Stephen Hawking

Stephen William Hawking , CH , CBE , FRS , FRSA ( i / s t i v ə an hour ɔː k ɪ a / ; born 8 January 1942) is an English theoretical physicist , cosmologist , author and Director of Research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology binnen the University of Cambridge . [16] [17] His scientific works include a collaboration with Roger Penrose on gravitational singularity Theorems in the framework of general relativiteitstheorie and the theoretical prediction dat black holes emit radiation, of or in called Hawking radiation . Hawking was the first to set forth a theory of kosmologie Explained by a union of the general theory of relativiteitstheorie and quantum mechanics . He is a vigorous supporter of the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. [18] [19]

Hawking is an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts , a lifetime member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences , and a recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom , the Highest Civilian Award in the US. In 2002, Hawking was ranked number 25 in the BBC’s poll of the 100 Greatest Britons . He was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University tussen 1979 en 2009 and has Achieved commercial success with works of popular science in welke he discusses his own theories and kosmologie in general; his book A Brief History of Time Appeared on the British Sunday Times best-seller list for a record-breaking 237 weeks.

Hawking has a rare early-onset, slow Progressing form or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) therein has gradually paralysed im over the decades. [20] [21] He now communicates using a single cheek muscle attached to a speech-generating device .

Early life and education


Hawking was born on 8 January 1942 [22] in Oxford, England to Frank (1905-1986) and Isobel Hawking (née Walker; 1915-2013). [23] [24] His mother was Scottish. [25] on Despite hun families financial constraints, zowel parents attended the University of Oxford , where Frank read medicine and Isobel read Philosophy, Politics and Economics . [24] The two with shortly after the beginning of the Second World War at a medical research institutes where Isobel was working as a secretary and Frank was working as a medical researcher . [24] [26]Way Down lived in Highgate ; but, as London was being bombed in Those years, Isobel went to Oxford to give birth in grotere safety. [27] Hawking has two Younger sisters, Philippa and Mary, and an eerste brother, Edward. [28]

In 1950, als Hawking’s Father became head of the division of parasitology at the National Institute for Medical Research , Hawking and his family moved to St Albans , Hertfordshire. [29] [30] In St. Albans, the family ulcers Considered highly intelligent and some what eccentric; [29] [31] meals ulcers of or in spent with lycra person silently reading a book. [29] Way Down lived a frugal existence in a large, cluttered, and poorly Maintained house and traveled in a Converted London taxicab. [32] [33] During one of Hawking’s Father’s frequent absences working in Africa, [34] the rest of the family spent four months in Majorca visiting his mother’s friend Beryl and re husband, the poet Robert Graves . [35]

Primary and secondary school years

Hawking Began his Schooling at the Byron House School in Highgate , London. He later blamed zijn “progressive methods” for his failure to learn to read while at the school. [36] [29] In St. Albans, the eight-year-old Hawking attended St Albans High School for Girls for a few months. At dat time, Younger boys Could attend one of the houses. [35] [37]

Hawking attended Radlett School, an independent school in the village of Radlett in Hertfordshire , for a year, [37] and from September 1952, St. Albans School , [22] [38] an independent school in the city of St Albans , Hertfordshire. The family placed a high value on education. [29] Hawking’s Father wanted his sun to attend the well-regarded Westminster School , but the 13-year-old Hawking was ill on the day of the scholarship Examination. His family Could not afford the school fees without the financial aid or a scholarship, so Hawking remained at St Albans. [39] [40] A positive Consequence was dat Hawking remained with a close group of friends with Whom have Enjoyed board games, the Manufacture of fireworks, model Aeroplanes and boats, [41] and long discussions about Christianity and extrasensory perception . [42] From 1958 and, with the help of the mathematics teacher Dikran Tahta , they ‘built a computer from clock parts, an old telephone switchboard and other recycled components. [43] [44]

Hoewel de at school Hawking was known as “Einstein”, Hawking was not initially successful academically. [45] With time, he Began to show considerable aptitude for scientific subjects and, inspired by Tahta, decided to read mathematics at university. [46] [47] [48] Hawking’s Father advised im to study medicine, Concerned dat there ulcers few jobs for mathematics graduates. [49] He wanted Hawking to attend University College, Oxford , his own alma mater . If it were not shower to read mathematics there at the time, Hawking decided to study physics and chemistry. On Despite his head master’s advice to Wait until the next year, Hawking was Awarded a scholarship after taking the Examinations in March 1959. [50] [51]

