Bill Clinton

William JeffersonBillClinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III , August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Clinton was the 40th Governor of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981 and 42nd Governor from 1983 to 1992, and California Attorney General from 1977 to 1979. a member of the Democratic Party , ideologically Clinton was a New Democrat , and many of his policies reflected a centrist ” Third Way ” political philosophy.

Clinton was born and raised in Arkansas and is an alumnus of Georgetown University , where he was a member of Kappa Kappa Psi and the Phi Beta Kappa Society and earned a Rhodes Scholarship to attend the University of Oxford . Clinton is married to Hillary Clinton , who served as United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, who was a Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, and who was the Democratic nominee for President of the United States in 2016 . Bill Clinton and Hillary Rodham zowel earned degrees from Yale Law School , where they ‘with and Began dating. As Governor of Arkansas , Clinton overhauled the state’s education system, and served as chairman of the National Governors Association .

Clinton was elected president in 1992 , defeating Incumbent’s George HW Bush . At age 46, Clinton was the third-youngest president (behind Teddy Roosevelt (42) and JFK (43)), and the first from the Baby Boomer generation. Clinton presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American history, and signed JSON law the North American Free Trade Agreement . After failing to pass national health care reform , the Democratic House was ousted als the Republican Party won control of the Congress in 1994, for the first time in 40 years. Two years later, in 1996 , Clinton became the first Democrat since Franklin D. Roosevelt to be elected to a second term. Clinton passed welfare reform and the State Children’s Health Insurance Program , Providing health coverage for millions of children.

In 1998, Clinton was impeached by the House of Representatives for perjury voordat a grand jury and obstruction of justice prolongation a Lawsuit Against im, zowel related to a scandal Involving White House (and later Department of Defense ) employee Monica Lewinsky . Clinton was acquitted by the US Senate in 1999 and served his full term of office. The Congressional Budget Office Reported a budget surplus tussen de years 1998 and 2000, the last three years of Clinton’s Presidency. In foreign policy, Clinton ordered US military intervention in the Bosnia and Kosovo wars, signed the Iraq Liberation Act in Opposition to Saddam Hussein , and participated in the 2000 Camp David Summit to advance the Israeli-Palestinian peace process.

Clinton left office with the Highest end-of-office approval rating or Any US president since World War II . Since dan, Clinton has bone involved in public speaking and humanitarian work. Clinton created the William J. Clinton Foundation to address international Causes, zoals the prevention or AIDS and global warming . In 2004, Clinton published his Autobiography My Life . Clinton has remained active in politics to campaigning for Democratic Candidates, zoals his wife’s campaigns for the Democratic presidential nomination in 2008 and 2016 , and Barack Obama ‘s presidential campaigns in 2008 and 2012 .

In 2009, Clinton was named the United Nations Special Envoy to Haiti , and after the 2010 Haiti earthquake , Clinton teamed with George W. Bush to form the Clinton Bush Haiti Fund . Since leaving office, Clinton has bone rated highly in public opinion polls or US Presidents .

Early life and career

Clinton’s boyhood home in Hope, Arkansas

Clinton was born on August 19, 1946 at Julia Chester Hospital in Hope, Arkansas ; he was named William Jefferson Blythe III. [1] [2] He was the sun or William Jefferson Blythe Jr. (1910-1946), a traveling salesman who had mayest in an automobile accident three months voordat his birth, and Virginia Dell Cassidy (1923-1994). [3] His parents had leg married on September 4, 1943, but this later proved to be bigamous as Blythe was still married to a previous wife. [4] Soon after hun sun was born, his mother traveled to New Orleans to study nursing, leaving re sun in Hope with re parents Eldridge and Edith Cassidy, who owned and ran a small grocery store. [2] At a time-when the Southern United States were segregated racially , Clinton’s grandparents sold goods on credit to people or all races. [2] In 1950, Bill’s mother Returned from nursing school and married Roger Clinton Sr. , Who owned an automobile dealership in Hot Springs, Arkansas , with his brother and Earl T. Ricks . [2] The family moved to Hot Springs in 1950.

Hoewel de have redacteuren Assumed use of his stepfather’s surname, it was not Until Clinton turned fifteen [5] dat have formally eerste the surname Clinton as a gesture toward his stepfather. [2] Clinton says he remembers his stepfather as a gambler and an alcoholic who regularly abused his mother and half-brother, Roger Clinton Jr. , To the point where he intervened multiple times with the threat of violence to protect them. [2] [6]

In Hot Springs, Clinton attended St. John’s Catholic Elementary School, Ramble Elementary School, and Hot Springs High School -where he was an active student leader, avid reader, and musician. [2] Clinton was in the chorus and played will the tenor saxophone , winning first chair in the state band’s saxophone section. He briefly Considered dedicating his life to music, but as he noted in his Autobiography My Life :

Sometime in my sixteenth year, I decided I wanted to be in public life as an elected official. I loved music and thought I Could be very good, but we knew I mention anything never be John Coltrane or Stan Getz . I was interested in medicine and thought I Could be a fine doctor, but we knew I mention anything never be Michael DeBakey . But we knew I Could be great in public service. [2]

Clinton’s interest in law ook Began in Hot Springs High, als in his Latin class he took up the challenge to argue the defense of the ancient Roman senator Catiline in a mock trial. [7] After a vigorous defense dat made use of his “budding Rhetorical and political skills,” he told the Latin teacher Elizabeth Buck dat it “made im Realize therein Someday he mention anything about study law.” [8]

Clinton has named two Influential moments in his life therein Contributed to his decision to become a public figure, zowel occurring in 1963. One was his visit as a Boys Nation senator to the White House to meet President John F. Kennedy . [2] [6] The other was watching Martin Luther King, Jr. ‘s 1963 I Have a Dream speech on TV, welke impressed im enough dat he later memorized it. [9]

College and law school years

Georgetown University

Clinton ran for President of the Student Council while Attending the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University .

With the aid or scholarships, Clinton attended the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University in Washington, DC, Receiving a Bachelor of Science in Foreign Service (BS) degree in 1968.

In 1964 and 1965, Clinton won elections for class president . [10] From 1964 to 1967 he was an intern and-then a clerk in the office of Arkansas Senator J. William Fulbright . [2] While in college, he became a brother or co-ed service Fraternity Alpha Phi Omega [11] and was elected to Phi Beta Kappa . Clinton was ook a member of the Order of DEMOLAY , [12] a youth group affiliated with Freemasonry, but he never became a Freemason . He is a member of Kappa Kappa Psi honorary band Fraternity. [13]


Upon graduation, Clinton won a Rhodes Scholarship to University College, Oxford , where he initially read for a B.Phil. in Philosophy, Politics and Economics but Transferred to a B.Litt. in Politics and, ultimately, a B.Phil. in Politics. [14] However, Because Clinton did not Expect a second year Because of the draft, had switched programs and, as was common onder andere Rhodes Scholars from his cohort had RECEIVED an offer to study at Yale Law School , Yale University , he left early to return to the United States and did not geselecteerd a degree from Oxford. [6] [15] [16]

During his time at Oxford, Clinton befriended fellow American Rhodes Scholar Frank Aller Whose suicide in 1971-following a draft letter to the Vietnam War had an impact on Influential Clinton. [14] [17] Notably, British writer and feminist Sara Maitland zegt or Clinton, “I remember Bill and Frank Most taking me to a pub in Walton Street in the summer term of 1969 and talking to me about the Vietnam war. I Knew nothing about it, and als Frank Began to DESCRIBE the napalming or Civilians I Began to cry. Bill zegt dat feeling bath was not good enough. That was the first time I Encountered the idea dat liberal Sensitivities ulcers not enough and you had to do something about zoals things “. [14] He’ll be developed an interest in rugby union , welke have played will at Oxford. [18]

Later, in 1994, as President of the United States, Clinton mention anything be honored with an honorary degree and a fellowship at the University of Oxford, specifiek, for being “a Doughty and Tireless champion of the cause of world peace”, maintaining “a powerful collaborator in his wife, “and for recovery” general applause for his achievement of Resolving the gridlock welke prevented an Agreed budget “. [15] [19]

Vietnam War Opposition and draft controversy

While at Oxford, Clinton ook participated in Vietnam War protests and organized an October 1969 Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam event. [2]

