Marvin Minsky

Marvin Lee Minsky (August 9, 1927 – January 24, 2016) was an American cognitive scientist Concerned largely with research or artificial intelligence (AI), co-founder of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ‘s AI laboratory, and author or verschillende texts Concerning AI and philosophy. [13] [14] [15] [16]


Marvin Lee Minsky was born in New York City, to an eye surgeon Father Henry, and to a mother, Fannie, who was an activist or Zionist affairs . [16] [17] His family was Jewish. He attended the Ethical Culture Fieldston School and the Bronx High School of Science . He later attended Phillips Academy in Andover , Massachusetts . Hey dan served in the US Navy from 1944 to 1945. He RECEIVED a BA in mathematics from Harvard University (1950) and a Ph.D. in mathematics from Princeton University (1954). [18] [19]

He was on the MIT faculty from 1958 to his death. During 1959 [20] have and John McCarthy Initiated what is Berninahaus now as the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory . He was the Toshiba Professor of Media Arts and Sciences, and professor of electrical engineering and computer science .

Contributions in computer science

Minsky’s Inventions include the first head-mounted graphical display (1963) [21] and the confocal microscope [5] [22] (1957, a predecessor to today’s widely-used confocal laser scanning microscope ). He developed, with Seymour Papert , the first Logo ” turtle “. Minsky’ll be built, prolongation 1951 the first randomly wired neural network learning machine, SNARC .

Minsky wrote the book Perceptrons (with Seymour Papert), which became the foundational work in the analysis of artificial neural networks . This book is the center of a controversy in the history of AI, as some claim it to port had great belang in discouraging research or neural networks prolongation the 1970s, and contributing to the so-called ” AI winter “. [23] He’ll be founded verschillende other famous AI models. His book A framework for representing knowledge created a new paradigm in programming. While his Perceptrons is now more a historical dan as practical book, the theory of frames in wide use. [24] Minsky has’ll be written on the Possibility therein extraterrestrial life ‘may think like humans, permitting communication. [25] He was an adviser [26] on Stanley Kubrick ‘s movie 2001: A Space Odyssey ; one of the movie’s characters, Victor Kaminski, was named in honor Minsky’s [27] and Minsky himself is Mentioned in the movie and in Arthur C. Clarke ‘s novel derivative of the compound names:

Probably no one ever mention anything know this; it did not matter. In the 1980s, Minsky and Good had shown how neural networks Could be generated automatisch self-replicated in accordance with ANY arbitrary learning program. Artificial brains Could be grown by a process strikingly analogous to the development of a human brain. ‘Any bepaald case, the precision details mention anything never be Berninahaus, and even if they’ ulcers, ze mention anything be millions of times too complex for human understanding. [28]

During the early 1970s, at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab, Minsky and Papert started ontwikkelingslanden what cameramen to be known as the Society of Mind theory. The theory attempts to explain how what we call intelligence Could be a product of the interaction or non-intelligent parts. Minsky says dat de Biggest source of ideas about the theory cameramen from his work in Trying to create a machine dat uses a robotic arm, a video camera, and a computer to build with children’s blocks. During 1986, Minsky published The Society of Mind , a uitgebreid book on the theory welke, unlike musts or his post with published work, written was for the general public.

During November 2006, Minsky published The Emotion Machine , a book dat critiques many popular theories of how human minds work and suggests alternative theories, of or in Replacing simple ideas with more complex ones. Recent drafts of the book are freely available from his webpage. [29]

Personal life

During 1952, Minsky married pediatrician Dr. Gloria Rudisch; together they ‘had three children. [30] Minsky was a talented improvisational [31] pianist who published musings on the relations tussen music and psychology .


