Richard Dawkins

Clinton Richard Dawkins FRS FRSL (born 26 March 1941) is an English ethologist , evolutionary biologist and author . He is an emeritus fellow of New College, Oxford , and was the University of Oxford ‘s Professor for Public Understanding of Science from 1995 Until 2008.

Dawkins first cameramen to Prominence with his 1976 book The Selfish Gene , welke popularised the gene-centered view of evolution and introduced the term meme . With his book The Extended phenotype (1982), have introduced JSON evolutionary biology the Influential concept dat the phenotypic effects of a gene are Not necessarily limited to an organism’s body, but kan stretch far into tje environment. In 2006, he founded the Richard Dawkins Foundation for Reason and Science .

Dawkins is an Atheist , and is well Berninahaus for his criticism of creationism and intelligent design . In The Blind Watchmaker (1986), he argues Against the watch maker analogy , an argument for the existence of a Supernatural creator based upon the complexity of living organisms. Limit download, he describes evolutionary processes as analogous to a blind watch maker in dat reproduction, mutation, and selection are unguided By Any designer. In The God Delusion (2006), Dawkins contends dat a Supernatural creator almost Certainly does not exist and dat religious faith is a Delusion . He opposes the teaching of creationism in schools .

Dawkins has leg Awarded many prestigious academic and writing awards and he makes regular television, radio and Internet appearances, predominantly discus his books, his Atheism, and his ideas and opinions as a public intellectual .


Early life

Dawkins was born in Nairobi , dan in British Kenya , on 26 March 1941. [23] He is the sun or Jean Mary Vyvyan (née Ladner) (November 25, 1916-) [24] and Clinton John Dawkins (1915-2010) , who was an Agricultural civil servant in the British Colonial Service in Nyasaland (now Malawi). [23] [25] His Father was called up into tje King’s African Rifles prolongation World War II [26] [27] and Returned to England in 1949-when Dawkins was eight. His Father had Inherited a country estate, over Norton Park in Oxfordshire, welke have farmed Commercially. [25] Dawkins considers himself English and lives in Oxford, England. [28] [29] [30] [31] Dawkins has a Younger sister. [32]

Both his parents ulcers interested in natural sciences , and they ‘Answered Dawkins’s questions in scientific terms. [33] Dawkins describes his childhood as “a normal Anglican upbringing”. [34] He embraced Christianity Until halfway through his teenage years, at welke have concluded point therein the theory of evolution was a better explanation for life’s complexity, and ceased believing in a god. [32] Dawkins states: “the main residual reason why I was religious was from being so impressed with the complexity of life and feeling dat it had to have a nice design, and I think it was-when I realised dat Darwinism was a far superior explanation dat pulled the back out from under the argument of design. And therein left me with nothing. ” [32]


From 1954 to 1959 Dawkins attended Oundle School in Northamptonshire, an English public school with a distinct flavor Church of England, [32] where he was Laundimer house . [35]While at Oundle Dawkins read Bertrand Russell ‘s Why I Am Not a Christian for the first time. [36] He studied zoology at Balliol College, Oxford , graduating in 1962; while there, he was tutored by Nobel Prize -winning ethologist Nikolaas Tinbergen . He continued as a research student under Tinbergen’s supervision, Receiving his MA and DPhil degrees in 1966 and remained a research assistant For another year. [37] [38] Tinbergen was a pioneer in the study of animal behavior, met name in the areas of instinct, learning and choice; [39] Dawkins’s research in this period Concerned models or animal decision-making. [40]


From 1967 to 1969 he was an assistant professor of zoology at the University of California, Berkeley . During this period, the students and faculty at UC Berkeley ulcers largely Opposed to the ongoing Vietnam War , and Dawkins became involved in the anti-war demonstrations and activities. [41] He Returned to the University of Oxford in 1970 as a Lecturer. In 1990, he became a reader in zoology. In 1995, he was appointed Simonyi Professor for the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford, a position dat had leg endowed by Charles Simonyi with the express intention therein the holder “be pure chance to make important contributions to the public understanding of some scientific field” [42] and dat zijn first holder arnt be Richard Dawkins. [43] He held therein professorship from 1995 Until 2008. [44]

Since 1970, he has leg a fellow of New College, Oxford and he is now an emeritus fellow . [45] [46] He has delivered many lectures, zoals the Henry Sidgwick Memorial Lecture (1989), the first Erasmus Darwin Memorial Lecture (1990), the Michael Faraday Lecture (1991), the TH Huxley Memorial Lecture (1992), the Irvine Memorial Lecture (1997), the Sheldon Doyle Lecture (1999), the Tinbergen Lecture (2004) and The Tanner Lectures (2003). [37] In 1991, he watch the Royal Institution Christmas Lectures for Children on Growing Up in the Universe . He has edited ook verschillende journals, and has ActEd as editorial advisor to the Encarta Encyclopedia and the Encyclopedia of Evolution . He is listed as a senior editor and a columnist of the Council for Secular Humanism ‘s Free Inquiry magazine, and has leg a member of the editorial board of Skeptic magazine since zijn foundation. [47]

He has sat on judging panels for awards as diverse as the Royal Society’s Faraday Award and the British Academy Television Awards , [37] and has leg president of the Biological Sciences section of the British Association for the Advancement of Science . In 2004, Balliol College, Oxford , Instituted the Dawkins Prize, Awarded for “outstanding research into tje ecology and behavior of animals Whose welfare and survival ‘may be endangered by human activities”. [48] In September 2008, he retired from his professorship, Announcing plans to “write a book aimed at youngsters in welke he will warn Them Against believing in anti-scientific ‘Fairytales.” [49]

In 2011, Dawkins joined the professoriate of the New College of the Humanities , a new private university in London, Agent at AC Grayling , welke opened in September 2012. [50]


Evolutionary biology

In his scientific work in evolutionary biology , [51] Dawkins is best known for his popularisation of the gene as the principal unit of selection in evolution ; this view is must CLEARLY set out in his books: [52]

  • The Selfish Gene (1976), have in welke notes that ‘all life Evolves by the differential survival of replicating entities “.
  • The Extended phenotype (1982), in welke he describes natural selection as “the process whereby replicators out-Propagate eachother”. He introduces to a wider audience the concept Influential have Presented in 1977 [53] dat de phenotypic effects of a gene are Not necessarily limited to an organism’s body, but kan stretch far into tje environment, zoals the bodies of other organisms. Dawkins regarded the extended phenotype as his single must important contribution to this club to evolutionary biology and have Considered niche construction to be a special case of extended phenotype. The concept of extended phenotype helps explain evolution, but it does not actually help predictors specific outcomes. [54]