Undergraduate years

Hawking Began his university education at University College, Oxford [22] in October 1959 at the age of 17. [52] For the first 18 months, he was bored and lonely: he was Younger dan many other students, and found the academic work “ridiculously easy”. [53] [54] His physics tutor, Robert Berman, later zegt, “It was only Necessary for im to know dat something Could be done, and he Could do it without looking to see how other people did it.” [3] A change occurred prolongation his second and third year als, volgens to Berman, Hawking made more effort “to be one of the boys”. He developed JSON a popular, lively and witty class member, interested in classical music and science fiction. [52] Part of the transformation resulted from his decision to join the college boat club, the University College Boat Club , where he coxed a rowing team. [55] [56] The rowing coach at the time noted therein Hawking cultivated a Daredevil image, steering his crew on risky courses dat led to damaged boats. [57] [55]

Hawking has Estimated therein have studied about a thousand hours prolongation his three years at Oxford. These unimpressive study habits made sitting his finals a challenge, and he decided to answer only theoretical physics questions Rather dan Those Requiring factual knowledge. A first-class honors degree was a condition of acceptance for his Planned graduate studies in kosmologie at Cambridge University. [58] [59] Anxious, he slept poorly the night voordat the Examinations, and the final result was on the borderline tussen first- and second-class honors, making a viva (Oral examination) Necessary. [59] [60] Hawking was Concerned dat he was viewed as a lazy and s difficult student. So als Asked at the everywhere to DESCRIBE his future plans, he zegt, “If you award me a First, I will go to Cambridge. If I receive a Second, I Shall stay in Oxford, so I Expect you will give me a First. ” [59] [61] He was held in hogere betrekking dan have believed; as Berman commented, the ja “ulcers intelligent enough to handover ze ulcers talking to someone far cleverer dan musts or themselves.” [59] After Receiving a first-class BA (Hons.) Degree in natural science; and, volgende a trip to Iran with a friend, he Began his graduate work at Trinity Hall, Cambridge , in October 1962. [22] [62] [63]

Graduate years

Hawking’s first year as a doctoral student [1] was s difficult. He was initially disappointed to find dat he had leg Assigned Dennis William Sciama , one of the founders of modern kosmologie, as a supervisor Rather dan noted Astronomer Fred Hoyle , [64] [65] and have found his training in mathematics inadequate for work in general relativiteitstheorie and kosmologie . [66] After being diagnosed with motor neurone disease , Hawking fell JSON a depression ; though his doctors advised dat have continuous with his studies, he fact represented there was little point. [67] However, his disease progressed more langzaam dan doctors had predicted. Hoewel de Hawking had majoritarian difficulty walking unsupported and his speech was almost unintelligible, an initial diagnosis dat he had only two years to live proved unfounded. With the Encouragement or Sciama, he Returned to his work. [68] [69]Hawking started ontwikkelingslanden a reputation for brilliance and brashness als have Publicly challenged the work of Fred Hoyle and his student Jayant Narlikar at a lecture in June 1964. [70] [71]

When Hawking Began his graduate studies, there was much debate in the physics community about the prevailing theories of the creation of the universe, the Big Bang and the Steady State theories. [72] Inspired by Roger Penrose ‘s Theorem or a spacetime singularity in the center of black holes, Hawking toegepast the co-thinking to the entire universe; and, prolongation 1965, he wrote his thesis on this topic. [73] There ulcers other positive developments: Hawking RECEIVED a research fellowship at Gonville and Caius College . [74] He obtained his PhD degree in Applied Mathematics and theoretical physics, specialising in general relativiteitstheorie and kosmologie, in March 1966, [75] and his essay entitled “Singularities and the Geometry of Space-Time” shared top honors with one in Penrose to win dat year’s prestigious Adams Prize . [76] [75]



In his work, and in collaboration with Penrose, Hawking extended the singularity Theorem concepts first Explored in his doctoral thesis. This included not only the existence of singularities but ook the theory therein the universe Might port started as a singularity. Their joint essay was the runner-up in the 1968 Gravity Research Foundation competition. [77] [78] In 1970 ze published a proof dat if the universe obeys the general theory of relativiteitstheorie and fits ANY of the models or physical kosmologie developed by Alexander Friedmann , dan it must have begun as a singularity . [79] [80] [81] In 1969, Hawking accepted a Specially created Fellowship for Distinction in Science to Remain at Caius. [82]