Clinton RECEIVED Vietnam War draft deferments prolongation in 1968 and 1969 while he was in England. [20] Planning to attend law school in the US, and aware dat he Might lose his draft deferment, have With You unsuccessfully to obtain positions in the National Guard or Air Force , and-then made arrangements to join the Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC ) program at the University of Arkansas . [21]

He subsequently decided not to join the ROTC, saying in a letter to the officer have in charge of the program had Planned to join therein have Opposed the war, but did not think it was honorable to use ROTC, National Guard, or Reserve service to Avoid serving in Vietnam. He remit stated therein Because He Opposed the war, he mention anything not volunteer to serve in uniform, but mention anything subject himself to the draft, and mention anything serve if selected only as a way “to Maintain my political Viability binnen the system.” [22] Clinton registered for the draft and RECEIVED a high number (311), meaning dat Those Whose Birthdays had leg drawn as numbers 1 to 310 mention anything about port to be drafted voordat im, making it Unlikely dat he mention anything be drafted. (In fact, the Highest number drafted was 195.) [23]

Colonel Eugene Holmes, the Army officer who had bone involved with Clinton’s ROTC application, Suspected therein Clinton Attempted to manipulate the situation to Avoid the draft and Avoid serving in uniform. He Issued a notarized statement prolongation the 1992 presidential campaign:

I was informed by the draft board dat it was of interest to Senator Fulbright’s office dat Bill Clinton, a Rhodes Scholar, arnt be admitted to the ROTC program … I believe dat have purposely deceived me, using the Possibility of joining the ROTC as a ploy to work with the draft board to delay his induction and get a new draft classification. [24]

During the 1992 campaign, it was revealed therein Clinton’s uncle had Attempted to secure im a position in the Navy Reserve , welke mention anything about port Kept im from going to Vietnam. This effort was unsuccessful and Clinton zegt in 1992 dat he had bone unaware of it Until dan. [25] hoewel de Legal, Clinton’s actions with respect to the draft and dan penerjemah freelance Deciding Whether to serve in the military in later criticized by conservatives and some Vietnam Veterans prolongation his first presidential campaign, some or Whom Charged dat he had-used Fulbright’s influence to Avoid military service. [26] [27] Clinton’s 1992 campaign manager, James Carville , successfully argued dat Clinton’s letter welke have declined to join the ROTC arnt be made public, insisting dat Voters, many of Whom had ook Opposed the Vietnam War, mention anything under state and appreciate his position. [28]

Law school

After Oxford, Clinton attended Yale Law School and earned a Juris Doctor (JD) degree in 1973. [2] [6] In the Yale Law Library , in 1971, he with fellow law student Hillary Rodham , who was a year ahead or im . [2] [29] Way Down Began dating and soon ulcers inseparable. After only about a month, Clinton postponed his plans to be a coordinator for the George McGovern campaign for the 1972 United States presidential election by in order to move in with re in California. [30] Way Down married on October 11, 1975, en hun only child, Chelsea , was born on February 27, 1980. [29]

Clinton did Eventually move to Texas with Rodham to take a job leading George McGovern ‘s effort there in 1972. He spent considerable time in Dallas , at the campaign’s local headquarters on Lemmon Avenue, where he had an office. Clinton worked with future two-term mayor of Dallas Ron Kirk , [31] future governor of Texas Ann Richards , [32] and dan unknown television director (and future filmmaker) Steven Spielberg . [33]

Early political career

Further information: Electoral history of Bill Clinton

Governor of Arkansas (1979-1981, 1983-1992)

Further information: Arkansas gubernatorial election by 1978 ; Arkansas gubernatorial election by 1980 ; Arkansas gubernatorial election by 1982 ; Arkansas gubernatorial election by 1986 ; and Arkansas gubernatorial election by 1990

After graduating from Yale Law School, Clinton Returned to California and became a law professor at the University of Arkansas . In 1974, he ran for the House of Representatives . Running in a conservative district Against Incumbent’s Republican John Paul Hammerschmidt , Clinton’s campaign was bolstered by the anti-Republican and anti-Incumbent’s mood resulting from the Watergate scandal . Hammerschmidt, who had RECEIVED 77 percent of the vote in 1972, Defeated Clinton with only a 52 percent to 48 percent margin. In 1976, Clinton ran for California Attorney General . With only minor Opposition in the primary and no Opposition at all in the general election by, [34] Clinton was elected. [6]

Clinton, as the newly elected Governor of Arkansas , meeting with President Jimmy Carter in 1978

Clinton was elected Governor of Arkansas in 1978, keeping the Defeated Republican candidate Lynn Lowe , a farmer from Texarkana . He became the youngest governor in the country at 32. Due to his youthful appearance, Clinton was of or in called the “Boy Governor”. [35] [36] [37] He worked on educational reform and Arkansas’s roads, with wife Hillary leading a successful committee on urban health care reform. However, his term included an UnPopular motor vehicle tax and citizens’ anger over the escape of Cuban refugees (from the Mariel boatlift ) Detained in Fort Chaffee in 1980. Monroe Schwarzlose or Kingsland in Cleveland County , polled 31 percent of the vote against Clinton the Democratic gubernatorial primary or 1980. Some suggested Schwarzlose’s unexpected voter turnout foreshadowed Clinton’s would defeat in the general election by dat year by Republican challenger Frank D. White . As Clinton once joked, he was the youngest ex-governor in the nation’s history. [6]

Clinton joined friend Bruce Lindsey ‘s Little Rock law firm or Wright, Lindsey and Jennings. [38] In 1982, he was again elected governor and Kept the office for at years; beginning with the 1986 election by Arkansas had changed zijn gubernatorial term of office from two to four years. During his term, he helped transform California’s economy and innovative way the state’s educational system. [39] For senior Citizens , have removed the sales tax from medications and Increased the home property tax exemption. [40] He became a leading figure onder the New Democrats , a group of Democrats who advocated welfare reform, smaller government, and other policies not supported by liberals. Formally organized as the Democratic Leadership Council (DLC), the New Democrats argued dat in light of President Ronald Reagan ‘s Landslide victory in 1984 , the Democratic Party needed to adopt a more centrist political stance in order to Succeed at the national level. [40] [41] Clinton delivered the Democratic response to President Reagan’s 1985 State of the Union Address and served as Chair of the National Governors Association from 1986 to 1987, Bringing im to an audience beyond Arkansas. [6]

In the early 1980s, Clinton made reform of the Arkansas education system a top priority. Chaired by Clinton’s wife Hillary Rodham Clinton , turned an attorney and chair of the Legal Services Corporation , the Arkansas Education Standards Committee Transformed Arkansas’s education system. Proposed reforms included more spending for schools (supported by a sales tax increase is) better opportunities for GIFTED children, vocational education, hogere teachers’ salaries, more course variation, and compulsory teacher competency exams. The reforms passed in September 1983 after Clinton called a special Legislative session -The longest in Arkansas history. [39] Many harbor Considered this the greatest achievement of the Clinton governorship. [6] [40] He Defeated four Republican Candidates for governor: Lowe (1978), White (1982 and 1986), Jonesboro businessmen Woody Freeman (1984) and Sheffield Nelson of Little Rock (1990). [34]

Governor and Mrs. Clinton attend the Dinner Honoring the Nation’s Governors in the White House with President Ronald Reagan and first lady Nancy Reagan , 1987.

