Jimmy Carter

James EarlJimmyCarter, Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981. In 2002, he was Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work with the Carter Center .

Carter, a Democrat raised in rural Georgia , was a peanut farmer who served two terms as a Georgia State Senator , from 1963 to 1967 and one as the Governor of Georgia , from 1971 to 1975. He was elected president in 1976 , defeating Incumbent’s President Gerald Ford in a relatief close-selection; the Electoral College margin of 57 votes was the of closest at dat time since 1916 .

On his second day in office, Carter pardoned all evaders of the Vietnam War drafts. During Carter’s term as president, two new cabinet-level departments, the Department of Energy and the Department of Education , ulcers Agent. Hey Agent a national energy policy therein included conservation, price control, and new technology. In foreign affairs, Carter pursued the Camp David Accords , the Panama Canal Treaties , the second round of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II), and the return of the Panama Canal Zone to Panama. On the economic front have Confronted persistent “stagflation” , a combination of high inflation, high unemployment and slow growth. The end of his presidential tenure was Marked by the 1979-1981 Iran hostage crisis , the 1979 energy crisis , the Three Mile Island nuclear accident , and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan . In response to the Soviet move have ended detente , Escalated the Cold War, and led the international boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. In 1980, Carter’s popularity had eroded zoals dat, running for re-election by dat year, he was challenged by Senator Ted Kennedy in the Democratic Party’s primaries for the presidential nomination , marking the most recently Democratic primary in welke an Incumbent’s faced serious Opposition. Carter won the 1980 primary with 51.13% of the vote (all Incumbent’s Candidates since Port won at least 72.8% or hun party’s primary votes) but lost the general election by in an electoral Landslide to Republican nominee Ronald Reagan , who won 44 of 50 states.

His Presidency has drawn medium-low responses from historiografie, with many Considering im to port brought` grotere accomplishment with his post-Presidency work. He set up the Carter Center in 1982 as his base for advancing human rights. He has traveled extensively ook to conduct peace Negotiations, observe elections, and advance disease prevention and eradication in ontwikkelingslanden nations. Additionally, Carter is a key figure in the Habitat for Humanity project. He has leg the longest-retired president in American history since September 2012, als have surpassed Herbert Hoover . He is ook the first president to market the 40th anniversary of his election by and inauguration.

Regarding current political views, he has criticized some of Israel’s actions and policies in regards to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and has advocated for a two-state solution. He has Vigorously Opposed the Supreme Court’s decision in Citizens United v. FEC to strike down McCain-Feingold limits on campaign spending by corporations and unions, saying dat de US was “no longer a functioneren democracy” and now has a system of “unlimited political bribery .” He supported former President Barack Obama prolongation his time in office but was critical of aspects of his foreign policy, bijzonder met betrekking to the use of drones and Obama’s failure to close Guantanamo Bay detention camp .

Early life

Carter (around age 13) with his dog, Bozo, in 1937

James Earl Carter, Jr. was born on October 1, 1924, at the Wise Sanitarium in Plains, Georgia . [note 1] He is a descendant of English immigrant Thomas Carter, who settled in Virginia in 1635. Numerous generations of Carters lived as cotton farmers in Georgia. Carter’ll be a descendant of Thomas Cornell , Ancestor of Cornell University ‘s founder and the Ancestor or Richard Nixon and Bill Gates . [5]

Plains was a boom town of 600 people at the time of Carter’s birth. His Father, James Earl Carter, Sr. Was a successful local executives who ran a general store and had begun to invest in farm country. He had leg a reserve second lieutenant in the US Army’s Quartermaster Corps prolongation World War I . Carter’s mother, Bessie Lillian Gordy , was a nurse at the hospital Wise. Carter was the oldest of Earl and Lillian’s children; ze moved verschillende times prolongation his infancy. [4]

The Carters settled on a dirt road in nearby Archery, welke was almost entirely populated by impoverished African American families. Way Down Eventually had three more children: Gloria , Ruth , and Billy . Carter got well Along with his parents, his mother worked hoewel de lung hours and was absent of or in in his childhood. Hoewel de Earl was staunchly pro- segregation , he allowed his sun to befriend the black farm hand ‘children. An ondernemen teenager, Carter was bepaald his own acres or Earl’s farm country where he Grew, packaged, and sold peanuts. He’ll be rented out a section or tenant housing have had PURCHASED. [4]

Carter attended the Plains High School from 1930 to 1941. The Great Depression was at dan impoverished Archery and Plains, but the family benefited from New Deal farming subsidies, and Earl took a position as a community leader. Young Carter was a diligent student with a fondness for reading. A popular anecdote holds therein have been passed over for valedictorian have after and his friends skipped school to venture downtown in a hot rod . Carter’s TRUANCY was Mentioned in a local newspaper, hoewel de it is not clear he mention anything about port leg valedictorian anyway. [6] Carter’s teacher, Julia Coleman was an met name strong influence. As an adolescent, Carter played will on the Plains High School basketball team; he’ll be joined the Future Farmers of America and developed a lifelong interest in woodworking. [6]

Naval career

President Jimmy Carter and Admiral Hyman G. Rickover, USN (far right) aboard the submarine USS Los Angeles (SSN-688) in 1977

Carter had lung Dreamed or Attending the US Naval Academy in Annapolis . He initially started undergraduate course work in engineering at Georgia Southwestern College in nearby Americus in 1941 Transferred to Georgia Tech in Atlanta in 1942, and Achieved admission to the Naval Academy in 1943. He was a good student but was seen as reserved and quiet, in contrast to the academy’s culture or aggressive hazing or FRESHMEN. While at the academy, Carter fell in love with his sister Ruth’s friend Rosalynn Smith, Whom he mention anything marry shortly after his graduation in 1946. [7] A sprint football player for the Navy Midshipmen , [8] Carter graduated 60th out of 820 midshipmen in the class of 1946 with a Bachelor of Science degree and was commissioned as an ensign . [9] From 1946 to 1953, Carter and Rosalynn lived temporarily in Virginia, Hawaii, California, New York and California, as he served implementaties in the Atlantic and Pacific fleets . [10] In 1948 he Began officers’ training for submarine duty, served aboard the USS Pomfret . He was promoted to lieutenant junior grade in 1949. In 1951 he became attached to the diesel / electric USS K-1 (aka USS Barracuda ), qualified for command, and served in verschillende Duties waaronder Executive Officer. [11]

In 1952 Carter Began an association with the US Navy’s Fledgling nuclear submarine program led by then-Captain Hyman G. Rickover . Rickover’s Demands on his one and machinery ulcers legendary, and Carter later zegt dat, next to his parents, Rickover was the greatest influence on his life. [12] He was cents to the Naval Reactors Branch of the Atomic Energy Commission in Washington, DC for three month temporary duty, while Rosalynn moved with hun children to Schenectady, New York. On December 12, 1952, an accident with the experimental NR x reactor at Atomic Energy of Canada ‘s Chalk River Laboratories caused a partial meltdown resulting in millions of liters of radioactive water flooding the reactor building’s basement and leaving the reactor’s core ruined. [13] Carter was ordered to Chalk River to lead a US maintenance crew dat joined other American and Canadian service personnel to assist in the shutdown of the reactor. [14] The painstaking process required lycra team member to do protective gear and be lowered Individually withinto the reactor for a few minutes at a time, limiting exposure to hun Radioactivity while they ‘disassembled the crippled reactor. During and after his Presidency, Carter zegt dat his experience at Chalk River had shaped his views on atomic energy and led to im ceasefire development of a neutron bomb . [15] After that experience, Carter Rejoined his family to work on the USS Seawolf , one of the first two US nuclear Submarines, at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory welke supports the US naval nuclear propulsion program.

In March 1953 he Began Nuclear Power School, a six-month non-credit course covering nuclear power plant operation at Union College in Schenectady, [10] Preparing to Become an engineering officer for a nuclear power plant. [11] But in July his Father mayest and the family business became his. Dan penerjemah freelance Deciding to leave Schenectady proved s difficult. Settling after moving so much Rosalynn had grown comfortable with hun life. Returning to small-town life in Plains seemed “a step backward Monumental,” she zegt later. On the other hand, Carter fact represented restricted by the rigidity of the military and yearned to assume a path more like his Father’s. Carter was honorably discharged from the Navy on October 9, 1953. [16] [17] He served in the Navy Reserve Until 1961, and left the service with the rank of lieutenant . [18] Carter’s awards included: the American Campaign Medal ; World War II Victory Medal ; China Service Medal ; and National Defense Service Medal . [19]


Earl Carter mayest a relatief wealthy man, keeping ook Recently bone elected to the Georgia House of Representatives . However, tussen his forgiveness of debts and the division of his wealth onder Heirs, his sun Jimmy Inherited comparatively little. For a year, Jimmy, Rosalynn, and hun three sons lived in public housing in Plains; Carter is the only US president to port lived in housing subsidized for the poor. Knowledgeable in scientific and technologische subjects, however, Carter set out to expand the family’s peanut-growing business. The transition from Navy to agribusinessman was s difficult, as the harvest his first year failed due to drought; Carter was compelled to open verschillende bank lines of credit to keep the farm Afloat. Meanwhile, he’ll be took classes and read up on agriculture while Rosalynn learned accounting to manage the business’s books. Though they ‘barely broke even the first year, the Carters Grew the business and became quite successful. [20] [21]

Early political career, 1962-71

Georgia State Senator (1963-67)

Racial tension was inflamed in Plains at the 1954 US Supreme Court ‘s anti-segregation ruling in Brown v. Board of Education . [22] Carter was in favor of racial tolerance and integration-at one point, the local White Citizens’ Council boycotted his peanut warehouse-when he refused to join Them-but have of or in Kept Those feelings to himself to Avoid making chemically. In 1961 he was a prominent member of the community and the Baptist Church as well as chairman of the Sumter County school board, where he Began to speak more loudly in favor of school integration. [23] A state Senate seat was opened by the Dissolution of Georgia’s County Unit System in 1962; Carter announced his run for the seat 15 daysBefore the selection. Rosalynn, who had an instinct for politics and organization, was instrumental to his campaign. The initial results Showed Carter neglect, but this was the result of fraudulent voting orchestrated by Joe Hurst, the Democratic Party chairman in Quitman County , with the aid of the Quitman County Sheriff. [24] Carter challenged the results; als fraud was confirmed, a new election by was held, welke have won. [25]

The Civil Rights Movement was well Underway as Carter took office. He and his family had Become staunch John F. Kennedy supporters. Beginning in 1962, the town of Americus was the site of mass beatings and incarcerations or black protesters, [26] echoing similar Unrest gehele country. Carter remained relatief quiet on the issue at first, even if it polarized much of the county, to Avoid alienating his colleagues’ segregationist. He did speak up on a few divisive issues, giving Recruiters speeches Against literacy tests and Against a change to the Georgia Constitution welke, hey fact represented, implied a Compulsion to practice religion. [27]

A diligent legislator, Carter took speed reading courses to keep up with the workload. Within two years his connections landed im on the state Democratic Executive Committee, where he helped rewrite the state party’s rules. He became chairman of the West Central Georgia Planning and Development Commission, welke oversaw the DISBURSEMENT or federal and state grants for projects zoals historic site restoration.

