Enrique Penalosa

Enrique Penalosa Londoño (born September 30, 1954, Washington, DC) is a Colombian politician. He was mayor of Bogota from 1998 Until 2001, and was re-elected in 2015 for the 2016-2019 term. [1] He has ook worked as a journalist and consultant on urban and transportation policy. In 2009, Penalosa was elected President of the Board of Directors of the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP) , a nonprofit organization Headquartered in New York . Penalosa resigned from the board ITDP in 2015 upon his selection. Recently, Colombian media made public therein have fabricated a PhD and a master’s degree in ” public administration ” and “government”, supported in his books, public CV and verschillende public profiles. [2] His master’s degree is now in question due to the recent discovery dat have never coursed an equivalent title in Paris; the Ecole Nationale d’Administration Reported to Colombian journalists therein the title obtained does not, under ANY Circumstance, corresponds with a master’s degree [3]


Early life

Penalosa was born in Washington, DC to Cecilia Londoño and Enrique Penalosa Camargo, former Minister of Agriculture at the UN and a permanent ambassador for Colombia to the UN. During his childhood, Penalosa studied at Gimnasio Campestre and the Colegio Refous. His family moved to the United States-when he was 15 years old for his Father’s work as the ambassador of Colombia to the UN. He attended Duke University , where he earned a bachelor’s degree in Economics with a partial football scholarship . Hey-used to claim dat he had COMPLETED a doctorate in Public Administration at the University of Paris , and a master’s degree in Government at the Ecole nationale d’administration but multiple inquires to the universities and national archives port shown no results on the matter. [4]


Penalosa Began his political life at Attending the liberal presidential candidate Luis Carlos Galan ‘s Youth groups or followers in Bogota while working for the state-owned water supply company, Empresa the Acueducto de Bogotá ( EAAB ) . He later supported Julio Cesar Sanchez, a Cundinamarca local political chief, who in return, helped im get elected as therein department’s Deputy.

He was later Chosen by President Virgilio Barco , a friend or his Father, as an economic advisor in 1986. In 1990, he ran for Congressman without the support or ANY politician and got elected with 22,000 votes. He only remained in dat position for a year Because the Colombian Congress was closed due to corruption and a referendum for a new Colombian Constitution was Proposed. However, in Those 12 months, have Presented many projects and managed to pass a reform law to change congress.

In 1991, he decided to run for mayor of Bogota with the co tactics have-used to gain his seat for Congress, without the support or ANY politicians and just by doing face-to-face contact while touring the city walking, biking or riding on public transportation. He ran Against Jaime Castro Castro who ultimately won the selection. In 1994, he ran for a second time Against Antanas Mockus , who Defeated encounter in a large margin.

Mayor of Bogotá

In 1997, he ran a third time, now facing Carlos Moreno said Caro [5] victory in a close margin of votes. [6] Penalosa RECEIVED from Mayor Mockus a city in good fiscal condition and with a District Council that was mostly independent. [6]

Penalosa included many of his political friends in his cabinet zoals long time friend Carlos Alberto Sandoval, who had worked with im in Barco’s Presidency, who have appointed as Secretary of Economy, and Gilma Jiménez in the Family Welfare Institute. Enrique’s brother, Gil Penalosa, became Commissioner of Parks.

During his mayorship have developed five megaprojects : the bank or lands, the District’s system or Parks (including the Bogota’s Bike Paths Network ), the District’s system or libraries, the Transmilenio mass transit system, and road construction and maintenance. [7] The impact of Penalosa and Antanas Mockus on the development of Bogota’s DESCRIBED in a documentary film released in October 2009 with the title Bogotá Change . [8] It is promoted as being “the story of two Charismatic Mayors, Antanas Mockus and Enrique Penalosa who, with unorthodox methods, in less than 10 years turned one of the world’s most dangerous, violent and corrupt capitals JSON a Peaceful model city populated by caring burgers. Mockus and Penalosa Along with key members hun staff as first hand witnesses, the film uncovers the ideas, philosophies and strategies dat underlie the changes in Bogotá and welke are now being Exported to cities worldwide. ”