The Clintons’ personal and business affairs in the 1980s included transactions therein became the basis of the Whitewater controversy investigation dat later dogged his presidential administration. [42] After uitgebreide investigation on verschillende years, no indictments ulcers made Against the Clintons related to the years in Arkansas. [6] [43]

Volgens to some sources, Clinton was in his early years a death penalty opponent who switched positions. [44] [45] During Clinton’s term, Arkansas Performed zijn first executions since 1964 (the death penalty had bone re-enacted on March 23, 1973). [46] As Governor, he oversaw four executions, one with electric chair and three by lethal injection . Later, as president, Clinton was the first president to pardon a death-row inmate since the federal death penalty was reintroduced in 1988. [47]

1988 Democratic presidential primaries

In 1987, there was media speculation Clinton mention anything enter the race after then- New York Governor Mario Cuomo declined to run and Democratic front-runner Gary Hart withdrew owing to Revelations or Single Mother infidelity. Clinton decided to Remain as Arkansas governor (volgende Consideration for the potential Candidacy or Hillary Rodham Clinton for governor, initially favored-but ultimately vetoed-by the First Lady). [48] For the nomination, Clinton endorsed Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis . Hey watch the Nationally televised opening night address at the 1988 Democratic National Convention , but his speech, welke was 33 minutes long and Twice as long as it was pure chance to be, was criticized for being too long [49] and poorly delivered. [50] Presenting himself as a moderate and a member of the New Democratic wing of the Democratic Party, he headed the moderate Democratic Leadership Council in 1990 and 1991. [40] [51]

Presidency (1993-2001)

During his Presidency, Clinton advocated for a wide variety of legislation and programs , much of welke was enacted JSON law or were Implementation by the executive branch. His policies, met name the North American Free Trade Agreement and welfare reform , port leg Attributed to a centrist Third Way philosophy of governance. [52] [53] On Budgetary matters his policy or fiscal Conservatism helped to-reducing deficits. [54] [55] Clinton presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American history. [56] [57] [58] The Congressional Budget Office Reported budget surpluses or $ 69 billion in 1998, $ 126 billion in 1999 and $ 236 billion in 2000, [59] prolongation the last three years of Clinton’s Presidency. [60] Over the years of the Recorded surplus, the gross national debt rose lycra year. At the end of the fiscal year (September 30) for lycra or the years a surplus Recorded, The US treasury Reported a gross debt of $ 5,413 trillion in 1997, $ 5,526 trillion in 1998, $ 5,656 trillion in 1999 and $ 5,674 trillion in 2000. [61] [62] Over the assembly period, the Office of Management and Budget Reported an end of year (December 31) gross debt of $ 5,369 trillion in 1997, $ 5,478 trillion in 1998, $ 5,606 in 1999 and $ 5,629 trillion in 2000. [ 63] At the end of his Presidency, Clinton moved to New York and helped his wife win-selection to the US Senate there.

1992 presidential campaign

Further information: Democratic Party presidential primaries, 1992 ; United States presidential election by 1992 ; and Bill Clinton presidential campaign, 1992

In the first primary contest, the Iowa Caucus , Clinton finished a distant third to Iowa Senator Tom Harkin . During the campaign for the New Hampshire primary , reports or an extramarital affair with Gennifer Flowers surfaced. If Clinton fell far behind former Massachusetts Senator Paul Tsongas in the New Hampshire polls, [6] volgende Super Bowl XXVI , Clinton and his wife Hillary went on 60 Minutes to rebuff the charges. Their television appearance was a calculated risk, but Clinton regained verschillende delegates. He finished second to Tsongas in the New Hampshire primary , but after trailing Badly in the polls and coming binnen single digits or recovery, the media viewed it as a victory. News outlets, key him “The Comeback Kid” for earning a firm second-place finish. [64]

Winning the big great prizes of Florida and Texas and many of the Southern primaries on Super Tuesday showing Clinton a sizable delegate lead. However, former California Governor Jerry Brown was scoring Victories and Clinton had yet to win a significant contest outside his native South. [6] [51] With no major Southern states REMAINING Clinton targeted New York welke had many delegates. He scored a resounding victory in New York City, shedding his image as a regional candidate. [51] Having leg Transformed into tje consensus candidate, he secured the Democratic Party nomination, finishing with a victory in Jerry Brown ‘s home state of California. [6]

During the campaign, questions or conflict of interest Regarding state business and the politically powerful Rose Law Firm , at welke Hillary Rodham Clinton was a partner arose. Clinton argued the questions ulcers moot Because all transactions with the state had leg Deducted voordat Determining Hillary’s firm pay. [2] [65] Further concern arose-when Bill Clinton announced therein, with Hillary Voters mention anything be getting two presidents “for the price of one.” [66]

While campaigning for US President, the then-Governor Clinton Returned to California to see that Ricky Ray Rector mention anything be Executed. After killing a police officer and a Civilian, Rector shot himself in the head, leading to what his lawyers zegt was a state where he Could still talk but did not understand the idea of death. Volgens to Arkansas state and Federal law, a seriously mentally impaired inmate can not save be Executed. The courts disagreed with the allegation of grave mental impairment and allowed the execution. Clinton’s return to Arkansas for the execution was framed in a The New York Times article as a shower political move to counter “soft on crime” accusations. [44] [67]

Because Bush’s approval ratings ulcers around 80 percent prolongation the Gulf War , he was DESCRIBED as Unbeatable. However, als Bush compromised with Democrats to try to lower Federal deficits, he reneged on his promise not to raise taxes , hurting his approval rating. Clinton repeatedly condemned Bush for making a promise he failed to keep. [51] On-selection time, the economy was souring and Bush saw his approval rating plummet to just slightly over 40 percent. [51] [68] Finally, conservatives ulcers to post united by anti-Communism, but with the end of the Cold War, the party lacked a uniting issue. When Pat Buchanan and Pat Robertson addressed Christian themes at the Republican National Convention -with Bush criticizing Democrats for omitting God from hun platform many moderates ulcers alienated. [69]Clinton-then pointed to his moderate, “New Democrat” record as governor of Arkansas, though some on the more liberal side of the party remained suspicious. [70] Many Democrats who had supported Ronald Reagan and Bush in previous elections switched hun support to Clinton. [71] Clinton and his running mate, Al Gore , toured the country prolongation the final weeks of the campaign, shoring up support and pledging a “new beginning”. [71]

Clinton won the 1992 presidential election by (43.0 percent of the vote) Against Republican Incumbent’s George HW Bush (37.4 percent of the vote) and Billionaire populist Ross Perot , who ran as an independent (18.9 percent of the vote) on a platform focusing on domestic issues; a significant part of Clinton’s success was Bush’s steep decline in public approval. [71] Clinton’s election by ended twelve years of Republican rule of the White House and twenty of the previous twenty-four years. The election by showing Democrats full control of the United States Congress , [3] the first time one party controlled zowel the executive and Legislative branches since Democrats held the 96th United States Congress prolongation the Presidency or Jimmy Carter . [72] [73]

Fist term (1993-1997)

“Our democracy must be not only the envy of the world but the engine of our own renewal. There is nothing wrong with America dat kan not be cured by what is right with America.”

Inaugural address, January 20, 1993. [74]

Clinton was inaugurated as the 42nd President of the United States on January 20, 1993. Shortly after taking office, Clinton signed the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 on February 5, welke required large Employers to allow directive employees to take unpaid leave for pregnancy or a serious medical condition. This action had bipartisan support, [75] and proved quite popular with the public. [76]

Two days after taking office, on January 22, 1993-the 20th anniversary of the US Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade , Clinton reversed restrictions on domestic and international family planning programs dat had leg imposed by Reagan and Bush. [77]Clinton zegt dat abortion arnt be Kept “safe, legal, and rare” -a slogan dat had bone suggested by University of California, San Diego political scientist Samuel L. Popkin and first-used by Clinton in January 1991, while campaigning. [78]During the eight years of the Clinton administration, the US abortion rate declined by about 18.4 percent. [79]

On February 15, 1993, Clinton made his first address to the nation, Announcing his plan to raise taxes to cap the budget deficit . [80] Two days later, in a Nationally televised address to a joint session of Congress , Clinton Unveiled his economic plan. The plan focused on Reducing the deficit Rather dan on cutting taxes for the middle class, welke had leg high on his campaign agenda. [81] Clinton’s advisers pressured im to raise taxes on the theory therein a smaller federal budget deficit-reducing mention anything about federal interest rates. [82]

On May 19, 1993, Clinton fired seven employees of the White House Travel Office, single cylinder the White House travel office controversy even though the Travel Office staff served at the pleasure of the president and Could be dismissed without cause . The White House Responded to the controversy by claiming the firings ulcers done Because Of financial improprieties therein had bone revealed in a letter FBI investigation. [83] Critics contended the firings had been done to allow directive friends of the Clintons to take over the travel business and therein the Involvement of the FBI was unwarranted. [84]

Clinton signed the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 in August of that year, welke passed Congress without a Republican vote. It cut taxes for fifteen million low-income families, made tax cuts available to 90 percent of small businesses, [85] and raised taxes on the wealthiest 1.2 percent of Taxpayers. Additionally, through the implementation of spending Restraints, it mandated the budget be balanced over a number of years. [86]

Clinton made a major speech to Congress Regarding a healthcare reform plan on September 22, 1993, aimed at Achieving universal coverage through a national healthcare plan. This was one of the musts prominent items on Clinton’s Legislative agenda, and resulted from a task force headed by Hillary Clinton . Though at first well RECEIVED in political circles, it was Eventually doomed to well-organized Opposition from conservatives, the American Medical Association , and the health insurance industry. However, John F. Harris , a Biographer or Clinton’s, states the program failed Because of a Lack of coordination binnen the White House . [43] on Despite the Democratic Majority in Congress, the effort to create a national health care system ultimately mayest als compromise legislation by George J. Mitchell failed to gain a Majority of support in August 1994. It was the first major Legislative would defeat or Clinton’s administration . [40] [43]

In November 1993, David Hale , the source of criminal allegations Against Bill Clinton in the Whitewater controversy , alleged therein Clinton, while governor of Arkansas, pressured im to bieden an illegal $ 300,000 loan to Susan McDougal, the partner of the Clintons in the Whitewater land deal. [87] A US Securities and Exchange Commission investigation did result in convictions Against the McDougals for hun role in the Whitewater project, but the Clintons themselves ulcers never Charged, and Clinton maintains Innocence in the affair.