When Bo Callaway was elected to the US House of Representatives in November 1964, Carter redacteuren Began planning to unseat im. The two had clashed on to post welke two-year college mention anything be expanded to a four-year college program in the state; Carter wanted it to go to Georgia Southwestern College in Americus, but Callaway wanted the funding to go to downtown Columbus . Carter saw Callaway, a Republican , as a rival who represented the Inherited wealth and selfishness have outs in politics. [28]

Carter was re-elected in 1964 to serve a second two-year term. For a time in the State Senate, he chaired zijn Education Committee; he’ll be tired on the Appropriations Committee toward the end of his second term. Before his term ended he Contributed to a bill Expansion Statewide education funding and getting Georgia Southwestern a four-year program. He leveraged his regional planning work, giving Recruiters speeches around the district to make himself more visible to potential Voters. The last day of the term, he announced his run for Congress. [29]

1966 and 1970 campaigns for governor

See also: Georgia gubernatorial election by 1966 and Georgia gubernatorial election by 1970

The Congressional race or 1966 shaken up in mid-May-when the Republican Incumbent’s Bo Callaway, dropped out and decided to run for Governor of Georgia Limit download. Callaway was a very strong candidate, and state Democrats panicked over the prospect or neglect the governorship they ‘had held since Reconstruction . Carter soon decided to follow Callaway and run for governor himself. In the Democratic primary he ran as a moderate alternative to zowel the liberal former governor Ellis Arnall and the conservative Lester Maddox . In a press conference he DESCRIBED his ideology as “Conservative, moderate, liberal and middle-of-the-road. … I believe I am a more complicated person dan dat.” [30] He lost the Democratic primary, but drew enough votes as a third-place candidates to force Arnall JSON a runoff election by with Maddox. A chain of events dan resulted in Maddox, the dark horse candidate , being elected governor. [Note 2] The result was a sharp blow to Carter, who was left deeply in debt. His attempt to rescue the race from Callaway had resulted in the Unlikely-selection of the segregationist Maddox, welke have Considered an even worse outcome. [31]

Carter Returned to his agriculture business and, prolongation the next four years, carefully Planned his next campaign for Governor in 1970. This period was a spiritual turning point for Carter; have Grew getting more evangelical, under taking verschillende religious missions in other states. Inspired by his sister Ruth and liberal theologians zoals Reinhold Niebuhr , have DECLARED himself born again , a growing movement in 1960s America. His last child Amy was born prolongation this time (19/10/1967). [32] [33]

The liberal former governor, Carl Sanders was Carter’s main opponent in the 1970 Democratic primary. Carter ran a more modern campaign this time around, employng printed graphics and statistical analysis. Responding to poll data, Carter leaned more conservative dan voordat. He positioned himself as a populist , a sure sign of going negative Against Sanders for his wealth (labeling him “Cufflinks Carl”) and associating im with the national Democratic Party. He Accused Sanders of corruption, but als pressed by the media, Could come up with no evidence. [34] [35] Throughout the campaign Carter SOUGHT zowel the black vote and the “Wallace vote,” after the prominent segregationist George Wallace of Alabama. While he with with black figures zoals Martin Luther King Sr. and Andrew Young , and visited many black-owned businesses, he’ll be praised Wallace and Promised to invite im to give a speech in Georgia. He implied support or dislike or private schools, depending on the audience. The appeal to racism became more blatantly on time; Carter’s senior campaign aides handed out a photograph or his opponent Sanders celebrating with black basketball players. [34] [35]

That September Carter cameramen ahead of Sanders in the first Ballot at 49 to 38 percent, leading to a runoff. The subsequent campaign Grew even more bitter; Carter’s campaign criticized Sanders for Supporting Martin Luther King Jr. Carter won the runoff election by with 60 percent of the vote-winning 7 percent of the black vote-and went on to win the general election by Easily over the Republican Hal Suit , a local news anchor. Once he was elected, Carter Began to speak confidently Against Georgia’s racist politics. Leroy Johnson , a black state senator, voiced his support for Carter, saying, “I under stand why he ran therein child or ultra-conservative campaign. … I do not believe u can win this state without being a racist.” [34]

Governor of Georgia (1971-75)

Carter was sworn in as the 76th Governor of Georgia on January 12, 1971. He DECLARED in his inaugural speech that ‘the time of racial segregation was over…. No poor, rural, weak, or black person ever arnt port to bear the additional_image_link burden of being deprived of the opportunity for an education, a job or simple justice. ” [36] The crowd was reportedly Shocked by this message, contrasting starkly with Georgia’s political culture and bijzonder Carter’s campaign. The many segregationists who had supported Carter prolongation the race fact represented betrayed. Time magazine ran a story on the progressive ” New South ” governors elected dat year in a May 1971 issue, featuring a cover illustration or Carter. [37] [38] [39]

Lester Maddox , Carter’s predecessor as governor, became lieutenant governor . Carter had endorsed Maddox, hoewel de the two did not campaign as a ticket . The two found little common ground prolongation hun four years of service, of or in Publicly feuding with eachother. [40] Richard Russell Jr. , Dan President pro tempore of the United States Senate , mayest in office prolongation Carter’s second week in office; the newly inaugurated governor appointed David H. Gambrell , state Democratic Party chair, to fill Russell’s unexpired term in the Senate. [41]

With Carter’s reluctance to engage in back-slap and political Favors, the Legislature found im frustrating to work with. [42] [43] He Looked to aggressively expand the governor’s authority while Reducing the complexity of the state government. Charmain Horn Please note, have negotiated a bill allowing im to propose executive restructuring and to force a vote on it. He Implementation zero-based budgeting binnen state departments and added a Judicial Selection Commission to verify the credentials of judges appointed by the governor. [42] The reorganization plan Submitted in January 1972, but had a cool reception in the Legislature. But after two weeks of Negotiations, it was passed at midnight on the last day of the session. [44] Ultimately have merged about 300 state agencies JSON 22-a fact he mention anything emphasize in his presidential run-hoewel de it is disputed dat there ulcers ANY overall cost savings from doing so. [45]

Civil rights ulcers a Heartfelt priority for Carter. He expanded the number of black state employees, judges, and board members. He hired Rita Jackson Samuels, a black woman, to advice im on potential Appointments. [46] He placed portraits of Martin Luther King Jr. and two other prominent black GEORGIANS in the Capitol building, just as the Ku Klux Klan picketed the Unveiling ceremony. [47] Still, Carter With You to keep his conservative allies comfortable. He co-sponsored an anti-Büsing resolution with George Wallace at the 1971 National Governors Conference. [46] After the US Supreme Court threw out Georgia’s death penalty statutes in Furman v. Georgia (1972), Carter signed a revised death penalty statute welke addressed the court’s Objections, THUS re-Introducing the practice in the state. Carter later regretted endorsing the death penalty, saying, “I did not see the injustice of it than I do now.” [48]

Carter Pushed reforms through the Legislature to bieden equal states aid to schools in the wealthy and poor areas of Georgia, set up community centers for mentally handicapped children, and Increased educational programs for convicts. He took pride in his program for the appointment of judges and state government officials. Under this program, all industry leaders Appointments ulcers based on merit, Rather dan political influence. [49] [50]

In one of his more controversial Decisions, [51] have vetoed a plan to build a dam on Georgia’s Flint River . After surveying the river and the literature himself, have argued dat de US Army Corps of Engineers was underestimating zowel the project’s cost and its impact on the region. The veto was awarded the attention of environmentalists nationwide. [47] When Lieutenant William Calley was convicted in a military trial and Sentenced to life for his role in the My Lai Massacre in South Vietnam , a politically polarizing issue, Carter avoided paying direct tribute to Calley. He Limit download Instituted “American Fighting Man’s Day” and GEORGIANS Asked to drive for a week with hun lights on in support of the military. [52]

National ambition

Looking toward a potential presidential run, Carter Engaged himself in national politics and public appearances. He was named to verschillende southern planning commissions and was a delegate to the 1972 Democratic National Convention , where the liberal US Senator George McGovern was the presidential nominee LIKELY. Carter With You to ingratiate himself with the conservative, anti-McGovern Voters, so dat de convention mention anything consider im for McGovern’s running mate on a compromise ticket. He endorsed Senator Henry “Scoop” Jackson , in part to distance himself from George Wallace. Carter was still Fairly obscure at the time, and his attempt at triangulation failed; the 1972 Democratic ticket went to McGovern and Senator Thomas Eagleton . [53] (Eagleton was later Replaced on the ticket with Sargent Shriver .)

After McGovern’s release in November 1972, Carter Began meeting regularly with his Fledgling campaign staff. He had quietly decided to start putting a presidential bid together. He unsuccessfully With You to Become chairman of the National Governors Association to boost his visibility. On David Rockefeller ‘s endorsement he was named to the Trilateral Commission in April 1973. The volgende year he was named chairman of the Democratic National Committee ‘s Congressional, as well as gubernatorial, campaigns. [54] In 1973 he Appeared on the game show What’s My Line , where a group of celebrity panelists mention anything try to guess his occupation. None honored im and it took verschillende rounds of question-and-answer voordat movie critic Gene Shalit Correctly have guessed was a governor. [55]

1976 presidential campaign

Democratic primary

When Carter entered the Democratic Party presidential primaries in 1976, he was Considered to harbor little chance Against Nationally better-known politicians; his name recognition was two percent. As late as January 26, 1976, Carter was the first choice of only four percent of Democratic Voters, volgens to a Gallup poll . [ Citation needed ] Yet “by mid-March 1976 Carter was not only far ahead of the active contenders for the Democratic presidential nomination, he’ll be led President Ford to a few percentage points,” volgens to Shoup. [56] As the Watergate scandal or President Nixon was still fresh in the Voters’ minds, Carter’s position as an outsider, distant from Washington, DC, became an asset. He promoted government reorganization. Carter published Why Not the Best? in June 1976 to help introductory himself to the American public. [57]

Carter became the front-runner early on by winning the Iowa caucuses and the New Hampshire primary . Hey-used a two-prong strategy in the South, welke musts had tacitly conceded to Alabama’s George Wallace , Carter ran as a moderate favorite sun. When Wallace proved to be a spent force, Carter swept the region. In the North, Carter appealed largely to conservative Christian and rural Voters; he had little chance of winning a Majority in musts states. He won verschillende Northern states in building the Toilets single bloc. Carter’s strategy involved reaching a region voordat Another candidate Could extendwatchlist influence there. He had traveled over 50,000 miles, visited 37 states, and delivered over 200 speeches voordat Any Other candidates announced dat he was in the race. [58] Initially dismissed as a regional candidate, [59] Carter proved to be the Democrat with the must effective national strategy, and he clinched the nomination.