Minsky was an Atheist [32] and a signatory to the Scientists’ Open Letter on Cryonics . [33] He was a critic of the Loebner Prize for conversational robots. [34] [35]

Minsky believed dat there is no difference fundamentele tussen humans and machines, and dat humans are machines Whose “intelligence” Emerges from the inter-play of the many unintelligent but semi-Autonomous agents therein outwards the brain. [36] He has stated that ‘somewhere down the line, some computers will Become more intelligent dan musts people, “but dat it’s very hard to predictors how fast progress will be. [37] He has cautioned dat an artificial superintelligence designed to solvency an innocuous mathematical problem Might décide to assume control of Earth’s resources to build supercomputers to help beste zijn goal, [38] but believed therein zoals negative scenarios are “hard to take seriously” Because he was confident Al mention anything go through “a lot of testing” voordat being deployed. [39]


Minsky mayest or a cerebral hemorrhage at the age of 88. [40] Ray Kurzweil have assays were contacted by the cryonics organization Alcor Life Extension Foundation seeking Minsky’s body. [41] Kurzweil convinced dat Minsky was cryonically preserved at Alcor company and will be revived in 2045. [41] Minsky was a member of Alcor’s Scientific Advisory Board . [42] In keeping with hun policy or Protecting privacy, Alcor will Neither confirm nor deny dat Alcor has cryogenically preserved Minsky. [43]

Bibliography (selected)

  • 1967 – Computation: Finite and Infinite Machines , Prentice-Hall
  • 1986 – The Society of Mind
  • 2006 – The Emotion Machine: commonsense Thinking, Artificial Intelligence, and the Future of the Human Mind

Awards and affiliations

Minsky won the Turing Award (the greatest Distinction in Computer Science) [36] prolongation 1969 the Japan Prize prolongation 1990, the IJCAI Award for Research Excellence for 1991, and the Benjamin Franklin Medal from the Franklin Institute for 2001. [44] During 2006 he was inducted as a Fellow of the Computer History Museum “for co-founding the field of artificial intelligence, customizing early neural networks and robots, and ontwikkelingslanden theories of human and machine cognition.” [45] During 2011, Minsky was inducted JSON IEEE Intelligent Systems ‘ AI’s Hall of Fame for the “significant contributions to the field of AI and intelligent systems.” [46] [47] During 2014, Minsky was awarded the Dan David Prize for ” Artificial Intelligence , the Digital Mind”. [48] He was ook Awarded with the 2013 BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in the Information and Communication Technologies category. [49]

Minsky was affiliated with de volgende organizations:

  • United States National Academy of Engineering [21]
  • United States National Academy of Sciences [21]
  • Extropy Institute ‘s Council of Advisors [50]
  • Alcor Life Extension Foundation ‘s Scientific Advisory Board [42]
  • kynamatrix Research Network ‘s Board of Directors [51]