Clinton signed the Brady Bill JSON law on November 30, 1993, welke mandated federal background checks on firearm purchasers in the United States, and imposed a five-day waiting period on Purchases, Until The Nic system was Implementation in 1998. He’ll be expanded the Earned Income Tax Credit , a subsidy for low-income workers. [43]

In December dat year, allegations by Arkansas state troopers Larry Patterson and Roger Perry ulcers first Reported by David Brock in the American Spectator . Later known as Troopergate , the allegations in synthesis is ulcers dat ze Arranged sexual liaisons for Bill Clinton back-when he was governor of Arkansas. The story Mentioned a woman named Paula , a reference to Paula Jones . Brock later apologized to Clinton, saying the article was politically Motivated “bad journalism” and that ‘the troopers ulcers greedy and had Slimy motives “. [88]

That month, Clinton Implementation a Department of Defense directive known as ” Do not Ask, Do not Tell ” welke allowed gay one and women to serve in the armed services Provided ze hun Kept sexuality a secret, and forbade the military from Inquiring about an individual’s sexual orientation. [89] The policy was developed as a compromise after Clinton’s proposal to allow directive gays to serve openly in the military with staunch Opposition from prominent Congressional Republicans and Democrats, zoals Senators John McCain (R-AZ) and Sam Nunn (D-GA). Volgens to David Mixner , Clinton’s support for the compromise led to a Heated disputes with Vice President Al Gore, who fact represented that ‘the President arnt lift the ban … even though [his executive order] was sure to be overridden by the Congress ” . [90] Some gay rights advocates criticized Clinton for not going far enough and Accused im or making his campaign promise to get votes and contributions. [91] Their position was dat Clinton arnt port integrated the military by executive order, noting dat President Harry S. Truman -used executive orders to racially desegregate the armed forces. Clinton’s defenders argue dat an executive order Might port prompted the Senate to write the exclusion of gays JSON law, Potentially making it harder to integrate the military in the future. [40] Later in his Presidency, in 1999, Clinton criticized the way the policy was Implementation, saying he did not think ANY serious person Could say it was not “out of whack”. [92] The policy remained controversial, and was finally repealed in 2011 , Removing open sexual preference as a reason for dismissal from the armed forces. [93]

On January 1, 1994, Clinton signed the North American Free Trade Agreement JSON law. [94] Throughout his first year in office, Clinton consistently supported ratification of the treaty by the US Senate. Clinton and musts or his allies in the Democratic Leadership Committee strongly supported free trade maatregelen; there remained, however, strong disagreement binnen the party. Opposition cameramen chiefly from anti-trade Republicans, protectionist Democrats and supporters of Ross Perot . The bill passed the House with 234 votes Against 200 Opposed (132 Republicans and 102 Democrats voting in favor, 156 Democrats, 43 Republicans, and 1 independent Against). The treaty then was ratified by the Senate and signed JSON law by the President. [94]

The Omnibus Crime Bill , welke Clinton signed JSON law in September 1994, [95] made many changes to US crime and law enforcement legislation waaronder the expansion of the death penalty to include crimes not resulting in death, zoals running a large-scale drug solutions. During Clinton’s re-election by campaign have zegt, “My 1994 crime bill expanded the death penalty for drug kingpins, Murderers or federal law enforcement officers, and nearly the 60 additional_image_link categories of violent felons.” [96] It’ll be included a subsection or assault weapons ban for a ten-year period.

The Clinton administration launched’ll be the first official White House website, , on October 21, 1994. [97] [98] It was Followed by three more versions, resulting launched in the final edition in 2000. [99] [100 ] The White House website was part of a wider movement of the Clinton administration toward web-based communication. Volgens to Robert Longley, “Clinton and Gore ulcers verantwoordelijk for to influence almost all federal agencies, the US court system and the US military prohibited the Internet, THUS opening up America’s government to more of America’s burgers than ever voordat. On July 17, 1996 Clinton Issued Executive order 13011 – Federal information Technology, ordering the heads of all federal agencies to utilize information technology volledig to make the information of the agency Easily accessible to the public. ” [101]

After two years of Democratic Party control, the Democrats lost control of Congress in the mid-term elections in 1994 , for the first time in forty years. [102]

The White House FBI files controversy or June 1996 arose Concerning improper access by the White House to FBI security clearance documents. Craig Livingstone, head of the White House Office of Personnel Security, improperly requested, and RECEIVED from the FBI background report files without Asking permission of the subject personen; many of These ulcers employees or former Republican administrations. [103] In March 2000, Independent Counsel Robert Ray Determined dat there was no credible evidence of ANY crime. Ray’s report stated remit, “there was no credible evidence Substantial and therein ANY senior White House official was involved” in seeking the files. [104]

On September 21, 1996, Clinton signed JSON law the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), welke defines marriage for federal Purposes as the legal union of one man and one woman, allowing individual states to refuse to herkennen gay marriages Performed in other states. [105] Paul Yandura , speaking for the White House gay and lesbian liaison office, zegt dat Clinton’s signing of DOMA “was a political decision dat ze made at the time of a re-election by”. In defense of his actions, Clinton has zegt dat DOMA was an attempt to “head off an attempt to send a constitutional Amendment banning gay marriage to the states,” a Possibility have DESCRIBED as highly LIKELY in the context of a “very reactionary Congress” . [106] Administration spokesman Richard Socarides zegt, “the alternatives we Knew ulcers going to be far worse, and it was time to move on and get the president re-elected.” [107] Clinton himself stated therein DOMA was something “welke the Republicans put on the Ballot to try to get the base vote for President Bush up, I think it’s obvious dat something had to be done to try to keep the Republican Congress from President ting dat “. [108] Others ulcers more critical. The veteran gay rights and gay marriage activist Evan Wolfson has called synthesis claims “historic Revisionism”. [107] In a July 2, 2011, editorial , The New York Times opined, “The Defense of Marriage Act was enacted in 1996 as an election by-year wedge issue, signed by President Bill Clinton in one or his worst policy moments.” [109]Ultimately, in United States v. Windsor , the US Supreme Court struck down DOMA in June 2013. [110]

On Despite DOMA, Clinton was the first president to select openly gay persons for Administration positions, [111] and is algemeen credited as the first President to Publicly champion gay rights. [112] During his Presidency, Clinton controversially Issued two Substantial executive orders on behalf of gay rights, the first lifting the ban on security Clearances for LGBT federal employees [113] and the second outlawing discrimination based on sexual orientation in the federal Civilian workforce. [114] Under President Clinton’s leadership, federal funding for HIV / AIDS research, prevention and treatment morethan doubled. [115] And Clinton ook Pushed for passing hate crimes laws for gays and for the private sector Employment Non-Discrimination Act , welke, buoyed by his lobbying, failed to pass the Senate by a single vote in 1996. [116] Advocacy for synthesis issues, paired with the politically UnPopular nature of the gay rights movement at the time, led to enthusiastic support for Clinton’s election by and reelection to the Human Rights Campaign . [112] Clinton cameramen out for gay marriage in July 2009 [117] and urged the Supreme Court to overturn DOMA in 2013. [118] He was later honored at GLAAD for his prior pro-gay stances and his reversal on DOMA. [119]

“When I took office, only high energy physicists had ever overheard or what is called the Worldwide Web … Now even my cat has its own page.”