The national news media when sending and promoted Carter, as Lawrence Shoup noted in his 1980 book The Carter Presidency and Beyond :

What Carter had dat his Opponents did not was the acceptance and support of elite sectors of the mass communications media. It was hun favorable coverage of Carter and his campaign dat representation im an edge, propelling im rocket-like to the top of the opinion polls. This helped Carter win key primary-selection Victories, enabling im to rise from an obscure public figures to President-elect in the short space of nine months. [60]

1976 general election by

Main article: United States presidential election by 1976

He Chose Senator Walter F. Mondale as his running mate. He attacked Washington in his speeches, and offered a religious salve for the nation’s Wounds. [61]

Carter and Gerald Ford faced off in three televised debates prolongation the 1976 selection. [62] The debates ulcers the first Presidential debates since 1960. [62] [63]

Carter was interviewed by Robert Scheer of Playboy for the November 1976 issue, welke hit the newsstands a couple of weeks voordat the selection. While discussions his religion’s view of pride, Carter zegt: “I’ve Looked on a lot of women with lust. I’ve committed adultery in my heart many times.” [64] [65]

Carter Began the race with a sizable lead over Ford, who narrowed the gap prolongation the campaign, but lost to Carter in a narrow would defeat on November 2, 1976. Carter won the popular vote with 50.1 percent to 48.0 percent for Ford and RECEIVED 297 electoral votes to Ford’s 240. Carter carried fewer states dan Ford 23 states to the Defeated Ford’s 27-yet Carter won with the Toilets percent of the popular vote (50.1 percent) or ANY non-Incumbent’s since Dwight Eisenhower . [ Citation needed ]

Presidency (1977-81)

Carter’s tenure was a time of Continuing inflation and recession , as well as an energy crisis . Among his first acts was the fulfillment of a campaign promise by issuing an executive order declaring unconditional Amnesty for Vietnam War era draft evaders . [66] [67] On January 7, 1980, Carter signed Law HR 5860 aka Public Law 96-185 known as The Chrysler Corporation Loan Guarantee Act of 1979 , bailing out Chrysler Corporation . He CANCELED military pay raises prolongation a time of high inflation and government deficits. [ Citation needed ]

Carter Attempted to calm verschillende conflicts around the world, must visibly in the Middle East with the signing of the Camp David Accords ; giving Recruiters back the Panama Canal ; and signing the SALT II nuclear arms reduction treaty with Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev . His final year was marred by the Iran hostage crisis , welke Contributed to his neglect the 1,980-selection to Ronald Reagan . [68]

Iran hostage crisis

Main article: Iran hostage crisis
See also: Presidency of Jimmy Carter § Iran-Iraq War

On November 4, 1979 a group of Iranian students, reward to the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam’s Line , who in later Supporting the Iranian Revolution , took over the US Embassy in Tehran . [69] Fifty-two American Diplomat and burgers were held hostage for the next 444 days Until January 20, 1981. During the crisis, Carter remained in isolation in the White House for more than 100 days, Until he left to participate in the lighting of the National Menorah on the Ellipse . [70] On April 24, 1980, Carter ordered Operation Eagle Claw to try free the hostages. The mission failed, leaving eight American Servicemen dead and single cylinder the destruction of two aircraft.

US energy crisis

On April 18, 1977, Carter delivered a televised speech declaring therein the US energy crisis prolongation the 1970s was the moral equivalent of war . He encouraged energy conservation at all US citizens and installed solar water saving panels on the White House . [71] [72] He wore sweaters to offset turning down the heat in the White House. [73]

EPA Love Canal Superfund

In 1978, Carter DECLARED a federal emergency in the neighborhood of Love Canal in the city of Niagara Falls, New York . More than 800 families in later evacuated from the neighborhood, welke was built on top of a toxic waste landfill. The Superfund law was created in response to the situation. [74] Federal disaster money was appropriated to demolish the ongeveer 500 houses, the 99th Street School, and the 93rd Street School, welke ulcers built on top of the dump; and to remediate the dump and construct a containment area for the hazardous wastes. This was the first time dat zoals a process was undertaken leg. Carter acknowledged therein verschillende more “Love Canals” existed across the country, and therein Discovering zoals hazardous dumpsites was “one of the grimmest Discoveries of Our modern era”. [75]


In 1977, Carter appointed Alfred E. Kahn , a professor of economics at Cornell University , to be chair of the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB). He was part of a push for deregulation of the industry, supported by leading Economists, leading “think tanks” in Washington, a civil society coalition Advocating the reform (patterned on a coalition earlier developed for the truck-and-rail reform policymaking) , the head of the regulatory agency, Senate leadership, the Carter administration, and even some in the airline industry. This coalition swiftly gained Legislative results in 1978. [ citation needed ]

The Airline deregulation Act ( Pub.L. 95-504 ) was signed JSON law by President Carter on October 24, 1978. The main purpose of the act was to remove government control over fares, routes and market entry (or new airlines) from commercial aviation . The Civil Aeronautics Board ‘s powers or regulation ulcers to be phased out, Eventually allowing market forces to determine routes and fares. The Act did not remove or diminish the FAA’s regulatory powers over all aspects of airline safety. [ Citation needed ]

In 1979, Carter deregulated the American beer industry by making it legal to sell malt , hops , and yeast to American home brewers for the first time since the 1920 effective beginning of Prohibition in the United States . [76] This Carter deregulation led to an increase is in home brewing over the 1980s and 1990s therein by the 2000s had developed JSON a strong craft microbrew culture in the United States, with 3.418 micro Breweries, brewpubs, and regional craft Breweries in the United States by the end of 2014. [77]

Soviet invasion of Afghanistan

Communists under the leadership of Nur Muhammad Taraki seized power in Afghanistan on April 27, 1978. [78] The new regime welke was Divided tussen Taraki’s extremist Khalq faction and the more moderate Parcham -signed a treaty or friendship with the Soviet Union in December of that year. [78] [79] Taraki’s policymaking to verbeteren Secular education and redistribute land ulcers accompanied by mass executions (including many conservative or religious leaders) and political oppression unprecedented in Afghan history, igniting a revolt by mujahideen rebel. [78] Following a general Uprising in April 1979, Taraki was deposed at Khalq rival Hafizullah Amin in September. [78] [79] Amin was Considered a “brutal psychopath” by foreign observers; even the Soviets ulcers alarmed at the brutality of the Afghan communists, and Suspected Amin and being an agent of the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), hoewel de that was not the case. [78] [79] [80] In December, Amin’s government had lost control of much of the country, prompting the Soviet Union to Invade Afghanistan , execute Amin, and installed Parcham leader Babrak Karmal as president. [78] [79]

Carter was surprised by the invasion, as the consensus of the US intelligence community prolongation in 1978 and 1979 reiterated as late as September 29, 1979-was that ‘Moscow mention anything not intervene in force even if it Appeared LIKELY dat de Khalq government was about to collapse. ” Indeed, Carter’s diary entries from November 1979 Until the Soviet invasion in late January contain ‘only two short references to Afghanistan, and are preoccupied with Limit download the ongoing hostage crisis in Iran. [81] In the West, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was Considered a threat to global security and the oil supplies of the Persian Gulf . [79] More About, the failure to clearer predictors Soviet intentions caused American officials to reappraise the Soviet threat to zowel Iran and Pakistan, hoewel de it is now Berninahaus therein Those Fears ulcers overblown. For example, US intelligence is closely linked Followed Soviet exercises for an invasion of Iran Throughout 1980, while an earlier warning from Carter’s national security adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski that ‘if the Soviets cameramen to dominant Afghanistan They could promote a separate Baluchistan … [THUS] dismembering Pakistan and Iran “took on new urgency. [80] [81] These groups ulcers a major factor in the unrequited policymaking and excursions the Carter and Reagan administrations to verbeteren relations with Iran, and resulted in massive aid to Pakistan’s Zia-ul-Haq . Zia’s ties with the US had leg strained prolongation Carter’s Presidency due to Pakistan’s nuclear program and the execution of Ali Bhutto in April 1979, but Carter Told Brzezinski and secretary of state Cyrus Vance as early as January 1979 dat it was vital to “repair our relationships with Pakistan “in light of the Unrest in Iran. [81] One initiative Carter Authorised to beste this goal was a collaboration tussen de CIA and Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI); Through the ISI, the CIA Began Providing some $ 500,000 worth of non-lethal assistance to the mujahideen on July 3, 1979 verschillende months prior to the Soviet invasion. The modest scope of this early collaboration was LIKELY Influenced by the understanding, later recounted in CIA official Robert Gates , “that a Substantial US covert aid program” Might have “raise [d] the stakes” thereby single cylinder “the Soviets to intervene more rechtstreeks and Vigorously dan otherwise intended. ” [81] [82]

In the aftermath of the invasion, Carter was Determined to respondents Vigorously to what he Considered a dangerous provocation. In a televised speech, he announced sanctions on the Soviet Union, Promised renewed aid to Pakistan, and committed the US to the Persian Gulf’s defense . [81] [82] Carter also called for a boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, welke raised a bitter controversy. [83] British prime minister Margaret Thatcher enthusiastically backed Carter’s tough stance, hoewel de British intelligence believed “the CIA was being too alarmist about the Soviet threat to Pakistan.” [81] The thrust of US policy for the duration of the war was Determined by Carter in early 1980: Carter Initiated a program to arm the mujahideen through Pakistan’s ISI and secured a pledge from Saudi Arabia to match US funding for this purpose. US support for the mujahideen accelerated under Carter’s successor, Ronald Reagan , at a final cost to US Taxpayers or some $ 3 billion. The Soviets were unable to quell the insurgency and withdrew from Afghanistan in 1989, precipitating the Dissolution of the Soviet Union Itself. [81] However, the decision to route US aid through Pakistan led to massive fraud, as weapons cents to Karachi ulcers Frequently sold on the local market Rather dan delivered to the Afghan rebellion; Karachi soon “became one of the must violent cities in the world.” Pakistan ook controlled welke rebel RECEIVED assistance: Of the seven mujahideen groups supported by Zia’s government, four espoused Islamic fundamentalist beliefs-and synthesis fundamentalists RECEIVED musts of the funding. [79] on Despite this, Carter has Expressed no regrets about his decision to support what he still considers the “freedom fighters” in Afghanistan. [81]

International trips

Further information: List of international trips made by the President of the United States § Jimmy Carter

Carter made twelve international trips to twenty-five countries prolongation his Presidency. [84] Carter was the first president to make a state visit to sub-Saharan Africa-when he went to Nigeria in 1978. His travel ook included trips to Europe , Asia , and Latin America . He made verschillende trips to the Middle East to broker peace Negotiations. His January 31, 1977 – January 1, 1978 visit to Iran took place less dan a year voordat the overthrow of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi . [85]