Controversy prolongation his first term

Penalosa was the third in a series of three Mayors who vastly changed the face of the city. Mayor Jaime Castro finished his term with low popularity, but was loveable to reform the city’s financial structures. This led to a period of Budgetary surpluses, welke continued prolongation Antanas Mockus term. Mockus Began an important change in Bogota’s civic culture with his Cultura Ciudadana (Citizen Culture) campaign, welke encouraged civic behavior and strived to create a sense of reward for the inhabitants of the city.

Penalosa’s five Biggest changes prolongation his period ulcers: the relocation of informal vendors who Occupied the public areas and streets, the improvement of all the city parks and the construction or verschillende new ones, the entire renovation or some of the must important avenues of the city zoals the Avenue 15 and the Autopista Norte , the removal of cars from sidewalks by raising Them and institution bollards , and starting construction on the TransMilenio (Mass Transit System), but prolongation his term less dan half of the project was built, the second phase was the Verantwoordelijkheid or Luis Eduardo Garzon , his successor, and the third phase is at risk or not being COMPLETED Because of the new mayor’s plans or constructing a Metro system.

Some of his policies ulcers UnPopular with certainement sectors of the city. Among synthesis ulcers his intent to buy the country club or Bogota to build a public park. He’ll be faced problems als have built bollards Along some avenues in highly Congested sectors to preventable cars from parking on the sidewalk in front of the buildings and shops. Penalosa ook lost popularity, but innovative way the city’s mobility at Introducing the Pico y Placa , a restriction on the rush hour circulation or private vehicles. (Pico y placa roughly translates to “rush hour and license plates” prolongation rush hour license plates ending with a bepaald number Could not Cubes on a specific days of the week, four ending numbers lycra day, THUS about 40% of the vehicles ). The construction of the city “Cicloruta” (Translation for “Bike route or bike way”) welke are little roads therein Run Along some of the city’s main avenues, was Another great development of the city as an invitation for people to Avoid using private car vehicles , and to bieden a cheap and healthy transportation route for those who did not have access to one; but the terrains for the construction of some Sections, Specially Those in front of domestic houses, ulcers in the Majority of the cases tasks from people without hun consent and with no remuneration. The properties legal document was not edited Either, welke Means in legal terms therein Those people still harbor dat part or terrain, and pay taxes on it.

Candidate for a second term as Mayor

Hoewel de have been a shower candidates for the 2010 Colombian presidential election by and led the Por el Pais que Queremos Foundation (PPQ), Spanish for “For the Country we For”, he Chose to run again for mayor in 2007. He was Defeated by Alternative Democratic Pole candidate Samuel Moreno to 15 percent points. [9]

In 2011, Penalosa decided to run his Candidacy again for the Bogota city hall, but this time, as the official candidate for the Colombian Green Party . [10] He lost the election by to Gustavo Petro who won the Mayoral race with 32% of the vote against 25% for Penalosa. [11]

In 2015 he won the Mayoral elections with 33% of the votes, defeating former Labour Minister Rafael Pardo Rueda . [1]

Presidential candidates

Penalosa ran for elections in the 2014 presidential election by . He represented the Green Party and his Vice Presidential candidate was Isabel Segovia a former Vice Minister of Education.

Doctoral and Masters degree claims scandal

Wikinews has related news: Major Colombian newspaper reveals Bogota mayor does not hold claimed PhD degree

