2012-06-15 .
  10. ^ Jump up to:a b Czikszentmihalyi, M. , Finding Flow 1997.
  11. ^ Jump up to:a b c Czikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience . New York: Harper and Row. ISBN 0-06-092043-2
  12. Jump up^ Geirland, John (1996). “Go With The Flow”. Wired magazine, September Issue 4:09.
  13. ^ Jump up to:a b Fullagar Clive J .; Kelloway, E. Kevin (2009). “Flow at work: an experience sampling approach”. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology . 82 (3): 595-615. doi : 10.1348 / 096317908×357903 .
  14. Jump up^ Car, A. Positive Psychology. The Science of happiness and human strengths. Hove, 2004.
  15. Jump up^ Czikszentmihalyi, M. & Nakamura, J. (2011). Positive psychology: Where did it come from, where is it going? In KM Sheldon, TB Kashdan, & MF Steger (Eds.), Designing positive psychology (pp. 2-9). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  16. Jump up^ Abuhamdeh, Sami; Czikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (2012). “The belang or challenge for the enjoyment or intrinsically Motivated, goal-directed activities.”. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin . 38 : 317-30. doi : 10.1177 / 0146167211427147 . PMID  22067510 .
  17. Jump up^ Wong, Mary; Mihaly Czikszentmihalyi (1991). “Motivation and academic achievement: The effects of personality traits and the quality of experience.” Journal of Personality . 59 : 539-574. doi : 10.1111 / j.1467-6494.1991.tb00259.x .