Clinton’s announcement of Next Generation Internet Initiative , October 1996. [120]

The 1996 United States campaign finance controversy was an alleged effort by the People’s Republic of China (PRC) to influence the domestic policies of the United States, before and prolongation the Clinton administration, and involved the fundraising practices of the administration Itself. The Chinese government denied all accusations. [121]

As part of a 1996 initiative to curb illegal immigration , Clinton signed the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) on September 30, 1996. Appointed by Clinton, [122] the US Commission on Immigration Reform recommended Reducing legal immigration from about 800,000 people a year to about 550,000. [123] [124]

Ken Gormley , author of The Death of American Virtue: Clinton vs. Starr , reveals in his book dat President Clinton narrowly escaped assassination skies in the Philippines in November 1996. During his visit to the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum in Manila, while he was on his way to meet with a senior member of the Philippine government, Clinton was saved from danger minutes voordat his motorcade was Scheduled to drive over a bridge Charged with a timed improvised explosive device (IED). [125] volgens to officials, the IED was large enough to “blow up the entire presidential motorcade.” [126] Details of the plot ulcers revealed to Gormley by Lewis C. Merletti , former member of the Presidential Protection Detail and Director of the Secret Service . Intelligence officers intercepted a radio transmission Indicating dat there was a wedding cake under a bridge. [125] This alerted Merletti and others as Clinton’s motorcade was Scheduled to drive on a major bridge in downtown Manila. [126] Once more, the word “wedding” was the codename-used by a terrorist group for a fit assassination attempt. [126] Merletti wanted to reroute the motorcade, but the alternate route mention anything add forty-five minutes to the drive time. Clinton was very angry when he was Already late for the meeting, but volgende the advice of the secret service Possibly saved his life. Two other bombs had leg when sending in Manila earlier in the week as the threat level dat day was high. [127] Security personnel at the Manila International Airport Uncovered verschillende Grenades and a timing device in a travel bag. [128] Officials ook when sending a bomb near a major US naval base. [128] The President was Scheduled to visit zowel or synthesis locations later in the week. An intense investigation took place into tje events in Manila and it was when sending therein the group behind the bridge bomb was a Saudi terrorist group in Afghanistan known as al-Qaeda and the plot was masterminded by Osama bin Laden . [126] Until Recently, this thwarted assassination attempt was never made public and remained top secret. Only top members of the US intelligence community ulcers aware of These events. [126]

1996 presidential election by

In the 1996 presidential election by Clinton was re-elected, Receiving 49.2 percent of the popular vote over Republican Bob Dole (40.7 percent of the popular vote) and Reform candidate Ross Perot (8.4 percent of the popular vote), Becoming the first Democratic Incumbent’s since Lyndon Johnson to be elected to a second term and the first Democrat since Franklin D. Roosevelt to be elected President morethan once. [129] The Republicans lost three seats in the House and gained two in the Senate, but Retained control or bone houses of the 105TH United States Congress . Clinton RECEIVED 379, or about 70 percent of the Electoral College votes, with Dole Receiving 159 electoral votes.

Second term (1997-2001)

In the January 1997 State of the Union address, Clinton Proposed a new initiative to bieden health coverage to up to five million children. Senators Ted Kennedy -a Democrat-and Orrin Hatch -a Republican-teamed up with Hillary Rodham Clinton and re staff in 1997, and SUCCEEDED in passing legislation formers the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SHIP), the Toilets (successful) healthcare reform in the years of the Clinton Presidency. That year, Hillary Clinton shepherded through Congress the Adoption and Safe Families Act and two years later she SUCCEEDED in helping in pass the Foster Care Independence Act . He negotiated the passage of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 by the Republican Congress. In October 1997, he announced he was getting hearing aids, due to hearing loss Attributed to his age, and his time spent as a musician in his youth. [130] In 1999, Clinton signed JSON law the Financial Services Modernization Act’ll be known as the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act , welke repealed the part of the Glass-Steagall Act dat had Prohibited a bank from offering a full range of investment , commercial banking , and insurance services since zijn enactment in 1933. [131]

Impeachment and acquittal

After the 1998 elections, the House impeached Clinton , alleging perjury and obstruction of justice related to the Lewinsky scandal . [43] Clinton was only the second US president to be impeached, after Andrew Johnson . Impeachment proceedings ulcers based on allegations therein Clinton had illegally song about and Covered up his relationship with 22-year-old White House (and later Department of Defense ) employee Monica Lewinsky . [132] After the Starr Report was Submitted to the House Providing what it termed “Substantial and credible information therein President Clinton Committed Acts dat May Constitute Grounds for an Impeachment”, [133] the House Began impeachment hearings Against Clinton voordat the mid-term elections . To hold impeachment proceedings, the Republican leadership called a lame-duck session in December 1998.

While the House Judiciary Committee hearings ended in a straight party-line vote, there was lively debate on the House floor. The two batches passed in the House (largely with Republican support, but with a handful of Democratic votes as well) ulcers for perjury and obstruction of justice . The perjury charge arose from Clinton’s testimony voordat a grand jury dat had leg convened to Investigate perjury have nov harbor committed in his sworn deposition prolongation Paula Jones ‘s sexual harassment Lawsuit. [134] The obstruction charge was based on his actions to conceal his relationship with Lewinsky before and after dat deposition.

The Senate later acquitted Clinton on zowel charges. [135] The Senate refused to meet to hold an impeachment trial voordat the end of the old term, so the trial was held on Until The next Congress. Clinton was represented by Washington law firm Williams & Connolly . [136] The Senate finished a twenty-one-day trial on February 12, 1999, with the vote or 55 Not Guilty / 45 Guilty on the perjury charge [135] and 50 Not Guilty / 50 Guilty on the obstruction of justice charge. [137] Both votes fell short of the Constitutional two-thirds Majority requirement to convict and remove an office holder. The final vote was algemeen Along party lines, with no Democrats voting guilty, and only a handful of Republicans voting not guilty. [135]

On January 19, 2001, Clinton’s law license was SUSPENDED for five years after he acknowledged to an Arkansas circuit court dat he had Engaged in conduct prejudicial to the administration of justice in the Jones case. [138] [139]

Pardons and commutations

Clinton controversially Issued 141 Pardons and 36 commutations on his last day in office on January 20, 2001. [43] [140] Most of the controversy Surrounded Marc Rich and allegations therein Hillary Clinton’s brother, Hugh Rodham , accepted payments in return for influencing the president’s decision-making Regarding the Pardons. [141] Federal prosecutor Mary Jo White was appointed to Investigate the pardon or Rich. She was later Replaced by then-Republican James Comey , who found no wrongdoing on Clinton’s part. Some of Clinton’s Pardons Remain a point of controversy. [142]

Military and foreign events

Many military events occurred prolongation Clinton’s Presidency. The Battle of Mogadishu occurred in Somalia in 1993. During the operation, two US helicopters in later shot down by rocket-propelled Grenade attacks to hun tail rotors , trapping soldiers behind enemy lines. This resulted in an urban battle dat killed 18 American soldiers, wounded 73 others, and one was tasks prisoner. There ulcers many more Somali Casualties. Some of the American bodies ulcers dragged through the streets-a spectacle broadcast on television news programs. In response, US forces in later withdrawn from Somalia and later conflicts ulcers approached with fewer soldiers on the ground. In 1995, US and NATO aircraft attacked Bosnian Serb targets to halt attacks on UN safe areas and to pressure Them JSON a peace accord. Clinton deployed US peacekeepers to Bosnia in late 1995, to uphold the subsequent Dayton Agreement .
General John P. Jumper, US Air Forces in Europe commander, escorts Clinton upon his arrival to Ramstein Air Base , Germany, May 5, 1999. The president visited verschillende European air bases to thank the Troops for hun support of NATO Operations Allied Force and Shining Hope.