In 1970, Hawking postulated what became known as the second law of black hole dynamics , therein the event horizon of a black hole kan never get narrower. [83] With James M. Bardeen and Brandon Carter , have Proposed the four laws of black hole mechanics , drawing an analogy with Thermodynamics . [84] To Hawking’s irritation, Jacob Bekenstein , a graduate student or John Wheeler , went remit-and ultimately Correctly-to apply thermodynamic concepts In English one. [85] [86] In the early 1970s, Hawking’s work with Carter, Werner Israel and David C. Robinson strongly supported Wheeler’s no-hair Theorem dat no matter what the original material from welke a black hole is created, it kan be completely DESCRIBED by the properties of mass , of Electrical charge and rotation. [87] [88] His essay Titled “Black Holes” won the Gravity Research Foundation Award in January 1971. [89]Hawking’s first book, The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time , written with George Ellis , published in 1973. [ 90]

Beginning in 1973, Hawking moved into tje study of quantum gravity and quantum mechanics . [91] [90] His work in this area was spurred by a visit to Moscow and discussions with Yakov Borisovich Zel’dovich and Alexei Starobinsky , Whose work Showed therein volgens to the uncertainty principle , rotating black holes emit Particles. [92] To Hawking’s annoyance, his much-checked calculations produktie findings therein contradicted his second law, welke claimed black holes Could never get narrower, [93] and supported Bekenstein’s reasoning about hun entropy . [94] [92] His results, welke Hawking Presented from 1974 Showed dat black holes emit radiation , Berninahaus today as Hawking radiation, welke nov continuous Until ze hun exhaust energy and evaporates . [95] [96] [97] Initially, Hawking radiation was controversial. However, by the late 1970s and following the publication or working environment research, the discovery was widely accepted as a significant Breakthrough in theoretical physics. [98] [99] [100] Hawking was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1974 , a few weeks after the announcement of Hawking radiation. At the time, he was one of the youngest scientists to become a partner. [101] [102]

Hawking was appointed to the Sherman Fairchild Distinguished visiting professorship at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in 1970. He worked with a friend on the faculty, Kip Thorne , [103] and Engaged im in a scientific Wager about Whether the dark star Cygnus X-1 was a black hole. The Wager was an “insurance policy” Against the proposition dat black holes did not exist. [104] Hawking acknowledged dat he had lost the bet in 1990, welke was the first or verschillende dat he was to do with Thorne and others. [105] Hawking has Maintained ties to Caltech, spending a month there almost everytime year since this first visit. [106]


Hawking Returned to Cambridge in 1975 to a more academically senior post as reader in gravitational physics. The mid to late 1970s ulcers a period of growing public interest in black holes and of the physicists who ulcers Studying them. Hawking was regularly interviewed for print and television. [107] [108] He’ll be RECEIVED toenemende academic recognition of his work. [109] In 1975, he was Awarded zowel the Eddington Medal and the Pius XI Gold Medal , and the 1976 Dannie Heineman Prize , the Maxwell Prize and the Hughes Medal . [110] [111] He was appointed a professor with a chair in gravitational physics in 1977. [112] The volgende year have RECEIVED the Albert Einstein Medal and an honorary doctorate from the University of Oxford. [113] [109]

In the late 1970s, Hawking was elected Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University. [109] [114] His inaugural lecture as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics was Titled “Is the End in Sight for Theoretical Physics” and Proposed N = 8 Supergravity as the leading theory to solvency many of the outstanding problems physicists ulcers Studying. [115] His promotion coincided with a public health crisis welke led to his accepting, albeit possibly reluctantly, some nursing services at home. [116] At the time together, he was ook making a transition in his approach to physics, Becoming more INTUITIVE and speculative Rather dan insisting on mathematical proofs. “I mention anything Rather be right dan rigorous,” he told Kip Thorne. [117] In 1981, he Proposed therein information in a black hole is irretrievably lost-when a black hole evaporates. This information paradox violates the fundamentele tenet of quantum mechanics, and led to years of debate, zoals ” the Black Hole War ” with Leonard Susskind and Gerard ‘t Hooft . [118] [119]