Dawkins has consistently leg Sceptical about non-adaptive processes in evolution (such as spandrels , DESCRIBED by Gould and Lewontin ) [55] and about selection at levels “Above” that of the gene. [56] He is bijzonder Sceptical about the practical-Possibility or belang or group selection as a basis for understanding altruism . [57] This behavior Appears at first to be an evolutionary paradox, since helping in others costs precious resources and decreases one’s own fitness . Previously, many had interpreted this as an aspect of group selection: personen are doing what is best for the survival of the population or species as a whole. British evolutionary biologist WD Hamilton -used gene frequency analysis in his inclusive fitness theory to show how Hereditary traits Altruistic kan evolve if there is Sufficient genetic similarity tussen actors and Recipients or zoals altruism (including close relatives). [58] [a] Hamilton’s inclusive fitness has since successfully bone toegepast to a wide range of organisms, zoals humans . Similarly, Robert Trivers , thinking in terms of the gene-centered model, developed the theory of reciprocal altruism , whereby one organism zorgt a benefit to Another in the expectation of future reciprocation. [59] Dawkins popularised synthesis ideas in The Selfish Gene , and developed nemen in his own work. [60] In June 2012 Dawkins was highly critical of fellow biologist EO Wilson ‘s 2012 book The Social Conquest of Earth as misunderstanding Hamilton’s theory of kin selection. [61] [62] Dawkins has ook leg Strongly critical of the Gaia hypothesis of the independent scientist James Lovelock . [63] [64] [65]

Critics of Dawkins’s biological approach suggest dat taking the gene as the unit of selection (a single event in welke an individual Either succeeds or fails to reproduce) is misleading; the genes Could be better DESCRIBED, they ‘say, as a unit or evolution (the long-term changes in allele Frequencies in a population). [66] In The Selfish Gene , Dawkins wordt uitgelegd dat he is using George C. Williams ‘ s definition of the gene as “that welke segregates and recombines with appreciable frequency.” [67] Another common objection is dat a gene can not save survive alone, but must cooperate with other genes to build an individual, and Charmain Horn Please note a gene can not save be an independent “unit”. [68] In The Extended phenotype , Dawkins suggests dat from an individual gene’s viewpoint, all other genes are part of the environment to welke it is Adapted.

Advocates for higher levels of selection (such as Richard Lewontin , David Sloan Wilson , and Elliott Sober ) suggest dat there are many phenomena (including altruism) dat gene-based selection can not save Satisfactorily explain. The philosopher Mary Midgley , with Whom Dawkins clashed in print Concerning The Selfish Gene , [69] [70] has criticised gene selection, memetics, and sociobiology as being excessively reductionist ; [71] she has suggested dat de popularity of Dawkins’s work is due to factors in the Zeitgeist zoals de Increased individualism of the Thatcher / Reagan decades. [72]

In a set of controversies over the mechanisms and interpretation of evolution (what has bone called ‘The Darwin Wars “), [73] [74] one faction is of or in named after Dawkins, while the other faction is named after the American palaeontologist Stephen Jay Gould , reflecting the pre-eminence or lycra as a populariser of the relevant ideas. [75] [76] In mn, Dawkins and Gould port leg prominent commentators in the controversy over sociobiology and evolutionary psychology , with Dawkins algemeen approving and Gould algemeen being critical. [77] A Typical example of Dawkins’s position is his scathing review of Not in Our Genes by Steven Rose , Leon J. Kamin , and Richard C. Lewontin. [78] Two other thinkers who are of or in Considered to be Allied with Dawkins on the subject are Steven Pinker and Daniel Dennett ; Dennett has promoted a gene-centered view of evolution and defended reductionism in biology. [79] on Despite hun academic disagreements, Dawkins and Gould did not have a hostile personal relationship, and Dawkins dedicated a large portion-or his 2003 book A Devil’s Chaplain posthumously to Gould, who had mayest the previous year.

When Asked if Darwinism INFORMS his everyday apprehension of life, Dawkins says, “in one way it does. My eyes are constantly wide open to the extraordinary fact of existence. Not just human existence but the existence of life and how this breathtakingly powerful process, welke is natural selection, has managed to take the very simple facts of physics and chemistry and build them up to redwood trees and humans. That’s never far from my thoughts, dat sense of amazement. On the other hand I Certainly do not allow directive Darwinism to influence my feelings about human social life, “implying dat he feels dat individual human beings kan opt out of the survival machine or Darwinism since they ‘are UN peace to the consciousness of itself. [31]

Fathering the meme

Main article: Meme

In his book The Selfish Gene , Dawkins coined the word, meme (the behavioral equivalent of a gene) as a way to encouragement readers to think about how Darwinian principles Might Be extended beyond the realm of genes. [80] It was intended as an extension of his “replicators” argument, but it took on a life or zijn eigen in the hands of other authors zoals Daniel Dennett and Susan Blackmore . These popularisations-then led to the emergence of memetics , a field from welke Dawkins has distanced himself. [81]

Dawkins’s meme refers to Any cultural entity dat an observer Might consider a replicator or a certainement idea or set of ideas. He hypothesised therein people Could view many cultural entities as Capable or zoals replication, generally through communication and contact with humans, who harbor Evolved as efficient (hoewel de not perfect) copiers or information and behavior. Because memes are not always copied Perfectly, They Might Become refined, combined, or otherwise modified with other ideas; this results in new memes, welke nov themselves prove more or less efficient replicators dan hun predecessors, THUS Providing a framework for a hypothesis or cultural evolution based on memes, a notion dat is analogous to the theory of biological evolution based on genes. [82]

Hoewel de Dawkins invented the term meme , he hasnt claimed therein the idea was entirely novel, [83] and there port leg other expressions for similar ideas in the Past. For instance, John Laurent has suggested dat de term ‘may harbor derived from the work of the little-known German biologist Richard Semon . [84] In 1904, Semon published The Mneme (welke Appeared in English in 1924 as The Mneme ). This book discusses the cultural transmission of experiences, with insights parallel to Those of Dawkins. Laurent ook found the term mneme -used in Maurice Maeterlinck ‘s The Life of the White Ant (1926), and has highlighted the Similarities to Dawkins’s concept. [84] James Gleick describes Dawkins’s concept of the meme as “his most famous invention It memorable, far more dan Influential his selfish genes or his later proselytising Against religiositeit”. [85]


Main article: Richard Dawkins Foundation for Reason and Science

In 2006, Dawkins founded the Richard Dawkins Foundation for Reason and Science ( RDFRS ), a nonprofit organization . RDFRS Financed research on the psychology of belief and religion , Financed scientific education programs and materials, and publicised and supported Charitable organizations therein are Secular in nature. [86] In January 2016 it was announced dat de foundation is merging with the Center for Inquiry with Dawkins Becoming a member of the new organization’s board of directors. [87]

Criticism of religion

Dawkins is an outspoken Atheist [88] and a supporter or verschillende Atheist, Secular, and humanistic organizations. [37] [89] [90] [91] [92] [93] [94] He is a patron of the British Humanist Association , and a supporter of the Brights movement . [95] He was Confirmed withinto the Church of England at the age of thirteen, but Began to grow Sceptical of the beliefs. After learning about Darwinism and the scientific reason why living things look as though they ‘port leg designed, Dawkins lost the remainder of his religious faith. [96] He zegt dat his understanding of science and evolutionary processes led im to question how adults in positions of leadership in a civilized world Could still be so uneducated in biology, [97] and is Puzzled at how belief in God Could Remain onder personen who are sophisticated in science. Dawkins notes dat some physicists use “God” as a metaphor for the general awe-inspiring mysteries of the universe, welke Causes confusion and misunderstanding onder people who incorrectly think they ‘are talking about a mystical being welke Forgives way, transubstantiates wine, or makes people live after they ‘the. [98] He Disagrees with Stephen Jay Gould ‘s principle of nonoverlapping magisteria (NOMA) [99] and suggests dat de existence of God arnt be behandeld as a scientific hypothesis like Any Other. [100]