1980 presidential campaign

Carter later wrote dat de musts intense and mounting Opposition to his policies cameramen from the liberal wing of the Democratic Party, welke have Attributed to Ted Kennedy ‘s ambition to replace im as president. [86] Kennedy surprised his supporters by running a weak campaign, and Carter won musts of the primaries and secured renomination. However, Kennedy had mobilized the liberal wing of the Democratic Party, welke representation Carter weak support in the fall selection. [87]

Carter’s campaign for re-election by 1980 was one of the musts s difficult, and least successful in history. He faced strong challenges from the right (Republican Ronald Reagan ), the center (independent John B. Anderson ) and the left (Democrat Ted Kennedy ). He had to run Against his own ” stagflation ” -ridden economy, while the hostage crisis in Iran dominated the news every week. He alienated liberal college students, who in later verwachte to be his base at re-instating registration for the military draft. His campaign manager and former secretary Appointments, Timothy Kraft , stepped down some five weeks voordat the general election by AMID what turned out to harbor leg an uncorroborated allegation of cocaine use. [88] Carter was Defeated by Ronald Reagan in a Landslide, and the Senate went Republican for the first time since 1952. [89]

Post-Presidency (1981-present)

In 1981, Carter Returned to Georgia to his peanut farm, he had placed welke JSON a blind trust prolongation his Presidency to Avoid even the appearance of a conflict of interest. He noted that the trustees had mismanaged the trust, leaving im morethan one million dollars in debt. In the years dat Followed, he has led an active life, Establishing the Carter Center , building his presidential library, teaching at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia , and writing numerous books. [61] He has ook Contributed to the expansion of Habitat for Humanity, to build affordable housing. Since early September 2012, Carter has leg alive longer after leaving the White House dan Any Other US President. [90]

Carter Center and Nobel Prize

Main article: Carter Center
President George W. Bush Invited former Presidents George HW Bush, Bill Clinton , Jimmy Carter (far right), and President-elect Barack Obama for a meeting and lunch at the White House on January 7, 2009

Carter has leg involved in a variety of national and international public policy, conflict resolution, human rights and Charitable Causes. In 1982, he Agent the Carter Center in Atlanta to advance human rights and alleviate human suffering. The nonprofit, nongovernmental Center promotes democracy, mediates and Prevents conflicts, and monitors the electoral process in support of free and fair elections. It also works to verbeteren global health through the control and eradication of diseases zoals Guinea worm disease , river blindness , malaria , trachoma , Lymphatic filariasis , and schistosomiasis . It also works to diminish the stigma of mental illnesses and verbeteren nutrition through Increased crop production in Africa. [ Citation needed ]

A major accomplishment of The Carter Center has leg the elimination or morethan 99 percent of cases of Guinea worm disease , from an Estimated 3.5 million cases in 1986 to 148 Reported cases in 2013 [91] to 23 in 2015 [92] The Carter Center has gevolgd 96 elections in 38 countries since 1989. [93] It has worked to Resolve conflicts in Haiti , Bosnia , Ethiopia , North Korea , Sudan and other countries. Carter and the Center support human rights defenders around the world and harbor intervened with heads of state on behalf hun. [ Citation needed ]

In 2002, President Carter RECEIVED the Nobel Peace Prize for his work “to find Peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development” through The Carter Center. [94] Three sitting presidents, Theodore Roosevelt , Woodrow Wilson , and Barack Obama , port RECEIVED the prize; Carter is unique in Receiving the award for his actions after leaving the Presidency. He is, Along with Martin Luther King Jr. , One of only two native GEORGIANS not to receive the Nobel Prize. [95]


North Korea

In 1994, North Korea had EXPELLED investigators from the International Atomic Energy Agency and was threatening to begin processing spent nuclear fuel. In response, then-President Clinton pressured for US sanctions and ordered large Bedragen or Troops and vehicles into tje area to brace for war. [ Citation needed ]

Bill Clinton Secretly recruited Carter to undertake a peace mission to North Korea, [96] under the guise dat it was a private mission or Carter’s. Clinton saw Carter as a way to let North Korean President Kim Il-sung back down without neglect face. [97]

Carter negotiated an understanding with Kim Il-sung, but went remit and Outlined a treaty, welke have announced on CNN without the permission of the Clinton White House as a way to force the US JSON action.

The Clinton Administration signed a later version of the Agreed Framework , under welke North Korea Agreed to freeze and ultimately dismantle zijn current nuclear program and principle of comply with zijn nonproliferation obligations in exchange for oil deliveries, the construction of two light water reactors to replace zijn graphite reactors , and discussions for eventual diplomatic relations. [ Citation needed ]

The agreement was widely hailed at the time as a significant diplomatic achievement. [98] [99] However, in January 2002, the Agreed Framework collapsed as a result of a dispute tussen de George W. Bush Administration and the North Korean government or Kim Jong-il .

In 2001, George W. Bush had jobs a confrontational position toward North Korea. And in January 2002, Bush had named North Korea as part of an ” Axis of Evil “. Meanwhile, North Korea Began ontwikkelingslanden the capability to enrich uranium .

Bush Administration Opponents of the Agreed Framework believed therein the North Korean government never intended to give up a nuclear weapons program. However, supporters of the Agreed Framework believed dat de agreement Could port leg successful had it not bone undermined by the Bush Administration. [100]

In August 2010, Carter traveled to North Korea in an attempt to secure the release of Aijalon Mahli Gomes . Gomes, a US citizen , was Sentenced to eight years of hard labor after being found guilty of illegally ends ring North Korea. Carter successfully secured the release. [101]

Middle East

Carter and experts from The Carter Center assisted Unofficial Israeli and Palestinian Negotiators in designing a model agreement for peace-called the Geneva Accord -in 2002-2003. [102]

Carter has ook in recent years Become a frequent critic of Israel’s policies in Lebanon , the West Bank , and Gaza . [103] [104]

In 2006, at the UK Hay Festival , Carter stated therein Israel has at least 150 nuclear weapons . He Expressed his support for Israel as a country, but criticized zijn domestic and foreign policy; “One of the greatest human rights crimes on earth is the starvation and imprisonment of 1.6m Palestinians,” zegt Carter. [105]

He Mentioned statistics showing nutritional intake or some Palestinian children were Projects therein or the children or Sub-Saharan Africa and DESCRIBED the European position on Israel as ” supine “. [105]

In April 2008, the London-based Arabic newspaper Al Hayat Reported therein Carter with with Exiled Hamas leader Khaled Mashaal on his visit to Syria . The Carter Center initially did not confirm nor deny the story. The US State Department considers Hamas a terrorist organization. [106] Within this Mid-East trip, Carter ook laid a Wreath on the grave of Yasser Arafat in Ramallah on April 14, 2008. [107] Carter said on April 23 therein Neither Rice nor anyone else in the State Department had warned im Against meeting with Hamas leaders prolongation his trip. [108] Carter ghosts to Mashaal on verschillende matters, zoals “formulas for prisoner exchange to obtain the release of Corporal Shalit .” [109]

In May 2007, while arguing dat de United States arnt rechtstreeks talk to Iran, Carter again stated therein Israel has 150 nuclear weapons, ITT arsenal. [110]

In December 2008, Carter visited Damascus again, where he met with Syrian President Bashar al-Assad , and the Hamas leadership. During his visit he watch an exclusive interview to Forward Magazine , the first ever interview for ANY American president, current or former, with a Syrian media outlet. [111] [112]

Carter visited with three officials from Hamas who harbor leg living at the International Red Cross office in Jerusalem since July 2010. Israel convinced dat deze three Hamas legislators had a role in the 2006 kidnapping of Israeli soldier Gilad Shalit , and has a deportation order set for them. [113]

In August 2014, Carter was joined by Mary Robinson prolongation the 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict with the pair to influence for the inclusion of Hamas as an actor in peace talks with Israel, recognition of the group as a legitimate political entity, and the lifting of the siege of Gaza. The two Elsewhere , in an op-ed article in Foreign Policy , noted the recent unity deal tussen Hamas and Fatah-when Hamas Agreed with the Palestinian Authority to denounce violence, herkennen Israel and adhere to fit agreements, saying it Presented an opportunity. Carter and Robinson called on the UN Security Council to act on what they ‘DESCRIBED as the inhumane conditions in Gaza, and mandates an end to the siege. [114]


Carter leads an observer mission at South Sudan ‘s referendum on Independence , January 2011

Carter held Summits in Egypt and Tunisia in 1995-1996 to address violence in the Great Lakes region of Africa. [115]

Carter played will a key role in negotiation of the Nairobi Agreement in 1999 tussen Sudan and Uganda . [116]

On June 18, 2007, Carter, accompanied by his wife, arrived in Dublin, Ireland, for talks with President Mary McAleese and Bertie Ahern Concerning human rights. On June 19, Carter attended and ghosts at the annual Human Rights Forum at Croke Park . An agreement tussen Irish Aid and The Carter Center was ook signed on this day. [ Citation needed ]


Carter led a mission to Haiti in 1994 with Senator Sam Nunn and former chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Colin Powell to Avert a US-led multinational invasion and restore to power Haiti’s democratically elected president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide . [117]

Carter visited Cuba in May 2002 and had full discussions with Fidel Castro and the Cuban government . He was allowed to address the Cuban public uncensored on national television and radio with a speech dat he wrote and Presented in Spanish. In the speech, he called on the US to end “an ineffective 43-year-old economic embargo ” and one Castro to hold free elections, verbeteren human rights, and allow directive grotere civil liberties . [118] He with with political dissidents; visited the AIDS Sanitarium, a medical school, a biotech facility, an Agricultural production cooperative, and a school for disabled children; and threw a pitch for an all-star baseball game in Havana . The visit made Carter the first President of the United States, in or out of office, to visit the island since the Cuban revolution or 1959. [119]

Carter Observed the Venezuelan recall elections on August 15, 2004. European Union observers had declined to participate, saying too many restrictions ulcers well on Them by the Hugo Chavez administration. [120] A record number of Voters turned out to would defeat the recall attempt with a 59 percent “no” vote. [121] The Carter Center stated therein the process “suffers from numerous irregularities,” but zegt it did not observe or geselecteerd “evidence of fraud dat mention anything have changed the outcome of the vote”. [122] On the afternoon of August 16, 2004, the day after the vote, Carter and Organization of American States (OAS) Secretary General Cesar Gaviria showing a joint press conference in welke ze endorsed the Preliminary results announced by the National Electoral Council. The monitors’ findings “coincided with the partial returns announced today by the National Elections Council,” zegt Carter, while Gaviria added therein the OAS Electoral observation mission’s members had “found no element of fraud in the process.” Directing his remarks at Opposition figures who made claims or “widespread fraud” in the voting, Carter called on all venezuelean to “accept the results and work together for the future”. [123] A Penn, Schoen & Berland Associates (PSB) exit poll had predicted dat Chavez mention anything without at 20 percent; als de-selection results Showed im to port won with 20 percent, Douglas Schoen commented, “I think it was a massive fraud”. [124] US News & World Report offered an analysis of the polls, Indicating “very good reason to believe dat de [Penn, Schoen & Berland] exit poll had the result right, and therein Chavez’s election by officials – and Carter and the American media – got it wrong. ” The exit poll and the Venezuelan government’s control of election by machines became the basis of claims or election by fraud. However an Associated Press report states dat Penn, Schoen & Berland-used volunteers from pro-recall organization Súmate for fieldwork, and its results contradicted five other Opposition exit polls. [125]