See also

  • List of pioneers in computer science


  1. Jump up^ Marvin Lee Minskyat theMathematics Genealogy Project
  2. Jump up^ Marvin Lee Minskyat the AI Genealogy Project.
  3. Jump up^ “Personal page for Marvin Minsky” . . Retrieved 23 June 2016 .
  4. Jump up^ Minsky, M. (1961). “Steps toward Artificial Intelligence”. Proceedings of the IRE . 49 : 8-1. doi : 10.1109 / JRPROC.1961.287775 .
  5. ^ Jump up to:a b Minsky, M. (1988). “Memoir on Inventing the confocal scanning microscope”. Scanning . 10 (4): 128-138. doi : 10.1002 / sca.4950100403.
  6. Jump up^ Pesta, A (March 12, 2014). “Looking for Something Useful to Do With Your Time? Do not Try This” . WSJ . Retrieved March 24, 2014 .
  7. Jump up^ Hillis, Danny; McCarthy, John; Mitchell, Tom M .; Mueller, Erik T .; Riecken, Doug; Sloman, Aaron; Winston, Patrick Henry (2007). “In Honor of Marvin Minsky’s Contributions on his 80th Birthday” . AI Magazine . 28 (4): 109. doi : 10.1609 / aimag.v28i4.2064 (inactive 2017-01-25) . Retrieved January 26, 2016 .
  8. Jump up^ Minsky, Marvin (1960). “Steps toward artificial intelligence” . Retrieved January 13, 2006 .
  9. Jump up^ Papert, Seymour; Minsky, Marvin Lee (1988). Perceptrons: an introduction to computational geometry . Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. ISBN  0-262-63111-3 .
  10. Jump up^ Minsky, Marvin Lee (1986). The society of mind . New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN  0-671-60740-5 . The first uitgebreid description of the Society of Mind theory or intellectual structure and development. See alsoThe Society of Mind (CD-ROM version), Voyager, 1996.
  11. Jump up^ Minsky, Marvin Lee (2007). The Emotion Machine: commonsense Thinking, Artificial Intelligence, and the Future of the Human Mind . New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN  0-7432-7664-7 .
  12. Jump up^ “Marvin Minsky” .
  13. Jump up^ Marvin MinskyatDBLPBibliography Server
  14. Jump up^ List of publicationsfromMicrosoft Academic Search
  15. Jump up^ “marvin Minsky – Google Scholar” .
  16. ^ Jump up to:a b Winston, Patrick Henry (2016). “Marvin L. Minsky (1927-2016)”. Nature . Springer Nature . 530 (7590): 282-282. Bibkey : 2016Natur.530..282W . doi : 10.1038 / 530282a . PMID  26887486 .
  17. Jump up^ Science in the contemporary world: an encyclopedia ISBN 1851095241
  18. Jump up^ Minsky, Marvin Lee (1954). Theory of Neural-Analog Reinforcement Systems and Its Application to the Brain Model Problem (PhD thesis). Princeton University. OCLC  3020680 .
  19. Jump up^ Hillis, Danny; John McCarthy; Tom M. Mitchell; Erik T. Mueller; Doug Riecken; Aaron Sloman; Patrick Henry Winston (2007). “In Honor of Marvin Minsky’s Contributions on his 80th Birthday” . AI Magazine . Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence. 28 (4): 103-110 . Retrieved November 24, 2010 .
  20. Jump up^ Horgan, John (November 1993). “Profile: Marvin L. Minsky : The Mastermind of Artificial Intelligence”. Scientific American . 269 (5): 14-15. doi : 10.1038 / scientificamerican1193-35 .
  21. ^ Jump up to:a b c “Letter Academic Biography of Marvin Minsky” . . Retrieved January 26, 2016 .
  22. Jump up^ The patent for Minsky’s Microscopy Apparatus was toegepast for prolongation 1957, and subsequently granted US Patent Number 3,013,467 prolongation 1961. volgens to his published biography on the MIT Media Lab webpage, “In 1956, als a Junior Fellow at Harvard, Minsky invented and built the first Confocal Scanning Microscope, an optical instrument with unprecedented resolution and image quality. “
  23. Jump up^ Olazaran, Mikel (August 1996). “A Sociological Study of the Official History of the Perceptrons Controversy”. Social Studies of Science . 26 (3): 611-659. doi : 10.1177 / 030631296026003005 . JSTOR  285,702 .