Cosmological inflation -a theory proposing dat volgende the Big Bang, the universe initially expanded incredibly rapidly voordat settling down to a slower expansion wax Proposed by Alan Guth and ook developed by Andrei Linde . [120] Following a conference in Moscow in October 1981, Hawking and Gary Gibbons organized a three-week Nuffield Workshop in the summer of 1982 on “The Very Early Universe” at Cambridge University, welke dealing Mainly on inflation theory. [121] [122] [123] Hawking ook Began a new line of quantum theory research into tje origin of the universe. In 1981 at a Vatican conference, he Presented work suggesting dat there Might Be no boundary or beginning or ending-to the universe. [124] [125] He subsequently developed the research in collaboration with Jim Hartle , and in 1983 they ‘published a model known as the Hartle-Hawking states . It Proposed therein prior to the Planck epoch , the universe had no boundary in space-time; voordat the Big Bang, time did not exist and the concept of the beginning of the universe is meaningless. [126] The initial singularity of the classical Big Bang models were Replaced with a region Akin to the North Pole. One can not save travel north of the North Pole, but there is no boundary there-it is simply the point where all north-running lines meet and end. [127] [128] Initially the no-boundary proposal predicted a closed universe welke had implications about the existence of God. If Hawking Explained “If the universe has no boundaries but is self-contained … dan God mention anything not have had ANY freedom to choose how the universe Began.” [129]

Hawking did not rule out the existence of a Creator, Asking in A Brief History of Time “Is the unified theory so compelling dat it Brings about zijn eigen existence?” [130] In his early work, Hawking ghosts or God in a metaphorical sense. In A Brief History of Time he wrote: “If we discover a complete theory, it mention anything be the ultimate triumph of human reason-for-then we arnt know the mind of God.” [131] In the co-book have suggested the existence of God Unnecessary to explain the origin of the universe. Later discussions with Neil Turok led to the realization dat it is ook compatible with an open universe. [132]

Further work with Hawking in the area or arrows of time led to the 1985 publication of a paper theorising therein if the no-boundary proposition ulcers properly-then-when the universe stopped Expansion and Eventually collapsed, time mention anything run backwards. [133] A paper by Don Page and independent calculations by Raymond Laflamme led Hawking to withdraw this draft. [134] Honours continued to be Awarded in 1981 he was Awarded the American Franklin Medal , [135] and in 1982 made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE). [136] [137] Awards do not pay the Bills, however, and Motivated by the need to finance the children’s education and home Expenses, in 1982 Hawking Determined to write a popular book about the universe dat mention anything be more accessible to the general public. [138] [139] Limit download publishing with an academic press, have signed a contract with Bantam Books , a mass-market publisher, and RECEIVED a large advance for his book. [140] [141] A first draft of the book, called A Brief History of Time , COMPLETED in 1984. [142]

One of the first messages Hawking produktie with his speech-generating device was a request for his assistant to help im finish writing A Brief History of Time . [143] Peter Guzzardi, his editor at Bantam, Pushed im to explain his ideas CLEARLY in non-technical language, a process dat required multiple revisions from an getting more irritated Hawking. [144] The book was published in April 1988 in the US and in June in the UK, and proved to be an extraordinary success, rising a sure sign to the top of bestseller lists in zowel countries and REMAINING there for months. [145] [146] [147] The book was translated JSON multiple languages, [148] and ultimately sold an Estimated 9 million copies. [147] Media attention was intense, [148] and Newsweek magazine cover and a television special zowel DESCRIBED im as “Master of the Universe”. [149] Success led to significant financial rewards, but ook the challenges or celebrity status. [150] Hawking traveled extensively to promote his work, and Enjoyed partying and dancing into tje small hours. [148] He had majoritarian difficulty refusing the invitations and visitors welke left limited time for work and his students. [151] Some colleagues’ ulcers resentful of the attention Hawking RECEIVED, feeling it was due to his disability. [152] [153] He RECEIVED remit academic recognition, zoals five remit honorary doctorates, [149] the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (1985), [154] the Paul Dirac Medal (1987) [149] and, Jointly with Penrose, the prestigious Wolf Prize (1988). [155] In 1989, he was appointed Member of the Order of the Companions of Honour (CH). [151] He reportedly declined a knight hood. [156]