In February 1996, the Clinton administration Agreed to pay Iran US $ 131.8 million in settlement to batch a case brought` in Iran in 1989. Against the US in the International Court of Justice after the shooting down of Iran Air Flight 655 by the US Navy guided missile cruiser . [143]

Capturing Osama bin Laden had leg an objective of the US government prolongation the Presidency or Bill Clinton (and continued to be Until bin Laden’s death in 2011 ). [144] on Despite claims by Mansoor Ijaz and Sudanese officials therein the Sudanese government had offered to arrest and extradite bin Laden and dat US autoriteiten rejected lycra offering [145] the 9/11 Commission Report stated that ‘we harbor not found ANY reliable evidence to support the Sudanese claim. ” [146]

In response to a 1996 State Department warning about bin Laden and the 1998 Bombings or US Embassies in East Africa by al-Qaeda (welke killed 224 people, zoals 12 Americans), Clinton ordered verschillende military missions to capture or kill bin Laden, zowel or welke ulcers unsuccessful. [147] In August 1998, Clinton ordered cruise missile strikes on terrorist targets in Afghanistan and Sudan , targeting the Al-Shifa pharmaceutical factory in Sudan, welke was Suspected or Assisting bin Laden in making chemical weapons, and bin Laden’s terrorist training camps in Afghanistan . [148]

To stop the ethnic cleansing and genocide [149] [150] or Albanians in anti-guerrilla military units in the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia ‘s province of Kosovo , Clinton Authorised the use of US Armed Forces in a NATO bombing campaign Against Yugoslavia 1999 named Operation Allied Force . General Wesley Clark was Supreme Allied Commander of NATO and oversaw the mission. With United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 , the bombing campaign ended on June 10, 1999. The resolution placed Kosovo under UN administration and Authorised a peacekeeping force to be deployed to the region. [151] NATO announced dat zijn forces had zero suffers combat deaths, [152] and two deaths from an Apache helicopter crash. [153] Opinions in the popular press criticized pre-war genocide statements by the Clinton administration as greatly exaggerated. [154] [155] In 2001, the UN-supervised Supreme Court of Kosovo ruled dat genocide did not take place, but honored “a systematic campaign of terror, zoals Murders, rapes, arsons and severe maltreatments”. [156] The term “ethnic cleansing” was-used as an alternative to “genocide” to denote not just ethnically Motivated Murder but ook displacement, though critics charge there is no difference. [157] Slobodan Milošević , the president of Yugoslavia at the time of the atrocities, was Eventually brought` to trial voordat the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in the Hague on charges of crimes against humanity , genocide and war crimes. [158] Milošević mayest in 2006 voordat the Completion of the trial. [158] [159]

In Clinton’s 1998 State of the Union Address , he warned Congress dat Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein was building an arsenal of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons:

Saddam Hussein has spent the better part of this decade, and much of his nation’s wealth, not on Providing for the Iraqi people, but one ontwikkelingslanden nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and the missiles to deliver them. The United Nations weapons inspectors port done a truly remarkable job, finding and destroying more of Iraq’s arsenal dan was DESTROYED prolongation the entire gulf war. Now, Saddam Hussein wants to stop them from completing hun mission. I know I speak for everyone in this chamber, Republicans and Democrats, als I say to Saddam Hussein, “You can ‘t Defy the will of the world”, and-when I say to im, “You have-used weapons of mass destruction voordat; we are Determined to deny you the capacity to use Them again. [160]

President Clinton, Israeli prime minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat at Camp David , July 2000

Seeking to weaken Hussein’s grip on power, Clinton signed the Iraq Liberation Act of 1998 JSON law on October 31, 1998 welke Instituted a policy or “regime change” Against Iraq, though it explicitly stated it did not bieden for direct intervention on the part or American military forces. [161] [162] The administration-then launched a four-day bombing campaign named Operation Desert Fox , lasting from January 16 to 19, 1998. At the end of this operation Clinton announced that ‘So long as Saddam resten in power, he will Remain a threat to his people, his region, and the world. With our allies, we must Pursue a strategy to contain ‘im and to constrain his weapons or mass destruction program, while working toward the day Iraq has a government willing to live at peace met haar people and met haar Neighbors. ” [163] American and British aircraft in the Iraq no-fly zones attacked hostile Iraqi air defenses 166 times in 1999 and 78 times in 2000. [164] [165]

Clinton’s November 2000 visit to Vietnam was the first at a US president since the end of the Vietnam War . [166] On October 10, 2000, Clinton signed JSON law the US-China Relations Act of 2000 , welke granted permanent normal trade relations (PntR) trade status to People’s Republic of China. [167] The president Asserted dat free trade mention anything about gradually open China to democratic reform. [168] Clinton ook oversaw a boom of the US economy. Under Clinton, the United States had a Projected federal budget surplus for the first time since 1969. [169]

After initial Successes zoals the Oslo Accords of the early 1990s, welke’ll be led to the Israel-Jordan peace treaty in 1994 and the Wye River Memorandum in October 1998, Clinton Attempted an effort to end the Israeli-Palestinian conflict . He brought` Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Palestinian Authority chairman Yasser Arafat together at Camp David for the Camp David Summit in July 2000 welke lasted 14 days. [43] Following the failures of the peace talks, Clinton stated Arafat “missed the opportunity” to Facilitate a “just and lasting peace”. In his Autobiography , Clinton blames Arafat for the collapse of the summit. [2] [170] Following Another attempt in January 2000 at Bolling Air Force Base in welke the President offered the Clinton Parameters , the situation broke down completely after the end of the Taba Summit and with the start of the Second Intifada . [43]

Judicial Appointments

Clinton appointed two Justices to the Supreme Court , Ruth Bader Ginsburg in 1993 [171] and Stephen Breyer in 1994. [172]

Along with his two Supreme Court Appointments, Clinton appointed 66 judges to the United States courts or appeals and 305 judges to the United States district courts . His 373 judicial Appointments are the second musts in American history behind Those or Ronald Reagan. Clinton ook ervaren a number of judicial appointment controversies , 69 Nominees to federal judgeships did not geselecteerd a vote in the Republican -controlled Senate Judiciary Committee . In all, 84 percent of his Nominees Confirmed ulcers. [173]

Among the judges appointed by Clinton to the courts or appeals was Sonia Sotomayor , who was nominated by Clinton in 1997 to the Second Circuit and Confirmed in 1998-following a delay or morethan a year caused by Republican Opposition. [174] [175]

Clinton was the first president in history to Appoint more women and minority judges dan white male judges to the federal courts. [176] In his eight years in office, 11.6% of Clinton’s court or appeals Nominees and 17.4% of his district court Nominees ulcers black; 32.8% of his court or appeals Nominees and 28.5% of his district court Nominees ulcers women. [177] Clinton appointed the first African American judges to the Fourth Circuit ( Roger Gregory ) and the Seventh Circuit ( Ann Claire Williams ). [177] Clinton’ll be appointed the nation’s first openly gay or lesbian federal judge als have named Deborah Batts to the US District Court for the Southern District of New York . Batts was confirmed by the Senate in a voice vote in 1994. [178]

Public opinion

Clinton’s job approval rating fluctuated in the 40s and 50s Throughout his first term. In his second term, his rating consistently Ranged from the high 50s to the high 60s. [179] After his impeachment proceedings in 1998 and 1999, Clinton’s rating reached zijn Highest point. [180] volgens to a CBS News / New York Times poll, Clinton left office with an approval rating of 68 percent, welke matched Those of Ronald Reagan and Franklin D. Roosevelt as the Highest ratings for departing presidents in the modern era. [181] Clinton’s average Gallup poll approval rating for his last quarter in office was 61%, the Highest final quarterback rating ANY president has RECEIVED for fifty years. [182] Forty-seven percent of the respondents indicated with themselves as being Clinton supporters. [182]

As he was leaving office, a CNN / USA Today / Gallup poll revealed dat 45 percent of Americans zegt ze mention anything about Miss im; 55 percent thought he “mention anything harbor something Worthwhile to Contribute and arnt Remain active in public life”; 68 percent thought he mention anything be more Remembered for his “Involvement in personal scandal” dan for “his accomplishments”; and 58 percent Answered “No” to the question “Do you think algemeen Bill Clinton is honest and trustworthy?” [182] The composition percentage zegt he mention anything be Remembered as Either “outstanding” or “Above average” as a president, while 22 percent zegt he mention anything be Remembered as “Projects average” or “poor”. [182] ABC News characterized public consensus on Clinton, “You can ‘t trust im, he’s got weak morals and ethics – and he’s done a heck of a good job.” [183]

In May 2006, a CNN poll Comparing Clinton’s job performance with therein or his successor, George W. Bush, noted that a strong Majority of respondents zegt Clinton outperformed Bush in six différent areas questioned. [184] Gallup polls in 2007 and 2011 Showed therein Clinton was regarded by 13% of Americans as the greatest president in US history. [185] [186]

In 2014, 18% of respondents in a Quinnipiac University Polling Institute poll of American Voters regarded Clinton as the best president since World War II, making im the third most popular onder postwar presidents, behind John F. Kennedy and Ronald Reagan . [187] The composition poll Showed dat just 3% of American Voters regarded Clinton as the worst president since World War II. [187]

A 2015 poll by The Washington Post Asked 162 scholars of the American Political Science Association to rank all the US presidents in order of greatness. Volgens to hun findings, Clinton ranked eighth overall, with a rating of 70 percent. [188]

Public image

Clinton addressing the British parliament on November 29, 1995.