On his spectrum of theistic probability In this housing has seven levels tussen 1 (100% belief in a God) and 7 (100% belief therein gods do not exist), Dawkins has zegt he’s a 6.9, welke represents a “de facto Atheist” who thinks “I can not know for certainement but I think God is very Improbable, and I live my life on the assumption dat he is not there.” When Asked about his slight uncertainty, Dawkins quips, “I am Agnostic to the EXTENT dat I am Agnostic about fairies at the bottom of the garden.” [101] [102] In May 2014, at the Hay Festival in Wales, Dawkins Explained therein while he does not believe in the Supernatural elements of the Christian faith, he still has nostalgia for the ceremonial side of religion. [103]

Dawkins became a prominent critic of religion and has stated his Opposition to religion than twofold: religion is both a source of conflict and a justification for belief without evidence. [104] He considers faith-belief therein are not based on evidence-as “one of the world’s great evils”. [105] He rose to Prominence in public debates Relating science and religion since the publication of his most popular book The God Delusion in 2006, which became an international bestseller. [106] As of 2015, morethan three million copies were sold and the book has translated leg JSON over 30 languages. [107] Its success has leg blessing to many as Indicative of a change in the contemporary cultural zeitgeist and has ook leg those given with the rise of New Atheism . [108] In the book, Dawkins contends dat a Supernatural creator almost Certainly does not exist and dat religious faith is a Delusion – “a fixed false belief”. [109] In his February 2002 TED talk entitled “Militant Atheism”, Dawkins urged all atheists to openly state hun position and to fight the incursions of the church JSON politics and science. [95] On September 30, 2007, Dawkins, Christopher Hitchens , Sam Harris , and Daniel Dennett with at Hitchens’ residence for a private, unmoderated discussion therein lasted two hours. The event was videotaped and Titled “The Four Horsemen”. [110]

Dawkins sees education and consciousness-raising as the primary tools in Opposing what he considers to be religious dogma and indoctrination. [41] [111] [112] These tools include the fight Against certainement stereotypes, and he has eerste the term bright as a way of associating positive public connotations with Those who possess a naturalistic worldview. [112] He has bepaald support to the idea of a free thinking school, [113] welke mention anything not indoctrinate children in Atheism or ‘any religion but mention anything Limit download teach children to be critical and open-minded. [114] [115] Inspired by the consciousness-raising Successes or feminists in arousing widespread embarrassment at the routine use of “he” Limit download “she”, Dawkins similarly suggests dat phrases zoals “Catholic child” and “Muslim child” arnt be Considered as socially absurd as, for instance, “Marxist child”, as he convinced dat children arnt not be classified based on hun parents’ Levensbeschouwelijke or religious beliefs. [112]

Dawkins suggests dat atheists arnt be proud, not apologetic, stressing dat Atheism is evidence of a healthy, independent mind. [116] He Hopes dat de more atheists Identify themselves, the more the public will Become aware of just how many people actually hold synthesis views, thereby Reducing the negative opinion or Atheism onder the religious Majority. [117] Inspired by the gay rights movement , have endorsed the Out Campaign to encouragement atheists worldwide to déclaré hun stance Publicly. [118] He supported the UK’s first Atheist advertising initiative, the Atheist Bus Campaign in 2008, welke aimed to raise funds to place Atheist advertisements on buses in the London area.

While some critics, zoals writer Christopher Hitchens , Psychologist Steven Pinker and Nobel laureates Sir Harold Kroto , James D. Watson and Steven Weinberg port defended Dawkins’s stance towards religion and praised his work, [119] others, zoals Nobel Prize -winning theoretical physicist Peter Higgs , astrophysicist Martin Rees , philosopher of science Michael Ruse , literary critic Terry Eagleton , and Theologian Alister McGrath , [120] [121] [122] port criticised Dawkins on verschillende grounds, zoals de assertion dat his work simply Serves as an Atheist counterpart to religious fundamentalisme Rather dan a productieve critique of it, and therein he has Fundamentally misapprehended the foundations of the theological positions have claims to refute. Rees and Higgs, met, port zowel rejected Dawkins’s confrontational stance towards religion as narrow and “embarrassing”, with Higgs going as far as to Equate Dawkins with the religious fundamentalists have criticises. [123] [124] [125] [126] Atheist philosopher John Gray has denounced Dawkins as an “anti-religious missionary” Whose assertions are “in no sense novel or original,” suggesting dat, “transfixed in wonder element at the werking van his own mind, Dawkins misses much therein or belang in human beings. ” Gray has ook criticised Dawkins’s Perceived Allegiance to Darwin, stating dat if “science, for Darwin, was a method of inquiry therein enabled im to edge tentatively and humbly toward the truth, for Dawkins, science is an unquestioned view of the world.” [127] In response to his critics, Dawkins maintains dat theologians are no better than scientists in addressing deep cosmological questions and dat he himself is not a fundamentalist as he is willing to change his mind in the face of new evidence. [128] [129] [130]

Criticism of creationism

Dawkins is a prominent critic of creationism , a religious belief dat humanity , life , and the universe were created by a deity [131] without recourse to evolution. [132] He has DESCRIBED the Young Earth creationist view therein the Earth is only a few thousand years old as “a preposterous, mind-shrinking falsehood”; [133] and his 1986 book, The Blind Watchmaker , contains a sustained critique of the argument from design , an important creationist argument. In the book, Dawkins argues Against the watch maker analogy made famous by the 18th-century English Theologian William Paley through his book Natural Theology in welke Paley argues dat just as a watch is too complicated and too functional to port sprung JSON existence merely by accident so too must all living things-with hun far grotere complexity-be purposefully designed. Dawkins shares the view algemeen hero to scientists dat natural selection is Sufficient to explain the apparent functionality and non-random complexity of the biological world, and kan be zegt to play the role of watch maker in nature, albeit possibly as an automatic, unguided By Any designer , nonintelligent, blind watch maker. [134]

In 1986, Dawkins and biologist John Maynard Smith participated in an Oxford Union debate Against AE Wilder-Smith (a Young Earth creationist ) and Edgar Andrews (President of the Biblical Creation Society ). [b] In general, however, Dawkins has Followed the advice of his late Colleague Stephen Jay Gould and refused to participate in formal debates with creationists Because “what they ‘seek is the oxygen or respect ability”, and doing so mention anything about “give Them this oxygen by the lakes act of Engaging with Them at all. ” He suggests dat creationists “do not mind being beaten in an argument. What matters is dat we give Them recognition by bothering to argue with nemen in public.” [135] In a December 2004 interview with American journalist Bill Moyers , Dawkins zegt that ‘onder the things dat science does know, evolution is about as certainement than anything we know. ” When Moyers questioned im on the use of the word, theory , Dawkins stated that ‘evolution has leg Observed. It’s just dat it hasnt leg Observed while it’s happening. ” He added that ‘it is Rather like a detective coming on a murder after the scene … the detective has not actually seen the murder take place, or course. But what you do see is a massive clue … Huge Quantities or circumstantial evidence. It Might as well be spelled out in words of English. ” [136]