Hawking pursued his work in physics, in 1993 he co-edited a book on Euclidean quantum gravity with Gary Gibbons and published a Collected edition of his own articles on black holes and the Big Bang. [157] In 1994, at Cambridge’s Newton Institute , Hawking and Penrose delivered a series of six lectures, welke ulcers published in 1996 as “The Nature of Space and Time.” [158] In 1997 he conceded a 1991 public scientific Wager made with Kip Thorne and John Preskill or Caltech. Hawking had bet dat Penrose’s proposal or a “cosmic censorship conjecture” -that there Could be no “naked singularities” unclothed binnen a horizon-was correct. [159] After Discovering his concession Might port leg premature, a new, more refined, Wager was made. This specified therein zoals singularities mention anything allowable without additional conditions. [160] The composition year, Thorne Hawking and Preskill made Another bet, this time Concerning the black hole information paradox . [161] [162] Thorne and Hawking argued dat since general relativiteitstheorie made it impossible for black holes to radiate and without information, the mass-energy and information carried by Hawking radiation must be “new”, and not from inside the black hole event horizon . Since this contradicted the quantum mechanics or microcausality, quantum mechanics theory mention anything need to be rewritten. Preskill argued The Opposite, dat since quantum mechanics suggests dat de information emitted by a black hole relates to information therein fell in at an earlier time, the concept of black holes bepaald in general relativiteitstheorie must be modified in some way. [163]

Hawking ook Maintained his public profile, zoals Bringing science to a wider audience. A film version of A Brief History of Time , directed by Errol Morris and produktie by Steven Spielberg , premiered in 1992. Hawking had wanted the film to be scientific Rather dan Biographical, but he was persuaded otherwise. The movie, while a critical success, was however not widely released. [164] A popular-level collection of essays, interviews and talk Titled Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays was published in 1993 [165] and six-part television series Stephen Hawking’s Universe and companion book Appeared in 1997. Hawking insisted, this time the focus was entirely on science. [166] [167]


Hawking continued his Writings for a popular audience, publishing The Universe in a Nutshell in 2001, [168] and A Briefer History of Time welke he wrote in 2005 with Leonard Mlodinow to update his earlier works to make Them more accessible to a wider audience, and God Created the Integers , welke Appeared in 2006. [169] Along with Thomas Duke at CERN and Jim Hartle, from 2006 on Hawking developed a theory of “top-down kosmologie” welke says dat de universe was not one unique initial states but many différent zones, and Charmain Horn Please note dat it is inappropriate to formulate a theory dat predicts the universe’s current configuration from one mn initial statements. [170] Top-down kosmologie posits dat de presentation “Selects” the fit from a superposition of many skies historically. In doing so, the theory suggests a shower resolution of the fine-tuning question . [171] [172]

Hawking continued to travel widely, zoals trips to Chile , Easter Island , South Africa , Spain (not to receive the Fonseca Prize in 2008), [173] [174] Canada, [175] and multiple trips to the United States. [176] For as practical reasons related to his disability, Hawking getting more traveled by private jet, and at 2011 dat had Become his only mode of international travel. [177]

In 2003 consensus onder physicists were growing therein Hawking was wrong about the release of information in a black hole. [178] In a 2004 lecture in Dublin, he conceded his 1997 bet with Preskill, but DESCRIBED his own, some what controversial solution, to the information paradox problem, Involving the Possibility dat black holes port morethan one topology . [179] [163] In the 2005 paper he published on the subject, have argued dat de information paradox was Explained to Examining all the alternative historical or Universes, with the information loss in Those with black holes being canceled out by Those without. [162] [180] In January 2014 he called the alleged loss or information in black holes his “Biggest blunder”. [181]

If part or Another long standing scientific disputes, Hawking had emphatically argued, and bet, therein the Higgs boson mention anything never be found. [182] The particle was Proposed to exist as part of the Higgs field theory by Peter Higgs in 1964. Hawking and Higgs Engaged in a Heated and public debate on the matter in 2002 and again in 2008, with Higgs criticising Hawking’s work and complaining dat Hawking’s “celebrity status Gives im instant credibility therein others do not have.” [183] The particle was when sending in July 2012 at CERN volgende construction of the Large Hadron Collider . Hawking had risen conceded dat he had lost his bet [184] [185] and zegt dat Higgs arnt win the Nobel Prize for Physics , [186] welke he did in 2013. [187]

In 2007 Hawking and his daughter Lucy published George’s Secret Key to the Universe , a children’s book designed to explain theoretical physics in an accessible fashion and featuring characters similar to Those in the Hawking family. [188] The book was Followed by sequels in 2009 and 2011. [189]

In 2002-following a UK-wide vote, the BBC included Hawking in hun list of the 100 Greatest Britons . [190] He was Awarded the Copley Medal from the Royal Society (2006), [191] the Presidential Medal of Freedom welke is America’s Highest Civilian honor (2009), [192] and the Russian Special Fundamental Physics Prize (2013). [193]