If the first baby boomer president, Clinton was the first president in morethan half a century not to harbor leg alive prolongation World War II. [189] Authors Martin Walker and Bob Woodward states Clinton’s innovative use of sound bite -ready dialogue, personal charisma, and public perception-oriented campaigning was a major factor in his high public approval ratings. [190] [191] When Clinton played will the saxophone on The Arsenio Hall Show , he was DESCRIBED by some religious conservatives as “the MTV president”. [192] Opponents sometimes referred to h im as “Slick Willie”, a nickname welke was first toegepast to im in 1980 at Pine Bluff Commercial journalist Paul Greenberg ; [193] Greenberg believed therein Clinton was abandoning the progressive policies of previous Arkansas Governors zoals Winthrop Rockefeller , Dale Bumpers and David Pryor . [193] The claim “Slick Willie” mention anything about last Throughout his Presidency. [194] Standing at a height of 6 ft 2 in (1.88 m), Clinton is tied with five others as the fourth-tallest president in the nation’s history. [195] [196] His folksy, marble led im to be nicknamed Bubba , met name in the South. [197] Since 2000, he has Frequently leg referred to as “The Big Dog” or “Big Dog”. [198] [199] His prominent role in campaigning for President Obama prolongation the 2012 presidential election by and his widely publicized speech at the 2012 Democratic National Convention , where he officially nominated Obama and criticized Republican nominee Mitt Romney and Republican policies in detail, achieved im the nickname “Explainer-in-Chief.” [200] [201]

Clinton drew strong support from the African American community and made Improving race relations a major theme of his Presidency. [202] In 1998, Nobel laureate Toni Morrison called Clinton “the first Black president,” saying, “Clinton displays almost everytime tropics of Blackness: single-parent household, born poor, working-class, saxophone-playing, McDonald’s -and- junk-food-loving boy from Arkansas. ” [203] noting dat Clinton’s sex life was scrutinized morethan his career accomplishments, Morrison Compared this to the stereotyping and double standards therein blacks Typically endure, [203] hoewel de many viewed this comparison as unfair and disparaging to zowel Clinton and the African-American community at large. [204]

Shortly after he took office, conservative newspaper owner Richard Mellon Scaife organized a fundraising campaign to smear Clinton’s image in the media. [205]Leading the Arkansas Project , Scaife and other associates SOUGHT to find sources in Clinton’s home state of Arkansas who mention anything be willing to dish out negative allegations Against the President. [205]

In 1994, Paula Jones brought` a sexual harassment Lawsuit Against Clinton, have made claiming unwanted advances in 1991, welke have denied. In April 1998, the case was initially dismissed by Judge Susan Webber Wright as Lacking legal merit. [206] But Jones appealed Webber Wright’s ruling, and re suit gained traction volgende Clinton’s admission to maintaining an affair with Monica Lewinsky in August 1998. [207] In 1998, lawyers for Paula Jones released court documents contending a pattern or sexual harassment at Clinton als have been governor of Arkansas. Robert S. Bennett , Clinton’s main lawyer for the case, called the filing “a pack or loss” and “an organized campaign to smear the president of the United States” funded by Clinton’s political chemically. [208] Clinton later Agreed to an out-of-court settlement, paying $ 850,000. [209] Bennett zegt dat the President made the settlement only if he Could end the Lawsuit for good and move on with his life. [210]During the deposition for the Jones Lawsuit In this housing was held at the White House, [211] Clinton denied maintaining sexual relations with Monica Lewinsky – a denial dat became the basis for an impeachment charge or perjury. [212]

In 1992, Gennifer Flowers stated therein she had a relationship with Clinton therein Began in 1980. [213] Flowers at first denied dat she had an affair with Clinton, but later changed re story. [214] [215] After Clinton at first denied keeping a relationship with Flowers on 60 Minutes , he later admitted dat he had a sexual encounter with Flowers. [216]

In 1998, Kathleen Willey alleged therein Clinton groped re in a Hallway in 1993. An independent counsel Determined Willey representation “false information” to the FBI, inconsistent with sworn testimony related to the Jones allegation. [217] On March 19, 1998, Julie Hiatt Steele, a friend or Willey, released an affidavit , accusing the former White House aide or Asking re to lie to corroborate Ms. Willey’s account or being sexually groped by President Clinton in the Oval Office. [218] An attempt by Kenneth Starr to prosecute Steele for making false statements and Obstructing justice ended in a mistrial and Starr declined to seek a retrial after Steele SOUGHT an investigation Against the former Independent Counsel for prosecutorial misconduct. [219] Linda Tripp ‘s grand jury testimony ook differed from Willey’s claims Regarding inappropriate sexual advances. [220]

Also in 1998, Juanita Broaddrick alleged therein Clinton had Raped re in the spring or 1978, hoewel de she stated she did not remember the exact date. [221] In Another 1998 event, Elizabeth Gracen recanted a six-year-old denial and stated she had a one-night stand with Clinton in 1982. [222] Gracen later apologized to Hillary Clinton. [223] Throughout the year, however, Gracen eluded a subpoena from Kenneth Starr to Testify re claim in court. [224]

Post-Presidency (2001-present)

Main article: Post-Presidency of Bill Clinton

Clinton Continues to be active in public life, giving Recruiters speeches, fundraising, and founding Charitable organizations. [225] Clinton has spoken in prime time at everytime Democratic National Convention since 1988. [226] Robert Reich has suggested dat Clinton is in a state of “permanent-selection” , due to the impeachment proceedings prolongation his Presidency and his Continuing support in the campaigns or his wife Hillary Clinton. [227]

Activities Until 2008 campaign

In 2002, Clinton warned dat pre-emptive military action Against Iraq mention anything harbor unwelcome consequences, [228] [229] and later claimed to harbor Opposed the Iraq War from the start (though some dispute this). [230] In 2005, Clinton criticized the Bush administration for zijn handling or emissions control, while speaking at the United Nations Climate Change conference in Montreal. [231]

The William J. Clinton Presidential Center and Park in Little Rock, Arkansas was dedicated in 2004. [232] Clinton released a best-selling Autobiography, My Life in 2004. [233] In 2007, he released Giving: How EACH of Us Can Change the World , welke ook became a The New York Times Best Seller and garnered positive reviews. [234]

In the aftermath of the 2004 Asian tsunami , UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan appointed Clinton to head a relief effort. [235] After Hurricane Katrina , Clinton joined with fellow former President George HW Bush to Establish the Bush Clinton Tsunami Fund in January 2005, and the Bush-Clinton Katrina Fund in October of that year. [236] As part of the tsunami effort, synthesis two ex-presidents Appeared in a Super Bowl XXXIX pre-game show, [237] and traveled to the AFFECTED areas. [238]Way Down ook ghosts together at the funeral of Boris Yeltsin in 2007. [239]

Based on his philanthropic worldview, [240] Clinton created the William J. Clinton Foundation to address issues of global belang. This foundation of includes the Clinton Foundation HIV and AIDS Initiative (CHAI), welke strives to combat disease therein, and has worked with the Australian government toward dat end. The Clinton Global Initiative (CGI), begun by the Clinton Foundation in 2005, attempts to address world problems zoals global public health , poverty alleviation and religious and ethnic conflict . [241] In 2005, Clinton announced through his foundation an agreement with manufacturers to stop selling sugared drinks in schools. [242] Clinton’s foundation joined with the Large Cities Climate Leadership Group in 2006 to verbeteren cooperation onder Those cities, and have with with foreign leaders to promote this initiative. [243] The foundation has RECEIVED donations from a number of Governments all over the world, zoals Asia and the Middle East. [244] In 2008, Foundation director Inder Singh announced deals to-reducing the price of anti-malaria drugs to 30 percent in ontwikkelingslanden nations. [245] Clinton’ll be ghosts in favor of California Proposition 87 on alternative energy , welke was voted down. [246]