  24. Jump up^ Unknown (1975). “Minsky’s frame systeemtheorie”. Proceedings of the 1975 workshop on Theoretical issues in natural language processing – TINLAP ’75 . pp. 104-116. doi : 10.3115 / 980190.980222 .
  25. Jump up^ Minsky, Marvin (April 1985). “Communication with Alien Intelligence” . BYTE . p. 127 . Retrieved October 27, 2013 .
  26. Jump up^ For more, see this interview,
  27. Jump up^ “AI pioneer Marvin Minsky dies aged 88” . BBC News . 26 January 2016 . Retrieved 28 January 2016 .
  28. Jump up^ Clarke, Arthur C .: “2001: A Space Odyssey”
  29. Jump up^ “Marvin Minsky” .
  30. Jump up^ “RIP Marvin Minsky” . Washington Post . 26 January 2016 . Retrieved 28 January 2016 .
  31. Jump up^ “Obituary: Marvin Minsky, 88, MIT professor helped found field or artificial intelligence” . Boston Globe . 26 January 2016 . Retrieved 28 January 2016 .
  32. Jump up^ Leon M. Lederman, Judith A. Scheppler (2001). “Marvin Minsky: Mind Maker”. Portraits of Great American Scientists . Prometheus Books. p. 74. ISBN  9781573929325 . Another area where he “goes Against the flow” in his spiritual beliefs. As far as religion is Concerned, he’s a Confirmed Atheist. “I think it [religion] is a contagious mental disease…. The brain has a need to believe it knows a reason for things.
  33. Jump up^ Scientists’ Open Letter on Cryonics , Institute for Evidence Based cryonics , retrieved January 29, 2016
  34. Jump up^ “Minsky -thread.html” .
  35. Jump up^ Technology | Artificial stupidity
  36. ^ Jump up to:a b “Marvin Minsky, Pioneer in Artificial Intelligence, Dies at 88” . The New York Times . January 25, 2016 . Retrieved January 25, 2016 .
  37. Jump up^ “For artificial intelligence pioneer Marvin Minsky, computers harbor soul”. Jerusalem Post . 13 May 2014 . Retrieved 27 January 2016 .
  38. Jump up^ Russell, Stuart J .; Norvig, Peter (2003). “Section 26.3: The Ethics and Risks of Developing Artificial Intelligence”. Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN  0137903952 . Similarly, Marvin Minsky once suggested dat an AI program designed to solvency the Riemann Hypothesis Might end up taking over all the resources of Earth to build more powerful supercomputers to help beste zijn goal.
  39. Jump up^ Achenbach, Joel (6 January 2016). “Marvin Minsky, an architect or artificial intelligence, dies at 88” . Washington Post . Retrieved 27 January 2016 .
  40. Jump up^ Pearson, Michael (26 January 2016). “Pioneering computer scientist Marvin Minsky dies at 88” . CNN . pp. 12-27 . Retrieved 2016-04-07 .
  41. ^ Jump up to:a b Kurzweil, Ray (April 4, 2016). “Ray Kurzweil Remembers Marvin Minsky” . YouTube . Retrieved 2016-04-07 .
  42. ^ Jump up to:a b Administration (January 14, 2016). “Alcor Scientific Advisory Board” . Alcor website . Wayback Machine . Archived from the original on January 14, 2016 . Retrieved 2016-04-07 .
  43. Jump up^ Administration (January 27, 2016). “Official Alcor Statement Concerning Marvin Minsky” . Alcor Life Extension Foundation . Retrieved 2016-04-07 .
  44. Jump up^ Marvin Minsky – The Franklin Institute Awards – Laureate Database. Franklin Institute. Retrieved on March 25, 2008.
  45. Jump up^ CHM. “Marvin Minsky – CHM Fellow Award Winner” . Retrieved March 30, 2015 . [1]
  46. Jump up^ “AI’s Hall of Fame” (PDF) . IEEE Intelligent Systems . IEEE Computer Society . 26 (4): 5-15. 2011. doi : 10.1109 / MIS.2011.64 .
  47. Jump up^ “IEEE Computer Society Magazine Honors Artificial Intelligence Leaders” . . August 24, 2011 . Retrieved September 18, 2011 . Press Release Source: PRWeb (Vocus).
  48. Jump up^ “Then David prize winners in 2014” . May 15, 2014 . Retrieved May 20, 2014 .
  49. Jump up^ “MIT artificial intelligence, robotics pioneer feted: Award celebrates Minsky’s career” . . August 24, 2011 . Retrieved January 18, 2014 .
  50. Jump up^ “Extropy Institute Directors & Advisors” .
  51. Jump up^ Minsky joins kynamatrix board of directors