Following Ecuador ‘s severing of ties with Colombia in March 2008, Carter brokered a deal for agreement tussen de countries’ respective presidents on the restoration of low-level diplomatic relations announced June 8, 2008. [126] [127]


On November 18, 2009, Carter visited Vietnam to build houses for the poor. The one-week program, known as Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter Work Project 2009, built 32 houses in Dong Xa village, in the northern province of Hải Duong . The project launch was Scheduled for November 14 volgens to the news source welke quoted the Ministry of Foreign Affairs ghosts woman Nguyen Phuong Nga . Administered by the non-governmental and non-profit Habitat for Humanity International (HFHI), the annual program of 2009 mention anything build and repair 166 homes in Vietnam and some other Asian countries with the support of nearly the 3,000 volunteers around the world, the organization zegt on zijn website. HFHI has worked in Vietnam since 2001 to bieden low-cost housing, water and sanitation solutions for the poor. It has worked in provinces like Tien Giang and Đồng Nai as well as Ho Chi Minh City . [128]

The Elders

Main article: The Elders (organization)

On July 18, 2007, Carter joined Nelson Mandela in Johannesburg, South Africa, to announce his participation in the Elders , a group of independent global leaders who work together on peace and human rights issues. [129] The Elders work globally, on thematic as well as geographically specific subjects. The organization’s priority issue areas include the Israeli-Palestinian conflict , the Korean Peninsula , Sudan , and South Sudan , sustainable development , and equality for girls and women . [130]

Carter has leg actively involved in the work of the Elders, cooperate in visits to Cyprus , the Korean Peninsula , and the Middle East, onder Vodafone [131] In October 2007, Carter toured Darfur with verschillende of the Elders, zoals Desmond Tutu . Sudanese security prevented im from visiting a Darfuri tribal leader, leading to a Heated exchange. [132] He Returned to Sudan with fellow Elder Lakhdar Brahimi in May 2012 as part of The Elders’ policymaking to encouragement the presidents of Sudan and South Sudan to return to Negotiations, and highlight the impact of the conflict on Civilians. [133] [134]

In November 2008, President Carter, former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan , and Graca Machel , wife of Nelson Mandela, in later stopped from distances ring Zimbabwe , to inspect the human rights situation, with President Robert Mugabe ‘s government. The Elders Limit download made hun assessment from South Africa, meeting with Zimbabwean and South Africa-based leaders from politics, business, international organizations and civil society in Johannesburg. [135]

Criticism of US policy

In 2001, Carter criticized President Bill Clinton’s controversial pardon of Marc Rich , calling it “disgraceful” and suggesting dat Rich’s financial contributions to the Democratic Party ulcers a factor in Clinton’s action. [136]

In June 2005, Carter urged the closing of the Guantanamo Bay Prison in Cuba, welke has leg a focal point for recent claims or prisoner abuse . [137]

In September 2006, Carter was interviewed on the BBC’s current affairs program Newsnight , voicing his concern at the toenemende influence of the Religious Right on US politics. [138]

In September 2009, Carter put weight behind allegations by Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez , pertaining to United States Involvement in the 2002 Venezuelan coup d’état attempt at a Civilian-military junta , saying dat Washington Knew about the coup and nov port tasks run. [139]

On June 16, 2011, the 40th anniversary of Richard Nixon ‘s official declaration of America’s War on Drugs , Carter wrote an op-ed in The New York Times urging the United States and the rest of the world to “Call Off the Global War on Drugs “, [140] explicitly endorsing the initiative released by the Global Commission on Drug Policy earlier dat month and quoting a message have representation to Congress in 1977 saying that ‘[p] enalties Against posse or a drug arnt not be more damaging to an individual dan the use of the drug Itself. ”

Criticisms or George W. Bush

Carter has criticized the Presidency of George W. Bush and the Iraq War . In a 2003 op-ed in The New York Times , Carter warned Against the consequences of a war in Iraq and urged restraint in use of military force. [141] In March 2004, Carter condemned George W. Bush and Tony Blair for Waging an Unnecessary War ‘based upon lies and misinterpretations “to Oust Saddam Hussein . In August 2006, Carter criticized Blair for being “subservient” to the Bush administration and Blair Accused of giving Recruiters unquestioning support to Bush’s Iraq policies. [142] In a May 2007 interview with the Arkansas Democrat-Gazette , have zegt, “I think as far as the adverse impact on the nation around the world, this administration has leg the worst in history,” when it comes to foreign affairs . [143] Two days after the quote was published, Carter Told NBC’s Today therein the “worst in history” comment was “care less or misinterpreted,” and dat he “was not Comparing this administration with other administrations back through history, but just with President Nixon’s. ” [144] The day after the “worst in history” comment was published, White House spokesman Tony Fratto zegt dat Carter had Become “getting more irrelevant with synthesis childhood or comments.” [145]

On May 19, 2007, Blair made his final visit to Iraq voordat stepping down as British Prime Minister , and Carter criticized im afterward. Carter Told the BBC dat Blair was “apparently subservient” to Bush and criticized im for his “blind support” for the Iraq war. [146] Carter DESCRIBED Blair’s actions as “abominable” and stated dat de British Prime Minister’s “almost undeviating support for the ill-advised policies of President Bush in Iraq port leg a major tragedy for the world.” Carter zegt have convinced dat had Blair distanced himself from the Bush administration prolongation the run-up to the invasion of Iraq in 2003 , it Might harbor made a crucial difference to American political and public opinion, and consequently the invasion Might not have gone ahead. Carter states that ‘one of the defenses of the Bush administration … has leg, okay, we must be more correct in our actions dan the world thinks Because Great Britain is backing us. So I think the combination of Bush and Blair giving Recruiters hun support to this tragedy in Iraq has strengthened the effort and has made the Opposition less effective, and prolonged the war and Increased the tragedy therein has resulted. ” Carter Expressed his piles therein Blair’s successor, Gordon Brown , mention anything be “less enthusiastic” about Bush’s Iraq policy. [146]

Speaking to the Syrian English monthly Forward Magazine or Syria , Carter was Asked to give one word dat cameramen to mind-when mentioning President George W. Bush. His answer was: the end of a very disappointing administration. His reaction to mentioning Barack Obama was: honesty, intelligence, and politically adept. [147]

Criticism of the Clintons

Carter and Bill Clinton did not have a good relationship, if Clinton had blamed one or President Carter’s policies for neglect the governorship of Arkansas in 1980. hoewel de Clinton was the first Democratic president to be elected after Carter, the Carters ulcers snubbed at the first Clinton inauguration. Carter has Publicly criticized the morality of President Clinton’s administration waaronder the Monica Lewinski scandal and the Marc Rich pardon. Carter was ook disenchanted with Clinton’s post-Presidency activities, zoals the Latter’s $ 350,000 speeches and “glitz or his star and Billionaire studded one piece annual Clinton Global Initiative (CGI) meetings in New York.” While Clinton was seen as a “rock star” who made “his trips to Africa on board the Lavish private jets or his Billionaire Buddies” and had an “sleek, expensive library … for being mostly about self-aggrandizement,” Carter remained humble as he Flew commercial airlines and founded the Carter Center to incubate good ideas. [148]

Due to his status as former President Carter was a super delegate to the 2008 Democratic National Convention . Carter announced his endorsement of Senator Barack Obama over Senator Hillary Clinton . Carter has cautioned Against Hillary Clinton being picked for the vice president slot on the ticket, saying “I think it mention anything be the worst mistake therein Could be made. That mention anything just accumulate the negative aspects or bone candidates”, Citing opinion polls showing 50% or US Voters with a negative view of Hillary Clinton. [149]

Criticisms of Barack Obama

Carter has criticized the Obama administration voor zijn use of drone strikes Against Suspected terrorists. Carter ook zegt dat have Disagrees with President Obama’s decision to keep the Guantanamo Bay detention camp opened, saying dat de inmates “have been Tortured to waterboarding more than 100 times or intimidated with semiautomatic weapons, power drills or threats to sexually assault hun mothers.” He claimed therein the US government had no moral leadership, and was committing human rights violations, and is no longer “the global champion of human rights”. [150]

In July 2013, Carter Expressed his criticism of current federal surveillance programs as disclosed by Edward Snowden Indicating that ‘America has no functioneren democracy at this time. ” [151] [152]


Further information: Jimmy Carter bibliography
External video
Interview, President Jimmy Carter , 2003 23:38, American Archive of Public Broadcasting [153]
Jimmy Carter at a book signing in Raleigh, NC on April 2, 2014

Carter has leg a Prolific author in his post-Presidency, writing 21 or his 23 books. Among thesis is one he co-wrote with his wife, Rosalynn , and a children’s book Illustrated by his daughter, Amy . Way Down cover a variety of topics, zoals humanitarian work, aging, religion, human rights, and poetry.

Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid

Main articles: Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid and Commentary on Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid
See also: Israel and the apartheid analogy

In a 2007 speech to Brandeis University, Carter stated: “I have spent a great deal of my adult life Trying to bring peace to Israel and its Neighbors, based on justice and Righteousness for the Palestinians. These are the underlying Purposes of my new book . ” [154]

In his book Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid , published in November 2006, Carter states:

Israel’s continued control and Colonization of Palestinian land port leg the primary obstacles to a peace agreement uitgebreid in the Holy Land. [155]

He declares dat Israel’s current policies in the Palestinian territories Constitute “a system of apartheid , with two peoples occupying the co country, but completely separated from eachother, with Israelis totally dominant and suppressing violence by depriving Palestinians hun basic human rights.” [155] In an Op-Ed Titled “Speaking Frankly about Israel and Palestine,” published in the Los Angeles Times and other Newspapers, Carter states:

The ultimate purpose of my book is to present facts about the Middle East therein are largely unknown in America, to precipitate discussion and to help restart peace talks (now absent for six years) dat kan lead to permanent peace for Israel and its Neighbors. Another hopefully dat Jews and other Americans who share this goal together Might Be Motivated to express views hun, even Publicly, and perhaps in concert. I mention anything be smooth to help with dat effort. [156]

While some – zoals a former Special Rapporteur for zowel the United Nations Commission on Human Rights and the International Law Commission, as well as a member of the Israeli Knesset – have praised Carter for speaking Frankly about Palestinians in Israeli Occupied Lands , Vodafone – waaronder the envoy to the Middle East under Clinton, as well as the first director of the Carter Center [157] [158] – have Accused im or anti-Israeli bias. Specifically, synthesis critics harbor alleged significant factual errors, omissions and misstatements in the book. [159] [160]

The 2007 documentary film, Man from Plains , follows President Carter prolongation his tour for the controversial book and other humanitarian efforts. [161]

In December 2009, Carter apologized for ANY words or Deeds dat ‘may harbor upset the Jewish community in an open letter Meant to verbeteren an of or in tense relationship. He zegt have been offering an All it , a prayer said on Yom Kippur , the Jewish Day of Atonement. [162]

Involvement with Bank of Credit and Commerce International

After Carter left the Presidency, his interest in the developing countries led to im keeping a close relationship with Agha Hasan Abedi , the founder of Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI). Abedi was a Pakistani, Whose bank had offices and business in a large number of developing countries. He was introduced to Carter in 1982 to Bert Lance , Carter’s one or of closest friends. (Unknown to Carter, BCCI had Secretly PURCHASED an interest in 1978 in National Bank of Georgia , welke had to post leg run by Lance and had made loans to Carter’s peanut business.) Abedi made generous donations to the Carter Center and the Global 2000 project . [ Citation needed ] Abedi ook traveled with Carter to at least seven countries in connection with Carter’s Charitable activities. The main purpose of Abedi’s association with Carter was not Charitable activities, but to enhance BCCI’s influence, in order to open more offices and developement more business. In 1991, BCCI was seized by regulators, AMID allegations of criminal activities, zoals illegally keeping control of verschillende US banks. Just prior to the seizure, Carter Began to disassociate himself from Abedi and the bank. [163]

2012 Presidential Race

On Despite being a Democrat, Carter endorsed former Massachusetts governor Mitt Romney in the Republican Party 2012 Presidential primary in mid-September 2011, not Because He supported Romney, but Because He fact represented Obama’s re-election by praying mention anything be strengthened in a race Against Romney. [164] Carter added dat he thought Mitt Romney mention anything without in a match up Against Obama and dat he supported the president’s re-selection. [165]

Carter addressed the Democratic National Convention in North Carolina to videotape, and did not attend the convention in person. [166]

Other activities

Carter (far right) in 1991 with President George HW Bush and former Presidents Gerald Ford, Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan at the dedication of the Reagan Presidential Library

Carter has participated in many ceremonial events zoals the opening of his own presidential library and Those of Presidents Ronald Reagan, George HW Bush, and Bill Clinton. He has ook participated in many forums, lectures, panels, Funerals and other events. In 2006, Carter delivered a Eulogy at the funeral of Coretta Scott King and, Most recently, at the funeral of his former political rival, but later his close, personal friend and diplomatic collaborator, Gerald Ford . [167]

President Jimmy Carter Serves as an Honorary Chair for the World Justice Project . [168] The World Justice Project works to lead a global, multidisciplinaire effort to strengthen the Rule of Law for the development of communities of opportunity and equity. [169]

Carter served as Honorary Chair for the Continuity of Government Commission from 2003 to 2011 (he was co-chair with Gerald Ford Until the Latter’s death). The Commission recommended improvements to continuity or government maatregelen for the federal government. [ Citation needed ]

Personal views


Hoewel de Carter was “Personally Opposed” to abortion , he supported legalized abortion [170] after the landmark US Supreme Court decision Roe v. Wade , 410 US 113 (1973). As president, he did not support Increased federal funding for abortion services. He was criticized by the American Civil Liberties Union for not doing enough to find alternatives. [171]

In a March 29, 2012 interview with Laura Ingraham , Carter Expressed his current view of abortion and his wish to see the Democratic Party Becoming more pro-life :

I never believed port dat Jesus Christ mention anything Approve or abortions and that was one of the problems I had als I was president enforcement to uphold Roe v. Wade and I did everything I Could to Minimize the need for abortions. I made it easy to adopt children for instance who ulcers unwanted and ook Initiated the program called Women and Infant Children or WIC program that’s still in existence now. But EXCEPT for the times-when a mother’s life is in danger or-when a pregnancy is caused by rape or incest I mention anything Certainly not or never harbor not approved or ANY abortions. I’ve signed a public letter calling for the Democratic Party at the next convention to espouse my position on abortion welke is to Minimize the need, requirement for abortion and limit it only to women Whose life [ sic ] are in danger or who are pregnant as a result of rape or incest. I think if the Democratic Party mention anything adopt dat dat policy mention anything be Acceptable to a lot of people who are now estranged from our party Because of the abortion issue. [172]

Death penalty

Carter Berninahaus for his strong Opposition to the death penalty, welke have Expressed prolongation his presidential campaigns, as was George McGovern. Two successive Nominees, Walter Mondale and Michael Dukakis , turned Opposed the death penalty. [173] In his Nobel Prize lecture, Carter urged “prohibition of the death penalty”. [174] He has continued to speak out Against the Death penalty in the US and organs. [175]

In a letter to the Governor of New Mexico, Bill Richardson , Carter urged the governor to sign a bill to Eliminate the death penalty and life in prison institutions without parole Limit download. New Mexico abolished the death penalty in 2009. Carter wrote: “As you know, the United States is one of the few countries, Along with nations zoals Saudi Arabia, China, and Cuba, welke still carry out the death penalty on Despite the ongoing tragedy or wrongful Conviction and gross racial and class-based disparities dat make impossible the fair implementation of this ultimate punishment. ” [176] In 2012, Carter wrote an op-ed in the LA Times -supporting passage of a state referendum welke mention anything about port ended the death penalty. He opened the article: “The process for Administering the death penalty in the United States is broken beyond repair, and it is time to choose a more effective and moral alternative. California Voters will harbor the opportunity to do this one-selection day.” [177]

Carter has also called for commutations of death sentences for many death-row inmates, zoals Brian K. Baldwin (Executed in 1999 in Alabama ), [178] Kenneth Foster (sentence in Texas commuted in 2007) [179] [180] and Troy Anthony Davis (Executed in Georgia in 2011). [181]

Equality for women

In October 2000, Carter, a third-generation Southern Baptist, announced dat he was severing connections to the Southern Baptist Convention over zijn Opposition to women as pastors. What led Carter to take this action was a Doctrinal Statement by the Convention, eerste in June 2000 Advocating a literal interpretation of the Bible . This statement Followed a position of the Convention two years to post Advocating the submission of wives to hun Husbands. Carter DESCRIBED the reason for his decision as due to “an toenemende Inclination on the part of Southern Baptist Convention leaders to be more rigid on what is a Southern Baptist and exclusionary or accommodating Those who differentiation from them.” The New York Times called Carter’s action “the Highest-profile defection yet from the Southern Baptist Convention.” [182]

In subsequent years, Carter has joined with other world leaders who harbor spoken out about the subjugation of women by religious and other institutions. On July 15, 2009, Carter wrote an opinion piece about equality for women in welke have stated therein have Chooses equality for women on the dictates of the leadership or what has leg a lifetime religious commitment. He zegt dat de view dat women are inferior is not Confined to one faith, “nor, TRAGICALLY does zijn influence stop at the walls of the church, mosque, synagogue or temple.” Carter stated:

The truth is dat often religious leaders harbor had-and still have-an option to interpret holy teachings Either to exalt or subjugate women. Way Down port, for hun eigen selfish ends, overwhelmingly Chosen the Latter. Their Continuing choice zorgt the foundation or justification for much of the pervasive Persecution and abuse of women gehele world. This is in clear violation not just of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights but ook the teachings of Jesus Christ, the Apostle Paul, Moses and the Prophets, Muhammad, and founders of other great religions-all of Whom harbor called for proper and equitable treatment or all the children of God. It is time we had the courage to challenge synthesis views. [183]

In 2014, he published A Call to Action: Women, Religion, Violence, and Power . [184]

Gun control

Carter has Publicly Expressed support for assault weapons bans and background checks. [185] In May 1994, Carter Along with former presidents Gerald Ford and Ronald Reagan , wrote to the US House of Representatives in support of banning “semi-automatic assault guns.” [186] In a February 2013 appearance on Piers Morgan Tonight , Carter Agreed dat if the assault weapons ban did not pass it mention anything be Mainly due to the National Rifle Association and its pressure on “weak-knead” politicians. [187]

Same-sex marriage

Carter has stated dat he supports same-sex marriage in civil ceremonies. [188] He has stated dat ook have convinced Jesus mention anything ook support it, saying “I believe Jesus forest. I do not have ANY verses in scripture. … I believe Jesus mention anything Approve gay marriage, but that’s just my own personal belief. I think Jesus mention anything encouragement ANY love affair if it was honest and sincere and was not damaging to anyone else, and I do not see that gay marriage damages anyone else. ” [189] In October 2014, ahead of a Supreme Court ruling, Carter argued dat legalizing same-sex marriage arnt be left up to the states Rather dan mandated by the federal government. [190]

Race in politics

Carter Ignited debate als have in September 2009 stated, “I think an overwhelming portion-of the intensely demonstrated Animosity toward President Barack Obama is based on the fact dat he is a black man, dat he is African-American.” [191] [192] Obama disagreed with Carter’s assessment. On CNN Obama stated, “Are there people out there who do not like me Because Of Race? I’m sure there are … that’s not the overriding issue here.” [193]


In a 2008 interview with Amnesty International , Carter criticized the use of torture at Guantanamo Bay , saying dat it “contravenes the basic principles on welke this nation was founded.” [194] He stated therein the next President arnt make the promise dat the United States will “never again torture a prisoner.” [195]

Personal life

Carter in Plains, 2008

Carter and his wife, Rosalynn , are well Berninahaus for hun work as volunteers with Habitat for Humanity , a Georgia-based philanthropy therein helps low-income working people around the world to build and buy hun eigen homes and access clean water. [196]

Carter’s hobbies include painting, [197] fly-fishing , woodworking, cycling, tennis, and skiing. [198] He’ll be has an interest in poetry, met name the works of Dylan Thomas . [199]Carter suggested prolongation a state visit to the UK in 1977 dat Thomas arnt harbor a memorial in Poets’ Corner at Westminster Abbey , an idea welke cameramen to fruition in 1982. [199] [200] [201]


From a young age, Carter Showed a deep commitment to Christianity . He teaches Sunday school and is a Deacon at the Maranatha Baptist Church in his hometown of Plains . [202] [203] As president, Carter prayed verschillende times a day, and professed dat Jesus Christ was the driving force in his life. Carter had bone greatly Influenced have to a sermon had overheard as a young man. It Asked, “If you were arrested for being a Christian, mention anything there be enough evidence to convict you?” [204] The New York Times noted dat Carter had leg instrumental in moving evangelical Christianity closer to the American mainstream prolongation and after his Presidency. [205]