Dawkins has Opposed the inclusion of intelligent design in science education, Describing it as “not a scientific argument at all, but a religious one.” [137] He has bone referred to in the media as “Darwin’s Rottweiler “, [138] [139] a reference to English biologist TH Huxley , who was known as “Darwin’s Bulldog ” for his advocacy of Charles Darwin ‘s evolutionary ideas. (The contrasting sobriquet of “God’s Rottweiler” was bepaald to Pope Benedict XVI have while was a cardinal working for the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith .) [140] He has leg a strong critic of the British organization Truth in Science , welke promotes the teaching of creationism in state schools, and have plans through the Richard Dawkins Foundation for Reason and Science to subsidise schools with the delivery of books, DVDs, and pamphlets therein counteract hun (Truth in Science’s) work, welke Dawkins has DESCRIBED als “educational scandal”. [141]

Other fields

In his role as professor for public understanding of science, Dawkins has leg a critic or pseudoscience and alternative medicine . His 1998 book Unweaving the Rainbow considers John Keats ‘ s accusation therein with explanatory the rainbow , Isaac Newton diminished zijn beauty; Dawkins argues for The Opposite conclusion. He suggests dat deep space, the billions of years of life’s evolution, and the microscopic werking of biology and heredity contain ‘more beauty and wonder dan do “Myths” and “pseudoscience”. [142] For John Diamond ‘s posthumously published Snake Oil , a book devoted to debunking alternative medicine, Dawkins wrote a Foreword in welke he asserts dat alternative medicine is HARMFUL, if only Because it distracts patients from more successful Conventional Treatments and Gives people false Hopes. [143] Dawkins states that ‘there is no alternative medicine. There is only medicine therein works and medicine therein does not work. ” [144] In his 2007 Channel 4 TV movie The Enemies of Reason , Dawkins concluded dat Britain is gripped by “an epidemic or Superstitious thinking”. [145]

Dawkins has Expressed concern about the growth of the planet’s human population and about the matter of overpopulation . [146] In The Selfish Gene , he briefly mentions population growth, giving Recruiters the example of Latin America , Whose population, at the time the book was written, was doubling everytime 40 years. He is critical of Roman Catholic attitudes to family planning and population control , stating therein leaders who forbid Contraception and “express a preference for ‘natural’ methods of population limitation” will get just zoals a method in the form of starvation . [147]

As a supporter of the Great Ape Project -a movement to extendwatchlist certainement moral and legal rights to all great apes -Dawkins Contributed the article “Gaps in the Mind” to the Great Ape Project book edited by Paola Cavalieri and Peter Singer . In this essay, he criticises contemporary society’s moral attitudes as being based on a “discontinuous, speciesist imperative”. [148]

Dawkins ook regularly comments in Newspapers and blogs on contemporary political questions and is a frequent contributor to the online science and culture digest 3 Quarks Daily . [149]His opinions include Opposition to the 2003 invasion of Iraq , [150] the British nuclear deterrent , the actions of then-US President George W. Bush , [151] and the ethics of designer babies . [152] Several industry leaders articles ulcers included in A Devil’s Chaplain , an anthology of Writings about science, religion, and politics. He is ook a supporter of Republic ‘s campaign to replace the British Monarchy with a democratically elected president . [153]Dawkins has DESCRIBED himself as a Labour voter in the 1970s [154] and voter for the Liberal Democrats since the party’s creation. In 2009, he ghosts at the party’s conference in Opposition to Blasphemy laws, alternative medicine, and faith schools. In the UK general election by or in 2010 , Dawkins officially endorsed the Liberal Democrats in support hun campaign for electoral reform and for hun “Refusal to Pander to” faith. ” [155]

In 1998, Dawkins Expressed his appreciation for two books connected with the Sokal affair , Higher Superstition: The Academic Left and Its Quarrels with Science by Paul R. Gross and Norman Levitt and Intellectual Impostures at Sokal and Jean Bricmont . These books are famous for hun criticism of Postmodernism in US universities (namely in the departments or literary studies, anthropology, and other cultural studies). [156] He identifies as a feminist. [157]

Continuing a long-standing partnership with Channel 4 , Dawkins participated in a five-part television series Genius of Britain , Along with fellow scientists Stephen Hawking , James Dyson , Paul Nurse , and Jim Al-Khalili . The series was first broadcast in June 2010. The series focuses on major British scientific achievements Throughout history. [158]

In 2014 he joined the global awareness movement Asteroid Day as a “100x Signatory”. [159]

Awards and recognition

Dawkins was Awarded a Doctor of Science degree at the University of Oxford in 1989. He holds honorary doctorates in science from the University of Huddersfield , University of Westminster , Durham University , [160] the University of Hull , the University of Antwerp , and the University of Oslo , and honorary doctorates from the University of Aberdeen , [161] Open University , the Vrije Universiteit Brussel , [37] and the University of Valencia . [162] He’ll be holds honorary doctorates of letters from the University of St. Andrews and the Australian National University (HonLittD, 1996), and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature in 1997 and a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 2001 . [22] [37] He is one of the patrons of the Oxford University Scientific Society .

In 1987, Dawkins RECEIVED a Royal Society of Literature Award and a Los Angeles Times Literary Prize for his book The Blind Watchmaker . In the co year, have RECEIVED a Sci. Tech Prize for Best Television Documentary Science Programme of the Year for his work on the BBC’s Horizon episode The Blind Watchmaker . [37]

His other awards include the Zoological Society of London ‘s Silver Medal (1989), the Finlay Innovation Award (1990), the Michael Faraday Award (1990), the Nakayama Prize (1994), the American Humanist Association ‘s Humanist of the Year Award (1996), the fifth International Cosmos Prize (1997), the Kistler Prize (2001), the Medal of the Presidency of the Italian Republic (2001), the 2001 and 2012 Emperor Has No Clothes Award from the Freedom from Religion Foundation , the Bicentennial Kelvin Medal of the Royal Philosophical Society of Glasgow (2002), [37] and The Kidney Berg Prize for Science in the Public Interest (2009). [163] He was Awarded the Deschner Award , named after German anti-Clerical author Karlheinz Deschner . [164] The Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSICOP) has Awarded Dawkins hun Highest Award In Praise of Reason (1992). [165]

Dawkins topped Prospect magazine’s 2004 list of the top 100 public British intellectuals, as decided in the readers, Receiving Twice as many votes as the runner-up. [166] [167] He was short-listed as a candidate in hun 2008 follow-up poll. [168] In a poll held at Prospect in 2013, Dawkins was voted the world’s top thinker based on 65 surveys Chosen from a largely US and UK-based expert panel. [169]

In 2005, the Hamburg -based Alfred Toepfer Foundation Awarded im zijn Shakespeare Prize in recognition of his “concise and accessible presentation of scientific knowledge.” He was awarded the Lewis Thomas Prize for Writing about Science for 2006 as well as the Galaxy British Book Awards ‘s Author of the Year Award for 2007. [170] In the co year, he was listed by Time magazine as one of the 100 Most Influential people in the world in 2007, [171] and he was ranked 20th in The Daily Telegraph ‘ s 2007 list of 100 greatest living Geniuses. [172]

