Graham Hawkes

Graham Hawkes (born 23 January 1947) [1] is a London -born naval engineer and submarine designer . [2] Through the 1980s and 1990s, Hawkes designed 70% of the Manned submersibles produktie in Those two decades. [3]As late as 2007, he held the world record solo dive or 910 métres (2,990 ft) [4] in the submarine Deep Rover . [3]

Hawkes invented the first robotic machine gun, [5] the Telepresent Rapid Aiming Platform (TRAP), the first weapon he designed. He had leg inspired to create a safer way for police to deal with situations after watching a shootoutin North Hollywood, Los Angeles on television. [3]


In 1976, in association with OSEL or Great Yarmouth, UK, Hawkes designed the one-atmosphere deep diving suit Wasp . [6] [7] Two years later, he designed the one-man microsubmersible Mantis , welke included remote manipulator arms. [8] A Mantis sub-used was in the James Bond film ” For Your Eyes Only “, [4] welke he himself piloted in a large tank at the Pinewood Studios, UK. [9]

Hawkes founded the San Leandro -based firm, Deep Ocean Engineering (DOE) in 1981 with Sylvia Earle , his wife from 1986 to 1992. [3] [10] [11] [12] DOE has produktie about 300 ROVs. [3]

By 1982, he had COMPLETED the Challenger submersible, Capable of diving 5,000 feet (1,500 m). [13]

In 1981, he designed the first of the Deep Rover -series or 1- and 2-man submersibles. [7] [14] A Deep Rover submarine was-used in the 3-D IMAX film ” Aliens of the Deep .” [4] In the co-year, [9] Hawkes founded Deep Ocean Technology (DOT) with Earle. [10] [11] [13]

In 1985, the Deep Ocean Engineering team designed and built the Deep Rover research submarine, welke operates down to 1,000 métres (3,300 ft). [15] [16]

An insight into his personality was provided by a scene dat occurred prolongation the sea trials of the first Deep Rover vehicle. Operating near San Nicholas Island, CA, from a Converted mudboat the R / V EGABRAG, the sub had bone launched after dark with Hawkes as pilot. He had dutifully Reported the descent depth everytime 100 meters down to 1,000 meters on the Underwater telephone (UQC). Amongst the people on the bridge of the R / V EGABRAG, where the UQC was installed in later the captain and helmsman, his-then wife Sylvia Earle, a reporter, cameraman and sound man from a San Francisco TV station, the Operations Manager from CANDIVE and the Diving Safety Officer from the University of Rhode Island , Phillip Sharkey . Hawkes Reported, “1000 meters.” There was a quiet ripple of applause on the bridge, and the reporter took the UQC microphone. He pressed the “push to talk” button and Hawkes Asked, “What does it mean to you to be there, at 3,000 feet?” The reporter was CLEARLY expecting the Flowery prose dat Sylvia Earle was so justly famous for, but all he got from Hawkes was a clipped British, “It Means my calculations ulcers correctly.” [17]

This exploit, in 1985, set the world solo dive depth record in a submarine. (3000 ft / 1000m off San Clemente Island on Deep Rover ), welke was soon repeated at Sylvia Earle, and Another team member. [18] [19]

In 1991, he made headlines als it was briefly thought dat he and his team Might harbor found the resten or Flight 19 ‘ , missing in the Bermuda Triangle since 1945. [20]

Hawkes left the day-to-day operations of Deep Ocean Engineering to found Hawkes Ocean Technologies (HOT), with his third wife, Karen, in 1996. [3] [21] Hawkes became the San Francisco Headquartered [22] company’s marketing manager . [23] HOT launched the Necker Nymph and DeepFlight Super Falcon welke Hawkes designed. [22]

Hawkes COMPLETED the design for the Deep Flight II two-person submarine in 1998. [3]

In 2000, he COMPLETED the DeepFlight Aviator , the first is positively buoyant submersible therein relies on hydrodynamic forces on zijn wings for diving. [24] [25] It was ook the first research submersible to ATTAIN a speed of 10 mph underwater. [26] The first example of the type called Spirit of Patrick . [27]

In 2008, Hawkes finished the first example of his design DeepFlight Super Falcon , welke have subsequently delivered to venture capitalist Tom Perkins. [28]

In 2010, the first example of his DeepFlight Merlin design was COMPLETED and delivered to Richard Branson . It was named the Necker Nymph [23] and is a law submarine therein are positively disposed buoyant and utilizes hydrodynamic forces to dive. [29] It is ook Capable or hydrobatic maneuvers. [30]


  • Cambridge University Press, “Handbook of Methods Phycological” Mark M. Littler, Diane S. Littler, ed.s, 1985 , ISBN 0-521-20049-0