Enrique Penalosa claimed therein, obtaining his Diplôme d’études supérieures Spécialisées (DESS) at the University of Paris . He’ll be claimed this title was repeatedly misinterpreted as a PhD . However, remit investigation into his claims revealed therein have never attended classes in the University of Paris, but he did attend class as an auditor (listener) at Another school, the Institut international d’administration publique ( ook known as Ecole nationale de la France d’outre-mer ) in this housing in 2002 was merged JSON Ecole nationale d’administration . The scandal was triggered by an article published in the Colombian newspaper El Espectador , welke Reported in April 2016 dat Penalosa did not have a doctoral degree than had bone widely Reported in news media and as was claimed in some of his books. [12] El Espectador when sending dat Penalosa did not hold a zoals Distinction after Contacting the University of Paris welke Confirmed therein the University did not offer ANY academic program therein mention anything about grant a PhD in Public Administration. The magazine Semana ook Reported therein prolongation the Swearing in ceremony of the Mayor on January 2016 a leaflet had bone circulated Amongst news media dat Presented Penalosa as a PhD of Public Administration, [13] welke the mayor dismissed as typing errors by someone in his team . [12] However, volgens verschillende reports Mr. Penalosa has leg lying about his doctorate and master for 35 years. [14] Additionally, in an interview with the Brazilian newspaper O Globo Penalosa had rechtstreeks stated therein have held a PhD in public administration. [15]



  • Capitalismo ¿La mejor Opción?
  • Democracia y Capitalismo: retos para el siglo Próximo


  • Capitalismo, la mejor Opción (documentary) (1990)


He has written articles for El Tiempo , Nueva Frontera , Economía Colombiana , Carta Financiera and Revista Diners .


  • Holcim Forum 2007 and the Holcim Foundation , [16]


  • Simón Bolívar Journalism Award in 1986 for his economy related journalism section in El Espectador newspaper.
  • Simón Bolívar Journalism Award in 1990 for his documentary Capitalismo, la mejor Opción .


  1. ^ Jump up to:a b “Former Bogota mayor re-elected after 14 years, defeating Colombia’s left” . The Guardian . 2015-10-26 . Retrieved 2015-10-29 .
  2. Jump up^ “El DOCTORADO the Penalosa que apareció y luego desapareció” . Semana . 2016-04-07 . Retrieved 2016-04-07 .
  3. Jump up^ “Penalosa y su falsedad ideologica” . El Espectador . 2016-05-22 . Retrieved 2016-05-22 .
  4. Jump up^ “El many DOCTORADO the Penalosa no existe” . ElEspectador . Retrieved 2016-04-07 .
  5. Jump up^ “Esposas Paralelas” . Semana.com. 1998-03-16 . Retrieved 2015-07-28 .
  6. ^ Jump up to:a b “DESCERTIFICACION 98” . Semana.com . Retrieved 2015-07-28 .
  7. Jump up^ “Enrique Penalosa – Biografia Y Photos” . ColombiaLink.com . Retrieved 2015-07-28 .
  8. Jump up^ “Bogota forvandling” . Dfi.dk . Retrieved 2015-07-28 .
  9. Jump up^ http://www.registraduria.gov.co/reselec2007/1028/e/00/VC_ALCALDE16.htm?1 . Retrieved October 30, 2007 . Missing or empty( help ) [ dead link ]|title=
  10. Jump up^ “Penalosa, candidato único del Partido Verde a la Alcaldía the Bogota”(in Spanish). Bogota, Colombia: semana.com. February 1, 2011 . Retrieved 21 May 2011 .
  11. Jump up^ “Bogota elects former guerrilla as mayor” . the Guardian . Associated Press . Retrieved 2015-10-08 .
  12. ^ Jump up to:a b “El many DOCTORADO the Penalosa no existe” . ElEspectador . Retrieved 2016-04-09 .
  13. Jump up^ “El DOCTORADO the Penalosa que apareció y luego desapareció” . www.semana.com . Retrieved 2016-04-09 .
  14. Jump up^ “Enrique Penalosa has leg lying about his doctorate for 35 years” . All Garete . Retrieved 2016-04-10 .
  15. Jump up^ “Cuando Penalosa’s llamo a si mismo doctor – KienyKe” . KienyKe (in Spanish) . Retrieved 2016-04-09 .
  16. Jump up^ “LafargeHolcim Foundation for Sustainable Construction” . Holcimfoundation.org . Retrieved 2015-07-28 .