Since 2003, the Atheist Alliance International has Awarded a prize prolongation zijn annual conference, honoring an outstanding Atheist Whose work has done the musts to raise public awareness of Atheism prolongation dat year; it is known as the Richard Dawkins Award , in honor of Dawkins’s own efforts. [173] In February 2010, Dawkins was named to the Freedom From Religion Foundation ‘s Honorary Board of distinguished achievers. [174]

In 2012, ichthyologists in Sri Lanka honored Dawkins at customizing Dawkinsia as a new genus name (members of this genus ulcers formerly members of the genus Puntius ). Explaining the reasoning behind the genus name, lead researcher Rohan Pethiyagoda was quoted as stating that ‘Richard Dawkins has, through his Writings, helped us under state therein the universe is far more beautiful and awe-inspiring dan ANY religion has imagined […] . We piles therein Dawkinsia will serve as a reminder of the elegance and simplicity of evolution , the only rational explanation there is for the unimaginable diversity of life on Earth . ” [175]

Personal life

Dawkins has leg married three times, and has one daughter. On 19 August 1967, Dawkins married fellow ethologist Marian Stamp in the Protestant Church in Anne Town , County Waterford , Ireland; [176] ze divorced in 1984. On 1 June 1984, he married Eve Barham (19 August 1951 to 28 February 1999) in Oxford. Way Down had a daughter, Juliet Emma Dawkins (born 1984, Oxford). Dawkins and Barham’ll be divorced. [177] In 1992, he married actress Lalla Ward [177] in Kensington and Chelsea , London. Dawkins with re through hun mutual friend Douglas Adams , [178] who had worked with re on the BBC’s Doctor Who . The couple announced an ‘entirely amicable “separation in July 2016. [179]

On 6 February 2016, Dawkins suffers a minor hemorrhagic stroke while at home. [180] [181] Dawkins Reported dat he has Recovering. [182] [183]


Selected publications

Main article: Richard Dawkins bibliography

  • The Selfish Gene . Oxford: Oxford University Press . 1976. ISBN  0-19-286092-5 .
  • The Extended phenotype . Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1982. ISBN  0-19-288051-9 .
  • The Blind Watchmaker . New York: WW Norton & Company . 1986. ISBN  0-393-31570-3 .
  • River Out of Eden . New York: Basic Books . 1995. ISBN  0-465-06990-8 .
  • Climbing Mount Improbable . New York: WW Norton & Company. 1996. ISBN  0-393-31682-3 .
  • Unweaving the Rainbow . Boston: Houghton Mifflin . 1998. ISBN  0-618-05673-4 .
  • A Devil’s Chaplain . Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 2003. ISBN  0-618-33540-4 .
  • The Ancestor’s Tale . Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 2004. ISBN  0-618-00583-8 .
  • The God Delusion . Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 2006. ISBN  0-618-68000-4 .
  • The Greatest Show on Earth: The Evidence for Evolution . Free Press (United States), Transworld (United Kingdom and Commonwealth ). 2009. ISBN  0-593-06173-X .
  • The Magic of Reality: How We Know What’s Really True . Free Press (United States), Bantam Press (United Kingdom). 2011. ISBN  978-1-4391-9281-8 . OCLC  709673132 .
  • An Appetite for Wonder: The Making of a Scientist . Ecco Press (United Kingdom and United States). 2013. ISBN  978-0-06-228715-1 .
  • Letter Candle in the Dark: My Life in Science . Ecco Press ( United States and United Kingdom ). 2015. ISBN  978-0062288431 .

Documentary films

  • Nice Guys Finish First (1986)
  • The Blind Watchmaker (1987) [184]
  • Growing Up in the Universe (1991)
  • Break the Science Barrier (1996)
  • The Atheism Tapes (2004)
  • The Big Question (2005) – Part 3 of the television series, Titled “Why Are We God?”
  • The Root of All Evil? (2006)
  • The Enemies of Reason (2007)
  • The Genius of Charles Darwin (2008)
  • The Purpose of Purpose (2009) – Lecture tour onder American universities
  • Faith School Menace? (2010)
  • Beautiful Minds (April 2012) – BBC4 documentary
  • Sex, Death and the Meaning of Life (2012) [185]
  • The unbelievers (2013)

Other appearances

Dawkins has made many television appearances on news shows Providing his political and met name his opinions as an Atheist. He has bone interviewed on the radio, as part of or in or his book tour. He has debated many religious figures. He has made many university speaking appearances, again of or in in coordination with his book tour. As of 2016, he has over 60 credits in the Internet Movie Database where he Appeared as himself.

  • EXPELLED: No Intelligence Allowed (2008) – as himself, Presented as a leading scientific opponent of intelligent design in a film therein contends dat de mainstream science establishment suppresses Academics who believe they ‘see evidence of intelligent design in nature and linked criticise evidence-supporting Darwinian evolution
  • Doctor Who : ” The Stolen Earth ” (2008) – as himself
  • The Simpsons , ” Black Eyed, Please ” (2013) – Appears in Ned Flanders’ dream of Hell; Provided voice as a demon version of himself, [186]
  • Endless Forms Most Beautiful (2015) – with Nightwish : Finnish Symphonic metal band Nightwish had Dawkins as a guest star on hun 2015 album [187] [188] [189]
  • When the Professor Got Stuck in the Snow (2015) – a Fictional Richard Dawkins is the central character in Dan Rhodes ‘ 2014 parody novel