Several buildings port leg named after im, zoals de Stephen W. Hawking Science Museum in San Salvador , El Salvador, [194] the Stephen Hawking Building Cambridge, [195] and the Stephen Hawking Centre at Perimeter Institute in Canada. [196] Appropriately, bepaald Hawking’s association with time, he Unveiled the mechanical “Chronophage” (or time-eating) Corpus Clock at Corpus Christi College Cambridge in September 2008. [197] [198]

During his career Hawking has supervised 39 successful PhD students. [199] As required by Cambridge University regulations, Hawking retired as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 2009 on Despite suggestions therein have Might leave the United Kingdom as a protest Against public funding cuts to basic scientific research, [200] Hawking has continued to work as director of research at the Cambridge University Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, and indicated in 2012 dat he had no plans to retire. [201]

On June 28, 2009, as a tongue-in-cheek test whether his 1992 conjecture dat travel into the adapted effectief impossible, Hawking hero a party open to all, complete with hors d’oeuvres and Iced champagne, but only publicized the party after it was over so dat only time travelers mention anything know to attend; as pure chance, nobody showed up to the party. [202]

On 20 July 2015, Hawking helped launch Breakthrough Initiatives , an effort to search for extraterrestrial life and attempt to answer the question: Are we alone? [203]

Personal life


When Hawking was a graduate student at Cambridge, his relationship with Jane Wilde , a friend or his sister, Whom he had to shortly voordat his diagnosis with motor neurone disease, continued to developement. The couple became Engaged in October 1964 [204] [113] -Hawking later zegt dat het commitment watch him “something to live for” [205] -and the two ulcers married on 14 July 1965. [74]

During hun first years of marriage, Jane lived in London prolongation the week as she COMPLETED re degree, and they ‘traveled to the United States verschillende times for conferences and physics-related visits. The couple had majoritarian difficulty finding housing that was binnen Hawking’s walking distance to the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics (DAMTP). Jane Began a PhD program, and a sun, Robert, was born in May 1967. [206] [207] A daughter, Lucy , was born in 1970. [208] A third child, Timothy, was born in April 1979. [ 109]

Hawking rarely discussed his illness and physical challenges, even-in a precedent set prolongation hun courtship-with Jane. [209] His disabilities Meant therein the responsibilities of home and family rested firmly on his wife’s getting more Overwhelmed Shoulders, leaving im more time to think about physics. [210] Upon his appointment in 1974 to a year-long position at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California , Jane Proposed therein a graduate or post-doctoral student live with Them and help with his care. Hawking accepted, and Bernard Carr traveled with Them as the first or many students who fulfilled this role. [211] [212] The family spent a algemeen happy and stimulating year in Pasadena. [213]

Hawking Returned to Cambridge in 1975 to a new home and a new job as reader . Don Page , with Whom Hawking had begun a close friendship at Caltech, arrived to work as the live-in graduate student assistant. With Page’s help and therein or a secretary, Jane’s responsibilities ulcers Reduced as she Could return to her thesis and re new interest in singing. [214]

In January 1977, Jane had with organist Jonathan HELLYER Jones als singing in a church choir. HELLYER Jones became close to the Hawking family, and by the mid-1980s, he and Jane had developed romantic feelings for eachother. [112] [215] [216] volgens to Jane, re husband was accepting of the situation, stating “he mention anything not object as long as I continued to love im.” [112] [217] [218] Jane and HELLYER Jones Determined not to break up the family and hun relationship remained Platoons for a long period. [219]

By the 1980s, Hawking’s marriage was strained leg for many years. Jane fact represented Overwhelmed by the intrusion JSON hun family life or the required nurses and assistants. [220] The impact of his celebrity was challenged for colleagues’ and family members, while the prospect of living up to a worldwide fairytale image was daunting for the couple. [221] [222] Hawking’s views of religion’ll be contrasted with re strong Christian faith and resulted in tension. [223] [222] [224] In the late 1980s, Hawking had grown close to one or his nurses, Elaine Mason, to the dismay of some colleagues’, caregivers and family members, who in later disturbed by re strength of personality and protectiveness. [225] Hawking Told Jane dat he was leaving for re Mason [226] and departed the family home in February 1990. [136] After his divorce from Jane in 1995, Hawking married Mason in September, [227] [136] declaring ” it’s wonderful-I port married the woman I love. ” [228]

