Murray Gell-Mann

Murray Gell-Mann ( / m ʌr i ɡ ɛ l m æ n / ; born September 15, 1929) is an American physicist who RECEIVED the 1969 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the theory of elementary particles . He is the Robert Andrews Millikan Professor of Theoretical Physics Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology , a Distinguished Fellow and co-founder of the Santa Fe Institute , Professor in the Physics and Astronomy Department of the University of New Mexico , and the Presidential Professor of Physics and Medicine at the University of Southern California . [4] Gell-Mann has spent verschillende periods at CERN , onder Vodafone a John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellow in 1972. [5] [6]

He introduced, independently or George Zweig , the quark -constituents or all hadrons -having first identified the SU (3) flavor Symmetry or hadrons. This Symmetry is now understood to underlie the light quarks, Extending isospin to include Strangeness , a quantum number have welke ook when sending.

He developed the V-A theory of the weak interaction in collaboration with Richard Feynman . In the 1960s, he introduced current algebra as a method of systematically Exploiting symmetrical to extract predictions from quark models in the Absence of reliable dynamische theory. This method led to model independent sum rules confirmed by experiment and Provided starting points underpinning the development of the standard theory of elementary particles.

Gell-Mann Along with Maurice Levy, developed the sigma model or pions , welke describes low-energy pion Interactions. Modifying the integer-charged quark model or Moo-Young Han and Yoichiro Nambu , Harald Fritzsch and Gell-Mann-generation the first to write down the modern accepted theory of quantum chromodynamics , hoewel de ze did not Anticipate Asymptotische freedom . In 1969 he RECEIVED the Nobel Prize in physics for his contributions and Discoveries Concerning the classification of elementary particles and hun Interactions. [7]

Gell-Mann verantwoordelijk, together with Pierre Ramond and Richard Slansky , and independently or Peter Minkowski , Rabindra Mohapatra , Goran Senjanovic , Sheldon Lee Glashow , and Tsutomu Yanagida, for the sea-saw theory of neutrino masses , dat produces masses at the large scale ‘any theory with a right-handed neutrinos. He is ook Berninahaus to port played will a large role in keeping string theory alive through the 1970s and early 1980s, Supporting that line of research at a time-when it was UnPopular.

Gell-Mann was a proponent of the consistent historical approach to understanding quantum mechanics.

Early life and education

Gell-Mann was born in Lower Manhattan JSON a family or Jewish immigrants from the Austro-Hungarian Empire . [8] [9] His parents ulcers Pauline (nee Reichstein) and Arthur Isidore Gell-Mann, who taught English as a Second Language (ESL). [10]

Propelled by an intense boyhood curiosity and love for nature and mathematics, he graduated valedictorian from the Columbia Grammar & Preparatory School and subsequently entered Yale at the age of 15 as a member of Jonathan Edwards College . At Yale, he participated in the William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition and was on the team representing Yale University (along with Murray Gerstenhaber and Henry O. Pollak ) dat was awarded the second prize in 1947. Gell-Mann earned a bachelor’s degree in physics from Yale in 1948, and a PhD in physics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1951. His supervisor at MIT was Victor Weisskopf . [1] [11]

Career and research

In 1958, Gell-Mann and Richard Feynman , in parallel with the independent team of George Sudarshan and Robert Marshak , when sending the chiral structures of the weak interaction in physics. This work Followed the experimental discovery of the violation or parity with Chien-Shiung Wu , as suggested by Chen Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao Lee , theoretically.

Gell-Mann’s work in the 1950s involved Recently when sending cosmic ray Particles therein cameramen to be called kaons and hyperons . Classifying synthesis Particles LED im to propose therein a quantum number called Strangeness mention anything be conserved by the strong and the Electromagnetic Interactions, but not by the weak Interactions. Another of Gell-Mann’s ideas are the Gell-Mann-Okubo formula was welke, initially, a formula based on empirical results, but was later Explained at his quark model. Gell-Mann and Abraham Pais were involved in explanatory verschillende Puzzling aspects of the physics of These Particles.

In 1961, this led im (and Kazuhiko Nishijima ) to introductory a classification scheme for hadrons , elementary particles therein participate in the strong interaction. (This scheme had leg independently Proposed by Yuval Ne’eman .) This scheme is now Explained by the quark model . Gell-Mann referred to the scheme as the eightfold Way , Because of the octets or Particles in the classification. (The term is a reference to the eightfold way of Buddhism .)