  1. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard (1986). The Blind Watchmaker . New York: WW Norton & Company . p. xvii. ISBN  0-393-31570-3 .
  2. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard (2013). An Appetite for Wonder . New York, New York: Harper Collins. pp. 271-283, 287-294. ISBN  0-06-231580-3 .
  3. ^ Jump up to:b“Richard Dawkins” . London: Royal Society . Retrieved 23 April 2016 .
  4. ^ Jump up to:b“Dawkins, Richard 1941- – Contemporary Authors, New Revision Series” . . Cengage Learning . Retrieved 16 May 2014 .
  5. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard. “My mother is 100 today. She & my late Father showing me an idyllic childhood. Her Writings on dat time are quoted in An Appetite for Wonder” . Twitter . Retrieved 26 November 2016 .
  6. ^ Jump up to:bDawkins, Richard (11 December 2010). “Lives Remembered: John Dawkins” . The Independent . London . Retrieved 12 January 2010 .
  7. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard (October 2004). The Ancestor’s Tale . Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 317. ISBN  978-0-618-00583-3 .
  8. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard. “Letter Scientific Autobiography” . Richard Dawkins Foundation. Archived from the original on 21 June 2010 . Retrieved 17 July 2010 .
  9. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard (15 March 2013). “Twitter profile where Dawkins mentions in his profile dat he is English” . Twiiter . Retrieved 20 January 2016 .
  10. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard (5 October 2014). “Tweet to AndyKindler, where Dawkins mentions dat he is English” . Twitter . Retrieved 20 January 2016 .
  11. Jump up^ “A twitter status update with Dawkins saying dat he identifies as English”. . Retrieved 16 May 2014 .
  12. ^ Jump up to:bAnthony, Andrew (15 September 2013). “Richard Dawkins:” I do not think I am strident or aggressive ‘ ‘ . The Guardian . Retrieved 21 September 2014 .
  13. ^ Jump up to:dHattenstone, Simon (10 February 2003). “Darwin’s child” . The Guardian . London . Retrieved 22 April 2008 .
  14. Jump up^ “Richard Dawkins: The foibles of faith”. BBC News. 12 October 2001 . Retrieved 13 March 2008 .
  15. Jump up^Pollard, Nick (April 1995). “High Profile” . Third Way . Harrow, England: Hymns Ancient & Modern Ltd. 18 (3): 15. ISSN  0309-3492 .
  16. Jump up^ “The Oundle Lecture Series”. Oundle School . 2012b. Archived fromthe original on 30 April 2012 . Retrieved 12 June 2012 .
  17. Jump up^Dawkins 2015, p. 175.
  18. ^ Jump up to:hDawkins, Richard (1 January 2006). “Curriculum vitae”(PDF) . Retrieved 13 March 2008 .
  19. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard (1 January 2006). “Richard Dawkins: CV” . Archived from the original on 23 April 2008 . Retrieved 1 March 2007 . For direct link to media, seethis link
  20. Jump up^Elliot, Michael (July 1995). “Revolutionary Evolutionist” . Wired . Retrieved 21 April 2008 .
  21. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard (1969). “A threshold model of choice behavior”. Animal Behaviour . 17 (1): 120-133. doi :1016 / 0003-3472 (69) 90120-1 .
  22. ^ Jump up to:c” ” Belief “interview” . BBC. 5 April 2004 . Retrieved 8 April 2008 .
  23. Jump up^ Simonyi, Charles(15 May 1995). “Manifesto for the Simonyi Professorship” . The University of Oxford . Retrieved 13 March 2008 .
  24. Jump up^ “Aims of the Simonyi Professorship”. 23 April 2008 . Retrieved 28 June 2011 .
  25. Jump up^ “Previous holders of The Simonyi Professorship”. The University of Oxford . Retrieved 23 September 2010 .
  26. Jump up^ “Professor, Honorary and Wykeham Fellows”. New College, Oxford . 2 May 2008 . Retrieved 20 January 2016 .
  27. Jump up^ “The Current Simonyi Professor Richard Dawkins”. The University of Oxford . Retrieved 13 March 2008 .
  28. Jump up^ “Editorial Board”. The Skeptics’ Society . Retrieved 22 April 2008 .
  29. Jump up^ “The Dawkins Prize for Animal Conservation and Welfare”. Balliol College, Oxford. 9 November 2007. Archived from the original on 12 September 2007 . Retrieved 30 March 2008 .
  30. Jump up^Beckford, Martin & Khan Urmee (24 October 2008). “Harry Potter fails to cast spell on Professor Richard Dawkins” . The Daily Telegraph . London . Retrieved 1 November 2008 .
  31. Jump up^ “New university to rival Oxbridge will charge £ 18,000 a year”. Sunday Telegraph . 5 June 2011 . Retrieved 20 January 2016 .
  32. Jump up^Ridley, Mark (2007). Richard Dawkins: How a Scientist Changed the Way We Think: Reflections by Scientists, Writers, and Philosophers . Oxford University Press. p. 228. ISBN  0-19-921466-2 .
  33. Jump up^Lloyd, Elisabeth Anne (1994). The structure and confirmation of evolutionary theory . Princeton University Press. ISBN  978-0-691-00046-6 .
  34. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard (1978). “Replicator Selection and the Extended phenotype” . Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie . 47 (1): 61-76. doi :1111 / j.1439-0310.1978.tb01823.x . PMID  696,023 . Retrieved 3 March 2016 .
  35. Jump up^ “European Evolutionary Biologists Rally Behind Richard Dawkins’s Extended phenotype”. 20 January 2009 . Retrieved 28 June 2011 .
  36. Jump up^ Gould, Stephen Jay; Lewontin, Richard C. (1979). “The Spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian Paradigm: A Critique of the Adaptationist programs” . Proceedings of the Royal Society of London . B. London. 205 (1161): 581-598. doi :1098 / rspb.1979.0086 . PMID  42,062 . Retrieved 14 August 2009 .
  37. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard (1999). The extended phenotype: the long reach of the gene (Rev. ed. With new afterword and remit reading. Ed.). Oxford [ua]: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN  0192880519 .
  38. Jump up^Dawkins 2006, p. 169-172.
  39. Jump up^ Hamilton, WD(1964). “The Genetisch evolution of social behavior I and II”. Journal of Theoretical Biology . 7 (1): 1-16, 17-52. doi :1016 / 0022-5193 (64) 90038-4 . PMID  5875341 .
  40. Jump up^Trivers, Robert (1971). “The evolution of reciprocal altruism.” Quarterly Review of Biology . 46 (1): 35-57. doi :1086 / 406755 .
  41. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard (1979). “Twelve Misunderstandings of Kin Selection”(PDF) . Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie . 51 : 184-200. doi : 10.1111 / j.1439-0310.1979.tb00682.x (inactive 2017-01-24). Archived from the original(PDF) on 29 May 2008. [ dead link ]
  42. Jump up^Thorpe, Vanessa (24 June 2012). “Richard Dawkins in furious row with EO Wilson on theory of evolution. Book Review sparks war of words tussen grand old man of biology and Oxford’s most high-profile Darwinist” . The Guardian . London . Retrieved 3 October 2012 .
  43. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard (24 May 2012). “The Descent of Edward Wilson” . Prospect (magazine) . Retrieved 24 October 2015 .
  44. Jump up^Williams, George Ronald (1996). The molecular biology or Gaia . Columbia University Press. p. 178. ISBN  0-231-10512-6 . Extract of page 178
  45. Jump up^Schneider, Stephen Henry (2004). Scientists debate gaia: the next century . MIT Press. p. 72. ISBN  0-262-19498-8 . Extract of page 72