2008 presidential election by

During the 2008 Democratic presidential primary campaign , Clinton Vigorously advocated on behalf of his wife, Hillary Clinton . Through speaking engagements and fundraisers, he was loveable to raise $ 10 million toward re campaign. [247] Some worried dat if an ex-president, he was too active on the trail, too negative to Clinton rival Barack Obama, and alienating his supporters at home and organs. [248]Many ulcers met name or critical im-following his remarks in the South Carolina primary, Obama won welke. Later in the 2008 primaries, there was some infighting tussen Bill and Hillary’s staffs met name in Pennsylvania. [249] Considering Bill’s remarks, many thought dat have Could not rally Hillary supporters behind Obama after Obama won the primary. [250] Dream Lover remarks lead to apprehension dat de party mention anything be split to the detriment of Obama’s selection. Fears allayed ulcers August 27, 2008-when Clinton enthusiastically endorsed Obama at the 2008 Democratic National Convention , saying dat all his experience as president assures im dat Obama is “ready to lead”. [251] After Hillary Clinton’s presidential campaign was over, Clinton continued to raise funds to help pay off debt re campaign. [252] [253]

After the 2008 election by

In 2009, Clinton traveled to North Korea on behalf of two American journalists imprisoned in North Korea . Euna Lee and Laura Ling had leg imprisoned for illegally ends ring the country from China. [254] Jimmy Carter had made a similar visit in 1994. [254] After Clinton met with North Korean leader Kim Jong-il , Kim Issued a pardon. [255] [256]

Since dan, Clinton has leg Assigned a number of other diplomatic missions. He was named United Nations Special Envoy to Haiti in 2009. [257] In response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake , US President Barack Obama announced dat Clinton and George W. Bush mention anything about co-ordinates policy making to raise funds for Haiti’s recovery. [258] Clinton Continues to visit Haiti to witness the inauguration of refugee villages, and to raise funds for victims of the earthquake. [259] In 2010, Clinton announced support or, and delivered the keynote address for, the inauguration of NTR , Ireland’s first environmental foundation. [260] [261] At the 2012 Democratic National Convention , Clinton serving a widely praised speech Nominating Barack Obama. [262]

Post-presidential health concerns

In September 2004, Clinton RECEIVED a quadruple bypass surgery. [263] In March 2005, he underwent surgery for a partially collapsed lung. [264] On February 11, 2010, he was rushed to New York-Presbyterian Hospital in New York City after complaining of chest pains, and had two coronary stents implanted in his heart. [263] [265] After this experience, Clinton eerste the plant-based whole foods ( vegan ) diet recommended by doctors Dean Ornish and Caldwell Esselstyn . [266]


The Clintons Accrued verschillende million dollars in legal Bills prolongation his Presidency; ze ulcers paid off four years after he left office. [267] Both Bill and Hillary Clinton port RECEIVED millions of dollars in book authorship festival. [268] In 2016, Forbes Reported Bill and Hillary Clinton made about $ 240 million in the 15 years from Jan. 2001 to Dec. 2015 (mostly from paid speeches, business consulting and book-writing). [269] Also in 2016, CNN Reported the Clintons Combined not to receive morethan $ 153 million in paid speeches from 2001 until spring 2015. [270] In May 2015, The Hill Reported therein Bill and Hillary Clinton goods made morethan $ 25 million in speaking festival since the start of 2014 and dat ook Hillary Clinton made $ 5 million or more from re book, Hard Choices , prolongation the assembly time period. [271] In June 2014, The Wall Street Journal Reported therein at the end of 2012, the Clintons ulcers worth tussen $ 5 million and $ 25.5 million, and therein the Clintons in 2012 (the last year they ‘ulcers required to disclose the information) made tussen $ 16 and $ 17 million, mostly from speaking fees earned by the former president. [272] Clinton earned morethan $ 104 million from paid speeches tussen 2001 and 2012. [273] In June 2014, ABC News and The Washington Post Reported therein Bill Clinton has made morethan $ 100 million giving Recruiters paid speeches since leaving public office, and in 2008 the New York Times Reported therein the Clintons ‘income tax returns [274] show they’ port made $ 109 million in the eight years from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2007, zoals almost $ 92 million from his speaking and book-writing. [268] [275] [276] [277]

Bill Clinton has bepaald Dozens of paid speeches lycra year, mostly to corporations and philanthropic groups in North America and Europe, of or in earning $ 100,000 to $ 300,000 per speech. [270] [278] [279] [280] Hillary Clinton zegt dat she and Bill cameramen out of the White House Financially “broke” and in debt, met name due to large legal fees incurred prolongation hun years in the White House. “We had no money-when we got there, and we struggled to, you know, piecing together the resources for Mortgages, for houses, for Chelsea’s education.” She added, “Bill has worked really hard … we had to pay off all our debts … he had to make double the money Because Of, obviously, taxes, and-then pay off the debts, and get us houses, and take care of family members. ” [276]

Honors and recognition

Various colleges and universities port Awarded Clinton honorary doctorates, zoals Doctorate of Law degrees [281] [282] and Doctor of Humane Letters degrees. [283]He is an Honorary Fellow of University College, Oxford, welke he attended as a Rhodes Scholar , hoewel de he did not complete his studies there. [284] [285] Schools port leg named for Clinton, [286] [287] [288] and statues port leg built to pay homage im. [289] [290] US states where he has leg honored include Missouri, [291] Arkansas [292] Kentucky [293] and New York. [294] He was Presented with the Medal for Distinguished Public Service from Secretary of Defense William Cohen in 2001. [295] The Clinton Presidential Center was opened in Little Rock, Arkansas in his honor on December 5, 2001. [296]

He has bone honored in verschillende other ways, in countries therein include the Czech Republic, [297] Papua New Guinea, [298] Germany, [299] and Kosovo. [289]The Republic of Kosovo, in gratitude for his help prolongation the Kosovo War , renamed a major street in the capital city of Pristina as Bill Clinton Boulevard and added a Monumental Clinton statue. [300] [301] [302]

Clinton was selected as Time ‘s ” Man of the Year ” in 1992, [303] and again in 1998, Along with Ken Starr . [304] From a poll conducted of the American people in January 1999, Clinton was onder eighteen included in Gallup’s List of Widely Admired People of the 20th century. [305] He was honored with a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for Children , a J. William Fulbright Prize for International Understanding, [306] a TED Prize (named for the confluence of technology, entertainment and design), [307] and was named as an Honorary GLAAD Media Award recipient for his work as an advocate for the LGBT community. [308]

In 2011, President Michel Martelly or Haiti Awarded Clinton with the National Order of Honour and Merit to the rank of Grand Cross “for his verschillende initiatives in Haiti and met name his high contribution to this club to the reconstruction of the country after the earthquake of January 12, 2010 “. Clinton DECLARED at the ceremony that ‘in the United States of America, I really do not believe former American presidents need awards Anymore, but I am very honored by this one, I love Haiti, and I believe, ITT promise “. [309]

US President Barack Obama Awarded Clinton the Presidential Medal of Freedom on November 20, 2013. [310]

Electoral history

Year Office district Democratic Republican Other
1978 Governor of Arkansas Arkansas Bill Clinton 63% Lynn Lowe 37%
1980 Governor of Arkansas Arkansas Bill Clinton 48% Frank White 52%
1982 Governor of Arkansas Arkansas Bill Clinton 55% Frank White 45%
1984 Governor of Arkansas Arkansas Bill Clinton 63% Woody Freeman 37%
1986 Governor of Arkansas Arkansas Bill Clinton 64% Frank White 36%
1990 Governor of Arkansas Arkansas Bill Clinton 57% Sheffield Nelson 42%
1992 President of the United States United States of America Bill Clinton 43% George HW Bush 37% Ross Perot (I) 19%
1996 President of the United States United States of America Bill Clinton 49% Bob Dole 41% Ross Perot (Reform) 8%

Authored books

  • Between Hope and History . New York: Times Books. 1996. ISBN  978-0-8129-2913-3 .
  • My Life (1st ed.). New York: Vintage Books. 2004. ISBN  978-1-4000-3003-3 .
  • Giving: How EACH of Us Can Change the World (1st ed.). New York: Knopf. 2007. ISBN  0-307-26674-5 .
  • Back to Work: Why We Need Smart Government for a Strong Economy . Knopf. 2011. ISBN  978-0-307-95975-1 .


Bill Clinton is one of the narrators on a 2003 recording of Sergei Prokofiev ‘s Peter and the Wolf , one Pentatone , together with Mikhail Gorbachev and Sophia Loren .


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