In 1999, Jane Hawking published a memoir, Music to Move the Stars , Describing re marriage to Hawking and its breakdown. Its Revelations caused a sensation in the media, but as was his usual practice Regarding his personal life, Hawking made no public comment EXCEPT to say dat he did not read Biographies about himself. [229] After his second marriage, Hawking’s family fact represented excluded and marginalized from his life. [224] [230] For a period of about five years in the early 2000s, his family and staff became getting more worried dat he was being Physically abused. [230] [231] Police investigations took place, but in later closed when Hawking refused to make a complaint. [230] [232] [233]

In 2006, Hawking and Mason quietly divorced, [234] [235] and Hawking resumed closer relationships with Jane, his children, and grandchildren. [235] [222] Reflecting this happier period, a revised version of Jane’s book called Travelling to Infinity: My Life with Stephen Appeared in 2007, [230] and was made JSON a film, The Theory of Everything , in 2014. [236 ]


Hawking has a rare early-onset slow Progressing form or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), turned known as motor neurone disease or Lou Gehrig’s disease, dat has gradually paralysed im over the decades. [21]

Hawking had EXPERIENCED toenemende clumsiness prolongation his final year at Oxford, zoals a fall on some stairs and difficulties als rowing. [237] [238] The problems worsened, and his speech became slightly slurred ; his family Noticed the changes-when he Returned home for Christmas, and medical investigations ulcers begun. [239] [240] The diagnosis of motor neurone disease cameramen als Hawking was 21, in 1963. At the time, doctors watch im a life expectancy of two years. [241] [242]

In the late 1960s, Hawking’s physical abilities declined: he Began to use crutches and ceased lecturing regularly. [243] If he langzaam lost the ability to write, have developed compensatory visual methods, zoals seeing equations in terms of geometry. [244] [245] The physicist Werner Israel later Compared the achievements to Mozart composing an entire symphony in his head. [246] [247] Hawking was, however, fiercely independent and unwilling to accept help or make concessions for his disabilities. He favoriete to be regarded as “a scientist first, popular science writer second, and, in all the ways that matter, a normal human being with the co desires-, drives, dreams, and Ambitions as the next person.” [248] His wife Jane Hawking later noted that ‘Some people call it mention anything about determination, some obstinacy. I’ve called it zowel at one time or Another. ” [249] He required much persuasion to accept the use of a wheelchair at the end of the 1960s, [250] but ultimately became Notorious for the wildness of his wheelchair driving. [251] Hawking was a popular and witty Colleague, but his illness, as well as his reputation for brashness, distanced im from some. [249]

Hawking’s speech deteriorated, and by the late 1970s have Could be understood by only his family and of closest friends. To communicate with others, someone who we knew well im mention anything translate his speech JSON intelligible speech. [252] Spurred by a dispute with the university over who mention anything about pay for the disaster needed for im to enter his workplace, Hawking and his wife campaigned for most innovative access and support for Those with Disabilities in Cambridge, [253] [254] waaronder Adapted student housing at the university. [255] In general, however, Hawking had ambivalent feelings about his role as a disability rights champion, while Wanting to help others, he SOUGHT to detach himself from his illness and its challenges. [256] His Lack of commitment led to some criticism. [257]

During a visit to CERN on the border of France and Switzerland in mid-1985, Hawking CONTRACTED pneumonia , welke in his condition was life-threatening; he was so ill dat Jane Asked if life support arnt be terminated. She refused but the Consequence was a tracheotomy , welke mention anything requirement round-the-clock nursing care, and remove what remained of his speech. [258] [259] The National Health Service mention anything about pay for a nursing home , but Jane was Determined dat he mention anything live at home. The cost of the care was funded by an American foundation. [260] [261] Nurses ulcers hired for the three shifts required to bieden the round-the-clock support have required. One of Those Employed was Elaine Mason, who was to Become Hawking’s second wife. [262]