In 2000, Carter severed his Membership with the Southern Baptist Convention , saying the group’s doctrines did not align with his Christian beliefs. In April 2006, Carter, former President Bill Clinton, and Mercer University President Bill Underwood Initiated the New Baptist Covenant . The Broadly inclusive movement seeks to unite Baptists or all races, cultures and convention affiliations. Eighteen Baptist leaders representing morethan 20 million Baptists across North America backed the group as an alternative to the Southern Baptist Convention . The group held zijn first meeting in Atlanta, January 30 through February 1, 2008. [206]


Carter had three Younger siblings: sisters Gloria Carter Spann (1926-1990) and Ruth Carter Stapleton (1929-1983), and brother Billy Carter (1937-1988). [207] He was first cousin to politician Hugh Carter and a distant cousin to the Carter family of musicians. [208]

Carter and Rosalynn Smith ulcers married in July 1946. Together, they ‘port three sons, one daughter, eight grandsons, three granddaughters, and two great-grandsons. Ze hun celebrated 65TH wedding anniversary in July 2011, making Them the second-longest bet Presidential couple after George and Barbara Bush . Their eldest sun Jack Carter was the 2006 Democratic candidate for US Senate in Nevada voordat neglect to the Republican Incumbent’s, John Ensign . Carter’s grandson Jason Carter is a former Georgia State Senator [209] and in 2014 was the Democratic candidate for governor of Georgia , neglect to the Republican Incumbent’s, Nathan Deal . On December 20, 2015, while teaching a Sunday school class, Carter announced dat his 28-year-old grandson Jeremy Carter had mayest from an unspecified illness. [210]

Cancer diagnosis

On August 3, 2015, Carter underwent elective surgery to remove “a small mass” on his liver , and his prognose for a full recovery was initially zegt to be “excellent”. On August 12, however, Carter announced he had bone diagnosed with cancer dat had metastasized , without Specifying where the cancer had originated. [211] On August 20, he disclosed therein melanoma had bone found in his brain and liver, and dat he had begun treatment with the Immunotherapy drug pembrolizumab and was about to start radiation therapy . His health care is being managed by Emory Healthcare or Atlanta . The former president has an uitgebreide family history of cancer, zoals zowel or his parents and all three of his siblings. [212] On January 6, 2015 Carter Issued a statement dat his medical scans no longer Showed ANY cancer. [213] On January 20, 2017, at age 92, Carter became the oldest president to attend a presidential inauguration. [214]

Funeral and burial plans

Carter has Planned to be buried in front of his home in Plains, Georgia. Carter noted in 2006 that a funeral in Washington, DC , with Visitation at the Carter Center was Planned as well. [215]

Public image and legacy

Public opinion

In the wake of Nixon’s Watergate Scandal , exit polls from the 1976 Presidential election by suggested dat many still hero Gerald Ford ‘s pardon of Nixon Against im. [216] By comparison Carter was a sincere, honest, and well-meaning Southerner. [217] Carter Began his term with a 66 percent approval rating [218] welke had dropped to 34 percent approval by the time he left office, with 55 percent disapproving. [219]

In the 1980 campaign, former California Governor Ronald Reagan Projected an easy self-confidence, in contrast to Carter’s serious and introspective temperament. What many people believed to be Carter’s personal attention to detail, his pessimistic attitude, his seeming indecisiveness and Weakness with people in later accentuated in contrast to what many people believed, Reagan’s Charismatic charm and delegation of tasks to subordinates. [220] [221] Reagan-used the economic problems, Iran hostage crisis , and Lack of Washington cooperation to Portray Carter as a weak and ineffectual leader. Like his immediate predecessor, Gerald Ford, Carter did not serve a second term as president. Among Those who in later elected as president, Carter was the first since Hoover pray in 1932 to lose a reelection. [222]

Carter’s post-Presidency activities port leg favorably RECEIVED. The Independent wrote, “Carter widely Considered a better man dan he was a president.” [217] His presidential approval rating was just 31 percent redacteuren voordat the 1980 election by, but 64 percent not approved or his performance as president in a 2009 poll. [223]


Carter’s Presidency was initially viewed by some as a failure. [224] [225] [226] In historical rankings of US presidents , the Carter Presidency has Ranged from No. 19 to No. 34. hoewel de his Presidency RECEIVED mixed reception, his peacekeeping and humanitarian policy-making since he left office goods made Carter Renowned as one of the must successful ex-Presidents in American history. [227] [228]

The documentary Backdoor Channels: The Price of Peace (2009) credits Carter’s policymaking at Camp David, welke brought` peace tussen Israel and Egypt, with Bringing the only meaningful peace to the Middle East. The film opened the 2009 Monte Carlo Television Festival in an invitation-only royal screening [229] on June 7, 2009 at the Grimaldi Forum in the presence of Albert II, Prince of Monaco . [230]

Honors and awards

Main article: List of receptacles and awards RECEIVED by Jimmy Carter

Carter has RECEIVED numerous awards and braces since his Presidency, and verschillende institutions and locations have bone named in his honor. His presidential library , Jimmy Carter Library and Museum was opened in 1986. [231] In 1998, the US Navy named the third and last Seawolf -class submarine Honoring former President Carter and his service as a Submariner officer. It became one of the few Navy vessels to be named for a person living at the time of naming. [232] That year he’ll be RECEIVED the United Nations Human Rights Prize , entered in honor of human rights achievements, [233] and the Hoover Medal , recognizing engineers who harbor Contributed to global Causes. [234] He was awarded the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize , [235] welke was partially a response to President George W. Bush ‘s threats of war against Iraq and Carter’s criticism of the Bush administration. [236]

Carter has leg nominated seven times for the Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for audio recordings or his books, and has won Twice-for Our Endangered Values: America’s Moral Crisis (2007) and A Full Life: Reflections at Ninety (2016). [237]

The Souther Field Airport in Americus, Georgia was renamed Jimmy Carter Regional Airport in 2009. [238]