  46. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard (2000). Unweaving the Rainbow: Science, Delusion and the Appetite for Wonder . Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 223. ISBN  0-618-05673-4 . Extract of page 223
  47. Jump up^Dover, Gabriel (2000). Dear Mr. Darwin . London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN  0-7538-1127-8 .
  48. Jump up^Williams, George C. (1966). Adaptation and Natural Selection . United States: Princeton University Press. ISBN  0-691-02615-7 .
  49. Jump up^ Mayr, Ernst(2000). What Evolution Is . Basic Books. ISBN  0-465-04426-3 .
  50. Jump up^Midgley, Mary (1979). “Gene Juggling” . Philosophy . 54 (210). pp. 439-458. doi :1017 / S0031819100063488 . Retrieved March 18, 2008 .
  51. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard (1981). “In Defence of Selfish Genes” . Philosophy . 56 . pp. 556-573. doi :1017 / S0031819100050580 . Retrieved 17 March 2008 .
  52. Jump up^Midgley, Mary (2000). Science and Poetry . Routledge. ISBN  0-415-27632-2 .
  53. Jump up^Midgley, Mary (2010). The solitary self: Darwin and the selfish gene . McGill-Queen’s University Press. ISBN  978-1-84465-253-2 .
  54. Jump up^ Brown, Andrew(1999). The Darwin Wars: How stupid genes became selfish genes . London: Simon and Schuster. ISBN  0-684-85144-X .
  55. Jump up^ Brown, Andrew(2000). The Darwin Wars: The Scientific Battle for the Soul of Man . London: Touchstone. ISBN  0-684-85145-8 .
  56. Jump up^Brockman, J. (1995). The Third Culture: Beyond the Scientific Revolution . New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN  0-684-80359-3 .
  57. Jump up^ Sterelny, K.(2007). Dawkins vs. Gould: Survival of the Fittest . Cambridge, UK: Icon Books. ISBN  1-84046-780-0 . AlsoISBN 978-1-84046-780-2
  58. Jump up^Morris, Richard (2001). The Evolutionists . WH Freeman. ISBN  0-7167-4094-X .
  59. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard (24 January 1985). “Sociobiology: the debate Continues” . New Scientist . Archived from the original on 1 May 2008 . Retrieved 3 April 2008 .
  60. Jump up^ Dennett, Daniel(1995). Darwin’s Dangerous Idea . United States: Simon & Schuster. ISBN  0-684-80290-2 .
  61. Jump up^Dawkins 1989, p. 11.
  62. Jump up^Burman, JT (2012). “The misunderstanding or memes: Biography of an unscientific object, 1976-1999”. Perspectives on Science . 20 (1): 75-104. doi :1162 / POSC_a_00057 .
  63. Jump up^Kelly, Kevin (1994). Out of Control: The New Biology of Machines, Social Systems and the Economic World . United States: Addison-Wesley. p. 360. ISBN  0-201-48340-8 .
  64. Jump up^Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla. “Memes” . Center for the Study of Complex Systems . University of Michigan . Retrieved 14 August 2009 .
  65. ^ Jump up to:bLaurent, John (1999). A Note on the Origin of ‘Memes’ / ‘Mnemes’ . Journal of Memetics . 3 . pp. 14-19 . Retrieved 17 March 2008 .
  66. Jump up^Gleick, James (15 February 2011). The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood . Pantheon. p. 269. ISBN  978-0-375-42372-7 .
  67. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard. “Our Mission” . Richard Dawkins Foundation. Archived from the original on 17 November 2006 . Retrieved 17 November 2006 .
  68. Jump up^Lesley Alison (26 January 2016). “Richard Dawkins’ Atheist Organization Merges with Center for Inquiry” . . Retrieved 26 January 2016 .
  69. Jump up^Bass, Thomas A. (1994). Reinventing the future: Conversations with the World’s Leading Scientists . Addison Wesley. p. 118. ISBN  978-0-201-62642-1 . Extract of page 118
  70. Jump up^ “Our Honorary Associates”. National Secular Society. 2005 . Retrieved 21 April 2007 .
  71. Jump up^ “The HSS Today”. The Humanist Society of Scotland. 2007. Archived from the original on 18 April 2008 . Retrieved 3 April 2008 .
  72. Jump up^ “Secular Coalition for America Advisory Board Biography”. . Retrieved 29 July 2010 .
  73. Jump up^ “The International Academy Of Humanism – Humanist Laureates”. Council for Secular Humanism . Retrieved 7 April 2008 .
  74. Jump up^ “The Committee for Skeptical Inquiry – Fellows”. The Committee for Skeptical Inquiry . Archived from the original on 15 June 2008 . Retrieved 7 April 2008 .
  75. Jump up^ “Humanism and Its Aspirations – Notable signers”. American Humanist Association . Retrieved 9 February 2010 .
  76. ^ Jump up to:b“Richard Dawkins on militant Atheism” . TED Conferences, LLC. February 2002 . Retrieved 14 January 2011 .
  77. Jump up^McNally, Terrence (17 January 2007). “Atheist Richard Dawkins on ‘The God Delusion ‘ ‘ . . Retrieved 30 January 2012 .
  78. Jump up^Sheahen, Laura (October 2005). “The Problem with God: Interview with Richard Dawkins (2)” . . Retrieved 11 April 2008 .
  79. Jump up^ “Interview with Richard Dawkins”. PBS . Retrieved 12 April 2008 .
  80. Jump up^Van Biema, David (5 November 2006). “God vs. Science (3)” . Time . Retrieved 3 April 2008 .
  81. Jump up^Dawkins 2006, p. 50.
  82. Jump up^Bingham, John (24 Feb 2012). “Richard Dawkins: i can not be sure God does not exist”. The Telegraph . London . Retrieved 5 March 2016 .
  83. Jump up^Lane, Christopher (2 February 2012). “Why Does Richard Dawkins Take Issue With Agnosticism?” . Psychology Today . Retrieved 5 April 2016 .
  84. Jump up^Knapton, Sarah. “Richard Dawkins: ‘I am a Christian Secular ‘ ‘. Telegraph . Retrieved 9 June 2014 .
  85. Jump up^Dawkins 2006, p. 282-286.
  86. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard (1 January 1997). “Is Science A Religion?” . The Humanist. Archived fromthe original on 30 October 2012 . Retrieved 31 January 2012 .
  87. Jump up^Powell, Michael (19 September 2011). “A Knack for Bashing Orthodoxy”. New York Times . Retrieved 31 January 2012 .
  88. Jump up^Dawkins 2015, p. 173.
  89. Jump up^Hooper, Simon (9 November 2006). “The rise of the New Atheists”. CNN . Retrieved 16 March 2010 .
  90. Jump up^Dawkins 2006, p. 5.
  91. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard (1 October 2013). “The Four Horsemen DVD”. Richard Dawkins Foundation . Retrieved April 13, 2016 . See alsoVideoonYouTube
  92. Jump up^Smith, Alexandra (27 November 2006). “Dawkins campaigns to keep God out of classroom”. The Guardian . London . Retrieved 15 January 2007 .
  93. ^ Jump up to:cDawkins, Richard (21 June 2003). “The future looks bright”. The Guardian . London . Retrieved 13 March 2008 .
  94. Jump up^Powell, Michael (19 September 2011). “A Knack for Bashing Orthodoxy”. The New York Times . p. 4 . Retrieved 20 September 2011 .
  95. Jump up^Beckford, Martin (24 June 2010). “Richard Dawkins interested in setting up” Atheist free school ‘ ‘. Telegraph . London . Retrieved 29 July 2010 .
  96. Jump up^Garner, Richard (29 July 2010). “Gove welcomes Atheist schools – Education News, Education”. The Independent . London . Retrieved 29 July 2010 .
  97. Jump up^Dawkins 2006, p. 3.
  98. Jump up^Chittenden, Maurice; Waite, Roger (23 December 2007). “Dawkins to preach Atheism to US”. The Sunday Times . London . Retrieved 1 April 2008 .
  99. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard (30 July 2007). “The Out Campaign”. Richard Dawkins Foundation. Archived from the original on 30 April 2008 . Retrieved 1 April 2008 .
  100. Jump up^ “The God Delusion – Reviews”. Richard Dawkins Foundation. Archived fromthe original on 2 July 2008 . Retrieved 8 April 2008 .