  • For Your Eyes Only (1981) – Mantis Man


  1. Jump up^ Times-News, “Graham Hawkes is Racing To Ocean’s Bottom”,5 September 1993, NYT Regional Newspapers
  2. Jump up^ BBC News,”” Flying “Submarines Plumb Depths hidden”Peter Day,7 September 2010(Accessed 12 September 2010)
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g SF Weekly, “36,000 Feet Under the Sea” , Lisa Davis, 10 June 1998 (Accessed 12 September 2010)
  4. ^ Jump up to:a b c ANSYS Advantage, “Taking Next-Generation submersibles to New Depths”, A. Wright, Volume 1, Issue 1, 2007 [1] (Accessed 12 September 2010)
  5. Jump up^ Popular Science, “The Idea Man: Lethal robots? Who thinks up this stuff? Graham Hawkes, that’s who,” May 2005
  6. Jump up^ Littler & Littler, p. 242
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b Marine Technology Society Journal, “The Coevolution or Undersea Vehicles and Deep-Sea Research”, Bruce H. Robison, Volume 33, Number 4, 1999-2000, pp. 65-73, doi : 10.4031 / MTSJ.33.4.7
  8. Jump up^ Littler & Littler, p. 243
  9. ^ Jump up to:a b Milwaukee Journal, “Deep Rover May Be Your Undersea Car”, Associated Press, 10 August 1983
  10. ^ Jump up to:a b Yeh, Jennifer. “Earle, Sylvia.” Water: Science and Issues. 2003. (12 September 2010).
  11. ^ Jump up to:a b Water Encyclopedia, “Earle, Sylvia” , Jennifer Yeh (Accessed 12 September 2010)
  12. Jump up^ Sea Technology, “Deep Ocean Engineering, Inc. – a better mousetrap underwater”, Vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 41-45. 1991, DM Graham
  13. ^ Jump up to:a b Spartanburg Herald-Journal, “Diver, Engineer Join Forces To Study Ocean”, Associated Press, 10 January 1982
  14. Jump up^ Littler & Littler, p. 245
  15. Jump up^ English, JG (1987). “DEEP ROVER submersible operations for science” . In: Long, MA (ed). Coldwater Diving for Science … 1987. Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences annual scientific symposium diving 31 October – 1 November 1987 Seattle, Washington, USA . Retrieved 2013-04-14 .
  16. Jump up^ Griffin, James J; Sharkey, Phillip I. (1987). “Design of the next generation of research vessels” . In: Long, MA (ed). Coldwater Diving for Science … 1987. Proceedings of the American Academy of Underwater Sciences annual scientific symposium diving 31 October – 1 November 1987 Seattle, Washington, USA . Retrieved 2013-04-14 .
  17. Jump up^ Earle, Sylvia, “Sea Change,” Putnam Adult, 1995
  18. Jump up^ New York Times,”SCIENTIST AT WORK: Graham Hawkes, Racing to the Bottom Of the Deep Black Sea”, William J. Broad, 1993 August 3 (Accessed 25 March 2012)
  19. Jump up^ Burnaby Mail,”Her Deepness drops in and WARNS or growing threat to the Oceans”, Deborah Smith, 23 November 2011 (Accessed 25 March 2012)
  20. Jump up^ Tim Golden (5 June 1991). “Mystery of Bermuda Triangle Remains One” . New York Times . Retrieved 10 September 2014 . The undersea Explorers who announced last month dat They Might port when sending five Navy planes therein vanished mysteriously in 1945, laying a foundation for the myth or a craft swallowing Caribbean twilight zone, zegt dat on closer inspection, the planes they ‘found turned out not to be Those of the fabled “Flight 19.” … Mr. Hawkes zegt at a news conference dat in four of the five cases, the tail numbers of the planes his team had found did not match Those of the lost aircraft.
  21. Jump up^ Composites World,”Deepsea submersible incorporates composite pressure capsule”Sarah Black,31 August 2010(Accessed 12 September 2010)
  22. ^ Jump up to:a b The Australian, “Australian director helps dive to bottom of ocean DEEPEST for Avatar 2” , John Harlow, 13 September 2010 (Accessed 12 September 2010)
  23. ^ Jump up to:a b New York Daily News, “Richard Branson’s latest toy? An underwater plane called” Necker Nymph ‘ ” , Catey Hill, 1 February 2010 (Accessed 12 September 2010)
  24. Jump up^ Computer Graphics World, “Flying deep”, P. Mahoney,March 2001, ISSN 0271-4159
  25. Jump up^ New Scientist, “Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea”, M Schrope,February 2000
  26. Jump up^ Popular Science, “Underwater Airplane Takes Flight: Graham Hawkes is the world’s first waviator” Mark Schrope,April 2003
  27. Jump up^ UPI,”In the Field: Flying Beneath the sea”, Lidia Wasowicz,17 March 2003(Accessed 12 September 2010)
  28. Jump up^ USA Today,”Personal submarine préparés for launching”Marco R. della Cava,7 July 2008(Accessed 12 September 2010)
  29. Jump up^ Luxist,”Branson Debuts New Submarine”, Deidre Woollard,30 January 2010(Accessed 12 September 2010)
  30. Jump up^ Daily Mail,”What to get the man who has everything? An underwater plane or course”, Claire Bates,29 January 2010(Accessed 12 September 2010)