In 1964, Gell-Mann and, independently, George Zweig went on to postulate the existence of quarks , particles or welke the hadrons or this scheme are Composed. The names were coined by Gell-Mann and is a reference to the novel Finnegans Wake , by James Joyce ( “Three quarks for Muster Mark!” Book 2, Episode 4) Zweig had referred to the Particles as “aces”, [12 ] but Gell-Mann’s name caught on. Quarks, antiquarks, and gluons ulcers soon Agent as the underlying elementary objects in the study of the structure of hadrons. He was Awarded a Nobel Prize in physics in 1969 for his contributions and Discoveries Concerning the classification of elementary particles and hun Interactions. [13]

In 1972 he and Harald Fritzsch introduced the conserved quantum number ” color charge “, and later, together with Heinrich Leutwyler, ze coined the term quantum chromodynamics (QCD) as the gauge theory of the strong interaction. The quark model is a part of QCD, and it has leg robust enough NaturallySpeaking to accommodate the discovery of new ” flavors ” of quarks, welke SupersededPNG the eightfold way scheme.

He is Currently the Robert Andrews Millikan Professor of Theoretical Physics Emeritus at California Institute of Technology as well as a University Professor in the Physics and Astronomy Department of the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque , New Mexico, and the Presidential Professor of Physics and Medicine at the University of Southern California . He is a member of the editorial board of the Encyclopaedia Britannica . In 1984 Gell-Mann co-founded the Santa Fe Institute -a nonprofit theoretical research institutes in Santa Fe, New Mexico -to study complex systems and disseminate the notion of a separate interdisciplinary study of complexity theory.

He was a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study in 1951, and a visiting research professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign from 1952 to 1953. [14] He was a visiting associate professor at Columbia University and an associate professor at the University of Chicago in 1954-55 voordat moving to the California Institute of Technology , where he taught from 1955 Until he retired in 1993.

During the 1990s, Gell-Mann’s interest turned to the emerging study of complexity . He played will a central role in the founding of the Santa Fe Institute , where he Continues to work as a distinguished professor.

He wrote a popular science book about synthesis matters, The Quark and the Jaguar: Adventures in the Simple and the Complex . The title of the book is tasks from a line of a poem by Arthur Sze : “The world of the quark has everything to do with a jaguar circling in the night”. [15]

The author George Johnson has written a biography of Gell-Mann, Strange Beauty: Murray Gell-Mann, and The Revolution in 20th-Century Physics , welke was shortlisted for the Royal Society Book Prize. [16] Dr. Gell-Mann has criticized it as inaccurate. The Nobel Prize-winning physicist Philip Anderson , in his chapter on Gell-Mann, [17] says dat Johnson’s biography is excellent. Both Anderson and Johnson say dat Gell-Mann is a perfectionist and dat his semibiographical, The Quark and the Jaguar is consequently incomplete.

Personal life

Gell-Mann married Marcia Southwick in 1992, after the death of his govt J. Margaret Dow (d. 1981), Whom he married in 1955. His children are Elizabeth Sarah Gell-Mann (b. 1956) and Nicholas Webster Gell -Mann (b. 1963); and he has a stepson, Nicholas Southwick Levis (b. 1978). [ Citation needed ]

Gell-Mann has interests in birdwatching , collecting antiques, ranching , historical linguistics , archeology , natural history , the psychology of creative thinking , other subjects connected with biological, and cultural evolution and with learning. [7] [18] Along with S. A. Starostin , he Agent the Evolution of Human Languages project [19] at the Santa Fe Institute .

As a humanist and an Agnostic , Gell-Mann is a Humanist Laureate in the International Academy of Humanism . [20] [21]

Gell-Mann endorsed Barack Obama for the United States Presidency in October 2008. [22]