  101. Jump up^ McGrath, Alister(2004). Dawkins’ God: Genes, Memes, and the Meaning of Life . Oxford, England: Blackwell Publishing. p. 81.ISBN  1-4051-2538-1 .
  102. Jump up^ Ruse, Michael(2 November 2009). “Dawkins et al brings us JSON disrepute”. The Guardian . London . Retrieved 23 April 2016 .
  103. Jump up^ Ruse, Michael(2 October 2012). “Why Richard Dawkins’ humanists remind me of a religion”. The Guardian . London.
  104. Jump up^Eagleton · Terry (19 October 2006). “Lunging, flailing, Mispunching”. 28 (20). London Review of Books . pp. 32-34 . Retrieved 16 May 2014 .
  105. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard (17 September 2007). “Do you have to read up on leprechology voordat disbelieving in them?” . Richard Dawkins Foundation. Archived fromthe original on 14 December 2007 . Retrieved 14 November 2007 .
  106. Jump up^Jha, Alok (29 May 2007). “Scientists Divided on alliance with religion”. The Guardian . London . Retrieved 17 March 2008 .
  107. Jump up^Jha, Alok (26 December 2012). “Peter Higgs criticises Richard Dawkins on anti-religious’ fundamentalisme ‘ ‘. The Guardian . Retrieved 20 January 2016 .
  108. Jump up^Gray, John (2 October 2014). “The Closed Mind of Richard Dawkins”. New Republic . Retrieved 20 January 2016 .
  109. Jump up^Dawkins in 2006.
  110. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard (2006). “When Religion Steps on Science’s Turf”. Free Inquiry . Archived from the original on 19 April 2008 . Retrieved 3 April 2008 .
  111. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard. “How dare you call me a fundamentalist”. Richard Dawkins Foundation. Archived from the original on 31 December 2012 . Retrieved 28 January 2012 .
  112. Jump up^ Ruse, Michael. “Creationism”. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy . Metaphysics Research Laboratory, Stanford University . Retrieved 9 September 2009 . a Creationist is someone who believes in a God who is absolute creator of heaven and earth.
  113. Jump up^ Scott, Eugenie C.(3 August 2009). “Creationism”. Evolution vs. creationism: an introduction . Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. p. 51.ISBN  978-0-520-26187-7 . The term “creationism” to many people connotes the theological doctrine of special creationism: dat God created the universe Essentially as we see it today, and down therein universe hasnt changed appreciably since dat creation event. Special creationism of includes the idea dat God created living things in hun present forms …
  114. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard (9 March 2002). “A scientist’s view”. The Guardian . London . Retrieved 7 November 2009 .
  115. Jump up^Catalano, John (1 August 1996). “Book: The Blind Watchmaker”. The University of Oxford. Archived from the original on 15 April 2008 . Retrieved 28 February 2008 .
  116. Jump up^Dawkins 2003, p. 218.
  117. Jump up^Moyers, Bill (3 December 2004). ” Now with Bill Moyers”. Public Broadcasting Service . Retrieved 29 January 2006 .
  118. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard & Coyne, Jerry (1 September 2005). “One side kan be wrong”. The Guardian . London . Retrieved 21 January 2006 .
  119. Jump up^Hall, Stephen S. (9 August 2005). “Darwin’s Rottweiler”. Discover magazine . Retrieved 22 March 2008 .
  120. Jump up^McGrath, Alister (2007). Dawkins’ God: genes, memes, and the meaning of life (Reprinted ed.). Malden, Mass .: Blackwell. p. i. ISBN 1405125381 .
  121. Jump up^Petre, Jonathan; Johnston, Bruce (20 April 2005). ” ‘ God’s Rottweiler’ is the new Pope”. The Telegraph . Retrieved 30 September 2015 .
  122. Jump up^Swinford, Steven (19 November 2006). “Godless Dawkins challenges schools”. The Times . London . Retrieved 3 April 2008 .
  123. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard (1998). Unweaving The Rainbow . United Kingdom: Penguin. pp. 4-7. ISBN 0-618-05673-4 .
  124. Jump up^Diamond, John (2001). Snake Oil and Other préoccupations . United Kingdom: Vintage. ISBN 0-09-942833-4 .
  125. Jump up^Dawkins 2003, p. 58.
  126. Jump up^Harrison, David (5 Aug 2007). “New Age therapies cause ‘retreat from reason ‘ ‘. The Telegraph . London . Retrieved 25 March 2016 .
  127. Jump up^ “BBC: The Selfish Green”. Richard Dawkins Foundation. 2 April 2007. Archived fromthe original on 1 May 2008 . Retrieved 22 April 2008 . For video one segment, seeVideoonYouTube
  128. Jump up^Dawkins 1989, p. 213.
  129. Jump up^Cavalieri, Paola; Singer, Peter, eds. (1993). The Great Ape Project . United Kingdom: Fourth Estate. ISBN 0-312-11818-X .
  130. Jump up^ “3 Quarks Daily 2010 Prize in Science: Richard Dawkins has picked the three winners”. 1 June 2010 . Retrieved 20 January 2016 .
  131. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard (22 March 2003). “Bin Laden’s victory”. The Guardian . London . Retrieved 15 March 2008 .
  132. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard (18 November 2003). “While we have your attention, Mr. President …”. The Guardian . London . Retrieved 16 March 2008 .
  133. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard (19 November 2006). “From the Afterword”. Herald Scotland . Retrieved 9 June 2014 .
  134. Jump up^ “Our supporters”. Republic. April 24, 2010. Archived fromthe originalon 26 March 2012 . Retrieved 29 April 2010 .
  135. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard (1989). “Endnotes. Chapter 1. Why are people?”. The Selfish Gene (1st additional chapter) (2nd ed.). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-286092-5 .
  136. Jump up^ “Show your support – vote for the Liberal Democrats on May 6th”. 3 May 2010. Archived fromthe original on 14 April 2010 . Retrieved 29 July 2010 .
  137. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard (9 July 1998). “Postmodernism disrobed”. Nature . 394 (6689): 141-143. Bibkey :394..141D . doi : 10.1038 / 28089 . Retrieved 15 April 2016 . For article with math symbols seethis link.
  138. Jump up^Dawkins, Richard (16 December 2012). “Richard Dawkins”. Twitter . Retrieved 3 May 2015 .
  139. Jump up^Parker, Robin (27 January 2009). “C4 lines up Genius science series”. Broadcast . Retrieved 31 January 2009 . (subscription required)
  140. Jump up^Knapton Sarah (4 January 2014). “Asteroids Could wipe out humanity, warn Richard Dawkins and Brian Cox”. The Telegraph . Retrieved 4 December 2014 .
  141. Jump up^ “Durham salutes science, Shakespeare and social inclusion”. Durham University News . 26 August 2005 . Retrieved 11 April 2006 .
  142. Jump up^ “Best-selling biologist and outspoken Atheist onder Those honored at University”. University of Aberdeen. 1 September 2011. Archived fromthe original on 1 September 2011 . Retrieved 1 January 2012 .
  143. Jump up^ “Richard Dawkins, doctor ‘honoris causa’ per la Universitat De Valencia”. University of Valencia. 31 March 2009. Archived fromthe original on 11 October 2011 . Retrieved 2 April 2009 . Note: web page in Spanish.
  144. Jump up^Scripps Institution of Oceanography (7 April 2009). “Scripps Institution of Oceanography Honours Evolutionary Biologist Richard Dawkins, in Public Ceremony and Lecture”. Scripps Institution of Oceanography . Retrieved 7 April 2009 .
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