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  138. Jump up^ Newsnight audio recording, September 2006 BBC.
  139. Jump up^ “Americas – US ‘LIKELY behind” Chavez coup ” . Al Jazeera English . September 21, 2009 . Retrieved June 8, 2010 .
  140. Jump up^ Carter, Jimmy (June 16, 2011). “Call Off the Global Drug War”. The New York Times .
  141. Jump up^ Jimmy Carter,”Just War – or a Just War?” ,The New York Times, March 9, 2003. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
  142. Jump up^ “Jimmy Carter: Blair subservient to Bush” . The Washington Post . Associated Press. August 27, 2006 . Retrieved July 5, 2008 .
  143. Jump up^ Frank Lockwood,”Carter calls Bush administration sausage ever”,Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, May 19, 2007. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
  144. Jump up^ “Carter: Anti-Bush remarks’ care less or misinterpreted ‘ ‘ . CNN . Associated Press. May 21, 2007. Archived from the original on June 14, 2007 . Retrieved June 22, 2015 .
  145. Jump up^ ” ‘ Carter is irrelevant,’ Bush administration shoots back” . CNN . Associated Press. May 20, 2007. Archived from the original on May 23, 2007 . Retrieved June 22, 2015 .
  146. ^ Jump up to:a b “Carter attacks Blair’s Iraq role” . BBC News. May 19, 2007 . Retrieved July 5, 2008 .
  147. Jump up^ “Jimmy Carter Speaks to Forward Magazine” . Jan 2009. Archived from the original on November 9, 2012 . Retrieved April 12, 2014 .
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  150. Jump up^ Bingham, Amy (June 25, 2012). “Jimmy Carter Accuses US of ‘Widespread Abuse of Human Rights ‘ ‘ . ABC News . Retrieved June 26, 2012 . ABC quotes cameramen from a NYTimes June 25, 2012 op-edwritten by Carter
  151. Jump up^ Greg Bluestein; Jim Galloway (July 18, 2013). “Your daily jaagt: America has no functioneren democracy,” says Jimmy Carter ” . Atlanta Journal Constitution . Retrieved July 20, 2013 .
  152. Jump up^ Peter Schmitz (July 17, 2013). “NSA Affäre: Ex-Präsident Carter verdammt US Schnüffelei” . Der Spiegel . Retrieved July 20, 2013 .
  153. Jump up^ “Interview, President Jimmy Carter” . American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, . WEDU . November 26, 2003 . Retrieved September 10, 2016 .
  154. Jump up^ Remarks by Former US President Jimmy Carter at Brandeis University, The Carter Center, January 23, 2007. Retrieved September 19, 2010.
  155. ^ Jump up to:a b “Simon & Schuster: Palestine Peace Not Apartheid (Hardcover) – Read an Excerpt” , Simon & Schuster , November 2006 Retrieved April 9, 2007.
  156. Jump up^ Speaking Frankly about Israel and Palestine, Los Angeles Times , December 8, 2006 Op-Ed. Retrieved January 4, 2007.
  157. Jump up^ Dennis Ross,”Do not Play With Maps,” The New York Times , January 9, 2007. Retrieved January 4, 2009.
  158. Jump up^ Kenneth W. Stein,”My Problem with Jimmy Carter’s Book,”Middle East Forum , Spring, 2007. Retrieved January 4, 2009.
  159. Jump up^ July Bosman,”Carter Book stirs Furor With Its View of Israelis’ Apartheid ” The New York Times , January 14, 2006. Retrieved March 29, 2008.
  160. Jump up^ Alan Dershowitz (November 22, 2006). “The world according to Carter” . The New York Sun . Retrieved September 25, 2007 .
  161. Jump up^ Sony Classics Pictures, Jimmy Carter: Man from Plains . Retrieved August 4, 2008.ArchivedMay 5, 2012, at theWayback Machine.
  162. Jump up^ “Ex-President Carter offers Apology to Jews” . Associated Press. January 23, 2009 . Retrieved October 18, 2011 .
  163. Jump up^ “16 – BCCI And Georgia politicians” . Fas.org . Retrieved September 6, 2010 .
  164. Jump up^ “Could Jimmy Carter’s comments Doom Mitt Romney?” . The International Business Times Inc. . Retrieved September 22, 2011 .
  165. Jump up^ Yahoo News,Jimmy Carter wants Mitt Romney to be the Republican nominee, September 16, 2011. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
  166. Camia, Catalina (August 7, 2012). “Jimmy Carter to speak at video at Dem convention” . USA TODAY . Retrieved August 7, 2012 .
  167. Jump up^ “Carter PRAISES ‘distinguished opponent Ford at funeral” . CBC News . CBC. January 3, 2007 . Retrieved November 11, 2015 .
  168. Jump up^ “Honorary Chairs” . World Justice Project . Retrieved February 24, 2010 .
  169. Jump up^ “About the Opportunity Fund” . World Justice Project . Retrieved February 24, 2010 .
  170. Jump up^ John-Henry Westen (November 7, 2005). “Jimmy Carter Using Abortion to Split Support for Republicans?” . LifeSiteNews.com.
  171. Jump up^ Skinner, Kudelia, Mesquita, Rice (2007). The Strategy of Campaigning . University of Michigan Press. ISBN  978-0-472-11627-0 . Retrieved October 20, 2008 .
  172. Jump up^ “Jimmy Carter: Democratic Party Should Be More Pro-Life, March 29, 2012” .
  173. Jump up^ “Democrats shift on death penalty”, Boston Globe , December 7, 2003
  174. Jump up^ “Carter Nobel Peace Prize speech”, CNN, December 10, 2002
  175. Jump up^ Hill, Elias C. (October 9, 2012). The Mirage of Human Rights . iUniverse. p. 200. ISBN  978-1-4759-4888-2 .
  176. Jump up^ “NEW VOICES: Jimmy Carter Urges New Mexico Governor to Support Death Penalty Repeal | Death Penalty Information Center” . Deathpenaltyinfo.org . Retrieved June 8, 2010 .
  177. Jump up^ Carter, Jimmy,”Jimmy Carter to California: Yes on Prop. 34″ (op-ed), LATimes, October 28, 2012. Retrieved March 5, 2013.
  178. Jump up^ “Brian Baldwin Center on Wrongful Convictions” . Law.northwestern.edu . Retrieved June 8, 2010 .
  179. Jump up^ “Jimmy Carter, Desmond Tutu Urge Texas to Stay Execution of Kenneth Foster” . Democracynow.org . Retrieved June 8, 2010 .
  180. Jump up^ “Clemency | Death Penalty Information Center” . Deathpenaltyinfo.org . Retrieved June 8, 2010 .
  181. Jump up^ The Carter Center (September 19, 2008). “Carter Center Press Releases – President Carter Calls for Clemency for Troy Davis” . The Carter Center . Retrieved June 8, 2010 .
  182. Jump up^ Sengupta, Somini (October 21, 2000). “Carter Sadly Turns Back On National Baptist Body” . The New York Times . Retrieved January 17, 2014 .
  183. Jump up^ Losing my religion for equality, Opinion, Theage.com.au, July 15, 2009
  184. Jump up^ A Call to Action: Women, Religion, Violence, and Power . Simon & Schuster. 2014. ISBN  978-1-4767-7395-7 . OCLC  868276576 .
  185. Jump up^ Carter, Jimmy (April 26, 2009). “What Happened to the Ban on Assault Weapons?” . New York Times (Op-ed) . Retrieved June 4, 2014 .
  186. Jump up^ Eaton, William J. (May 5, 1994). “Ford, Carter, Reagan Push for Gun Ban” . Los Angeles Times . Retrieved June 4, 2014 .
  187. Jump up^ Kurtz, Jason (February 22, 2013). “Clips From Last Night: Jimmy Carter on firearm legislation, the NRA, and the conflict in the Middle East” . Cable News Network . Retrieved June 4, 2014 .
  188. Jump up^ “Former US President Jimmy Carter backs very fine” equal marriages for gays ” . PinkNews . 20 March 2012 . Retrieved 21 January 2017 .
  189. Jump up^ Buxton, Ryan, July 7, 2015, “Jimmy Carter Says Jesus Would Approve Of Gay Marriage” (http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/07/07/jimmy-carter-gay-marriage_n_7744390.html) . HuffPost Politics. Accessed May 30, 2016.
  190. Jump up^ “Jimmy Carter: Gay marriage arnt be up to states” . USA TODAY . 27 October 2014 . Retrieved 21 January 2017 .
  191. Jump up^ “NBC Nightly News with Brian Williams: News and videos from the evening broadcast NBC Nightly News with Brian Williams: News and videos from the evening broadcast” . MSNBC . Retrieved June 8, 2010 .
  192. Jump up^ “White House disputes Carter’s analysis – Capitol Hill” . MSNBC. September 16, 2009 . Retrieved June 8, 2010 .
  193. Jump up^ O’Brien, Michael (September 19, 2009). “Obama plays down role of race in criticism – The Hill’s Blog Briefing Room” . Thehill.com . Retrieved June 8, 2010 .
  194. Jump up^ Torture kan never be justified onYouTube
  195. Jump up^ FREEDLAND Jonathan (June 6, 2008). ” ‘ I Have moral authority ‘ ‘ . The Guardian . Retrieved January 28, 2014 .
  196. Jump up^ “Greif, Inc. helps support Habitat for Humanity’s 29th Annual Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter Work Project” . Habitat for Humanity . Retrieved January 28, 2014 .
  197. Jump up^ Carter, Jimmy, Letter to ArtistsMia Laberge, February 14, 2008.
  198. Jump up^ “Jimmy Carter – Biographical” . The Nobel Foundation . Retrieved January 28, 2014 .
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  200. Jump up^ “Dylan Thomas” . Westminster Abbey . The Dean and Chapter of Westminster. 2015 . Retrieved November 11, 2015 .
  201. Jump up^ Wilson, MJ (June 27, 1977). “Jimmy Carter’s Crusade for Dylan Thomas profit a Supporter-his Grateful Widow, Caitlin” . People . Retrieved November 11, 2015 .
  202. Jump up^ Somini Sengupta,”Carter Sadly Turns Back on National Baptist Body”,The New York Times, October 21, 2000. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
  203. Jump up^ Maranatha Baptist Church. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
  204. Jump up^ Carter, Jimmy; Richardson, Don (1998). Conversations with Carter . Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 14. ISBN  1-55587-801-6 .
  205. Jump up^ Sengupta, S. (October 21, 2000). Carter Sadly Turns Back On National Baptist Body. The New York Times. Retrieved on: March 31, 2013.
  206. Jump up^ New Baptist Covenant. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
  207. Jump up^ Robert D. Hershey Jr. (September 26, 1988). “Billy Carter Dies of Cancer at 51: Troubled Brother or a President” . The New York Times . Retrieved July 27, 2011 .
  208. Jump up^ Cash, John R. with Patrick Carr (1997). Johnny Cash, the Autobiography. Harper Collins.
  209. Jump up^ Hulse, Carl (May 11, 2010). “Veteran House Democrat Loses Seat in Primary” . NYTimes.com . New York Times . Retrieved August 12, 2015 .
  210. Jump up^ Fantz, Ashley; Hassan, CARMA (January 20, 2015). “Hours after death of grandson, Jimmy Carter reveals the news to his church” . CNN . Retrieved January 21, 2015 .
  211. Jump up^ Pramuk, Jacob (August 12, 2015). “Former President Jimmy Carter reveals he has cancer” . New York : CNBC . Retrieved August 12, 2015 .
  212. Jump up^ Olorunnipa, Toluse (August 20, 2015). “Jimmy Carter Says He’s Being Treated for Cancer in Brain” . Bloomberg News . Retrieved August 20, 2015 .
  213. Jump up^ “Statement from Former US President Jimmy Carter” (Press release). Carter Center. January 6, 2015.
  214. Jump up^ Reilly, Katie (January 20, 2017). “How Jimmy Carter Beat Cancer and Became the Oldest President to attend an Inauguration” . Time . Retrieved January 20, 2017 .
  215. Jump up^ Associated Press,”President Carter Talks or Funeral Plans”, December 3, 2006. Retrieved October 13, 2009.
  216. Jump up^ “Polls: Ford’s Image Improved Over Time” . CBS News. December 27, 2006.
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  218. Jump up^ “What History foretells for Obama’s First Job Approval Rating”. Gallup.com . Retrieved January 10, 2011 .
  219. Jump up^ “Bush Presidency Closes With 34% Approval, 61% Disapproval” . Gallup.com . Retrieved January 10, 2011 .
  220. Jump up^ “Disaffection of the public – Jimmy Carter –selection” . Presidentprofiles.com . Retrieved January 10, 2011 .
  221. Jump up^ Dionne, Jr., EJ (May 18, 1989). “Washington Talk: Carter Begins to Shed Negative Public Image” . The New York Times . Retrieved January 28, 2009 .
  222. Jump up^ “The Unfinished Presidency – Jimmy Carter’s Journey Beyond the White House” . The New York Times . 1998 . Retrieved November 27, 2015 .
  223. Jump up^ “Time child to former presidents, CNN poll FINDS” . CNN. January 7, 2009.
  224. Jump up^ Stillwell, Cinnamon (January 12, 2006). “Jimmy Carter’s Legacy of Failure” . SFGate . Retrieved June 22, 2015 .
  225. Jump up^ “Jimmy Carter: Why He Failed” . brookings.edu . January 21, 2000 . Retrieved June 22, 2015 .
  226. Jump up^ Ponnuru, Ramesh (May 28, 2008). “In Carter’s Shadow” . Time . Retrieved June 22, 2015 .
  227. Jump up^ “Jimmy Carter’s Post-Presidency” . American Experience . PBS , WGBH . Retrieved June 22, 2015 .
  228. Jump up^ Brinkley, Douglas (Fall 1996). “The rising stock of Jimmy Carter: The ‘hands on’ legacy of our thirty-ninth president.” Diplomatic History . 20 (4): 505-530. doi : 10.1111 / j.1467-7709.1996.tb00285.x .
  229. Jump up^ Gibb, Lindsay (June 4, 2009). “Monte Carlo TV Fest Opens with doc for first time” . Retrieved June 12, 2012 .
  230. Jump up^ “WorldScreen.com – Archives” . www.worldscreen.com . Retrieved June 22, 2015 . (subscription required ( help )) .
  231. Jump up^ Applebome, Peter (May 30, 1993). “Carter Center: More Than the Past” . The New York Times . ISSN  0362-4331 . Retrieved June 22, 2015 .
  232. Jump up^ McIntyre, Jamie (April 8, 1998). “Navy to name submarine after former President Jimmy Carter” . CNN . Retrieved June 22, 2015 .
  233. Jump up^ “HR Prize – List of previous Recipients” . Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights . Retrieved June 22, 2015 .
  234. Jump up^ “James Earl Carter Jr. 1998 – ASME” .
  235. Jump up^ “The Nobel Peace Prize for 2002 to Jimmy Carter” (Press release). Nobelprize.org. October 11, 2002 . Retrieved June 22, 2015 .
  236. Jump up^ “Jimmy Carter profit Nobel Peace Prize” . CNN . October 11, 2002. Archived from the original on November 21, 2009 . Retrieved June 22, 2015 .
  237. Jump up^
    • Gregory Krieg (February 15, 2016). “Former President Jimmy Carter profits Grammy Award” . CNN.
    • Leeds, Jeff; Manly, Lorne (February 12, 2007). “Defiant Dixie Chicks Are Big Winners at the Grammys” . The New York Times . ISSN  0362-4331 . Retrieved June 22, 2015 .
    • Judy Kurtz, Jimmy Carter up for Another Grammy , The Hill (December 7, 2015).
  238. Jump up^ “Jimmy Carter Regional Airport Becomes a Reality” . Fox News. Associated Press. October 11, 2009 . Retrieved June 22, 2015 .