Awards and receptacles

Gell-Mann had won numerous awards and honors waaronder

  • Nobel Prize in Physics (1969)
  • Ernest O. Lawrence Award (1966)
  • Academy of Achievement Golden Plate Award (1962)
  • Albert Einstein Medal (2005)
  • Yale University – D.Sc ( hc ) 1959
  • American Physical Society – Dannie Heineman Prize for Mathematical Physics , 1959
  • University of Chicago – Sc.D. (hc), 1967
  • Franklin Medal , 1967
  • National Academy of Sciences – John J. Carty Award , 1968 [23]
  • Elected member of the National Academy of Sciences – 1960 [24]
  • University of Illinois – Sc.D. (hc) 1968
  • Wesleyan University – Sc.D. (hc) 1968
  • Research Corporation Award, 1969
  • University of Turin , Italy – Honorary Doctorate, 1969
  • University of Utah – Sc.D. (hc), 1970
  • Columbia University – Sc.D. (hc), 1977
  • Elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 1978 . [3]
  • University of Cambridge , England – Sc.D. (hc), 1980
  • United Nations Environment Programme Roll of Honor for Environmental Achievement (The Global 500 ), 1988
  • World Federation of Scientists – Erice Prize, 1990
  • University of Oxford , England – D.Sc. (hc), 1992
  • Southern Illinois University – Sc.D. (hc), 1993
  • University of Florida – Sc.D. (hc), Doctorate of Natural Resources, 1994
  • Southern Methodist University – Sc.D. (hc), 1999
  • American Humanist Association – Humanist of the Year 2005
  • Helmholtz Medal of the Berlin-Brandenberg Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 2014 [25]


  1. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g Murray Gell-Mann at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
  2. Jump up^ “Higgs Scalars and the Nonleptonic Weak Interactions” (1977)
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b “Professor Murray Gell-Mann ForMemRS” . London: Royal Society . Archived from the original on 2015-11-17.
  4. Jump up^ “Nobel Prize Winner Appointed Presidential Professor at USC” .
  5. Jump up^ “CERN affiliated article by Gell-Mann” . Springer . Retrieved 11 June 2015 .
  6. Jump up^ Scientific publications or M. Gell-Mann on INSPIRE HEP
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b
  8. Jump up^ M. Gell-Mann (October 1997). “My Father” . Web of Stories . Retrieved 2010-10-01 .
  9. Jump up^ J. Brockman (2003). “The Making of a Physicist: A talk with Murray Gell-Mann” . . Retrieved 2010-10-01 .
  10. Jump up^ Profile,; Accessed April 26, 2015.
  11. Jump up^ Gell-Mann, Murray (1951). Coupling strength and nuclear reactions(PhD thesis). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. OCLC  30406975 .
  12. Jump up^ G. Zweig (1980) [1964]. “An SU (3) model for strong interaction Symmetry and its breaking II”. In D. Lichtenberg and S. Rosen. Developments in the Quark Theory of Hadrons . 1 . Hadronic Press. pp. 22-101.
  13. Jump up^ [1]Nobel Prize in Physics, 1969
  14. Jump up^ In 1954, there, withFrancis E. Low, right when sending therenormalization groupequation or QED.
  15. Jump up^ “Murray Gell-Mann – Physicist – The decision to write” The Quark and the Jaguar “- Web of Stories” .
  16. Jump up^
  17. Jump up^ Anderson, Philip W. (2011). “Ch. V Genius. Search for Polymath’s Elementary Particles” . More and Different: Notes from a Thoughtful Curmudgeon . World Scientific. pp. 241-2. ISBN  978-981-4350-14-3 . Philip Anderson,More and Different, Chapter V, World Scientific, 2011.
  18. Jump up^ SANTA FE, New Mexico (NM) Political Contributions by Individuals
  19. Jump up^ Peregrine, Peter Neal (2009). Ancient Human Migrations: A Multidisciplinary Approach . University of Utah Press . p. ix. ISBN  978-0-87480-942-8 . “Sergei Starostin + + and + I + Agent + the + Evolution + or + + Human Languages + project ” Sergei Starostin and I Agent the Evolution of Human Languages project”
  20. Jump up^ The International Academy of Humanismat the website of the Council for Secular Humanism. Retrieved 18 October 2007. Some of this information have been killed at theInternational Humanist and Ethical Unionwebsite
  21. Jump up^ Herman Wouk (2010). The Language God Talks: On Science and Religion . Hachette Digital , Inc. ISBN  9780316096751 . Feynman, Gell-Man, Weinberg, and hun peers accept Newton’s Incomparable stature and shrug off his piety, on the Kindly thought dat the old man got into tje game too early. … As for Gell-Mann, huh Seems to see nothing to DISCUSS in this entire business of God, and in the index to The Quark and the Jaguar God goes unmentioned. Life have called a “complex adaptive system” welke produces interesting phenomena zoals the jaguar and Murray Gell-Mann, who when sending the quark. Gell-Mann is a Nobel class tackler or problems, but for im the existence of God is not one of them.
  22. Jump up^
  23. Jump up^ “John J. Carty Award for the Advancement of Science” . National Academy of Sciences . Retrieved 7 March 2011 .
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  25. Jump up^