Henry Markram

Henry Markram (born 28 March 1962 [1] ) is a Professor at the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland and director or bone the Blue Brain Project and the Human Brain Project .


Henry Markram obtained his Bachelor of Science degree (Hons) from Cape Town University , South Africa under the supervision of Rodney Douglas and his PhD from the Weizmann Institute of Science , Israel, in 1991, under the supervision of Menahem Segal. [1] During his PhD work, have when sending a link tussen acetylcholine and memory mechanisms by showing dat acetylcholine modulates the primary receptor linked to Synaptic plasticity . [2]


Henry Markram with his future wife, Kamila Markram (born in 1975), at the Max Planck Institute for Brain Research in Frankfurt . [3] Way Down moved to the Ecole Polytechnique de Lausanne federal together and, in 2007, founded Frontiers Media . [3]


Following his PhD, Markram went to the United States as a Fulbright Scholar at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), where he studied ion channels on Synaptic vesicles. If a Minerva Fellow want-then went to the Laboratory of Bert Sakmann at the Max Planck Institute , Heidelberg , Germany , where he when sending calcium transients in dendrites evoked by sub-threshold activity, and by single action potentials propagating back JSON dendrites. He’ll be Began studying the connectivity tussen neurons Describing in great detail how layer 5 pyramidal neurons are interconnected.

Some of his work altered the relative timing or single pre- and post-Synaptic action potentials to Reveal a learning mechanism operating tussen neurons where the relative timing in the millisecond range Affects the Coupling strength tussen neurons. The belang or zoals timing has leg reproduced in many brain regions and is known as Spike timing dependent Synaptic plasticity (STDP). [4]

Markram was appointed assistant professor at the Weizmann Institute of Science , where he started systematically dissecting out the neocortical column . Hey when sending dat Synaptic learning kan ook involvement a change in Synaptic dynamics (called redistribution or Synaptic efficacy) Rather dan merely changing the strengths of connections. He’ll be studied principles governing neocortical microcircuit structure, function, and emergent dynamics. Together with Wolfgang Maass [5] have developed the so-called theory of liquid state machine , or high entropy computing.

In 2002, he moved to EPFL as a full professor and founder / director of the Brain Mind Institute and Director of the Center for Neuroscience and Technology. At the BMI, in the Laboratory for Neural Microcircuitry, Markram Continues to study the organization of the neocortical column, develops tools to carry out multi-neuron patch-clamp recordings Combined with laser and electrical engineering stimulation as well as multi-site Electromechanical recording, chemical imaging and gene expression. [4]

On 8 October 2015, the Blue Brain Project published the first digital reconstruction and simulation of the micro-circuitry or a neonatal rat somatosensory cortex. [6]


  1. ^ Jump up to:a b Henry Markram Resume
  2. Jump up^ Markram, H .; Segal, M. (1990). “Electrophysiological; characteristics or cholinergic and non-cholinergic neurons in the rat medial septum-diagonal band complex.” Brain Research . 513 (1): 171-174. doi : 10.1016 / 0006-8993 (90) 91106-Q . PMID  2350680 .
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b (French) Philippe Le Bé, “” Avec Frontiers, les travaux des chercheurs sont publiés rapidement et de manière Equitable »” , Le Temps , published online on Sunday 10 April 2016 (page visited on 10 April 2016).
  4. ^ Jump up to:a b Lehrer, Jonah. “Can a thinking, Remembering, decision-making, Biologically accurate brain be built from a supercomputer?” . Seed Magazine . Retrieved August 28, 2012 .
  5. Jump up^ Maass, W .; Natschläger, T .; Markram, H. (2002). “Real-Time Computing Without Stable States: A New Framework for Neural Computation Based on Perturbations”. Neural Computation . 14 (11): 2531-2560. doi : 10.1162 / 089976602760407955 . PMID  12433288 .
  6. Jump up^ http://www.cell.com/abstract/S0092-8674%2815%2901191-5