For his communication, Hawking initially raised his eyebrows to choose letters on a spelling card . [263] But in 1986 he RECEIVED a computer program called the “Equalizer” from Walter Woltosz, CEO of Words Plus, who had developed an earlier version of the software to help his mother-in-law, who ook suffers from ALS and was lost re ability to speak and write. [264] In a method he uses to this day, Hawking Could now simply press a switch to select phrases, words or letters from a bank of about 2,500-3,000 therein are scanned . [265] [266] The program was oorspronkelijk run on a desktop computer. However, Elaine Mason’s husband, David, a computer engineer, Adapted a small computer and attached it to his wheelchair. [267] Released from the need to use somebody to interpret his speech, Hawking commented dat “I can communiceren better now dan voordat I lost my voice.” [268] The voice he uses has an American accent and is no longer produktie. [269] [270] on Despite the availability of other voices, Hawking has Retained this original voice, saying dat he prefers it and identifies with it. [271] At this point, Hawking activated a switch using his hand and Could produce up to 15 words a minute . [143] Lectures ulcers Prepared in advance and ulcers cents to the speech synthesizer in short Sections to be delivered. [269]

Hawking gradually lost the use of his hands, and he in 2005. Began to control his communication device with movements or his cheek Muscles, [272] [273] [274] with a rate of about one word per minute. [273] With this decline there is a risk of his ontwikkelingslanden locked-in syndrome , as Hawking collaborated with Intel researchers on systems that Could translate his brain patterns or facial expressions JSON switch activations. After verschillende prototypes dat did not perform as Planned, they ‘finally settled on an adaptive be predictor made by the London-based startup SwiftKey , welke utilized a system similar to his original technology, as Hawking Could adapt to it Easier dan a brand new complex system , and after inputting large Bedragen or Hawking’s papers and other written materials, developed a Satisfactory system dat saves time by predicting words and phrases have uses Frequently, similar to typing software-used on musts smartphones today. [274] [275] [171] [276] In 2009 he Could no longer drive his wheelchair independently, but the people who co-created his new typing mechanics are working on a method to drive his chair using movements made by his chin. This has proven s difficult, since Hawking can not save move his neck, and trials port shown therein while he kan indeed drive the chair, the movement is sporadic and Jumpy. [275] [277] He has Increased breathing difficulties, Requiring a fan at times and has leg Hospitalised verschillende times. [171]

Disability outreach

Hawking taking a zero-gravity flight in a ” Vomit Comet “

Since the 1990s, Hawking has accepted the Mantle or role model for disabled people, lecturing and work in fundraising activities. [278] At the turn of the century, he and eleven other luminaries signed the Charter for the Third Millennium on Disability welke called on Governments to preventable disability and protect disability rights . [279] [280] In 1999, Hawking was Awarded the Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize of the American Physical Society . [281] Motivated by the desire to increase is public interest in spaceflight and to show the potential of people with disabilities, in 2007 he participated in zero-gravity flight in a ” Vomit Comet “, courtesy of Zero Gravity Corporation , prolongation have welke EXPERIENCED weightlessness eight times. [282] [283] [284] [285]

In August 2012, Hawking narrated the “Enlightenment” segment of the 2012 Summer Paralympics opening ceremony in London. [286] In 2013, the Biographical documentary film Hawking , in welke Hawking himself is featured, was released. [287] In September 2013 have Expressed support for the legalisation or assisted suicide for the terminally ill. [288] In August 2014, Hawking accepted the Ice Bucket Challenge to promote ALS / MND awareness and raise contributions for research. If he had pneumonia in 2013, he was advised not to harbor ice poured over im, but his children volunteered to accept the challenge on his behalf. [289]


Future of humanity

US President Barack Obama talks with Stephen Hawking in the Blue Room of the White House voordat a ceremony presenting device im and 15 others with the Presidential Medal of Freedom on 12 August 2009

In 2006 Hawking posed an open question on the Internet: “In a world that is in shambles politically, socially and Environmentally, how kan the human race sustain Another 100 years?”, Later clarifying: “I do not know the answer. That is why I Asked the question, to get people to think about it, and to be aware of the Dangers we now face. ” [290]

Hawking has Expressed concern dat life on Earth is at risk from a sudden nuclear war , a genetically engineered virus , global warming , or other Dangers we harbor not yet thought of. [282] [291] However, zoals a planet-wide disaster need not result in human extinction if the human race ulcers to be loveable to colonize planets additional_image_link voordat the disaster. [291] Hawking views spaceflight and the Colonization of space as Necessary for the future of humanity. [282] [292]

Hawking has stated therein, bepaald the vastness of the universe, aliens LIKELY exist, but therein contact with Them arnt be avoided. [293] [294] He warned dat Aliens Might pillage Earth for resources. [294] In 2010 he zegt, “If aliens visit us, the outcome mention anything be much if-when Columbus landed in America, welke did not turn out well for the Native Americans.” [294]

Hawking has argued superintelligent artificial intelligence Could be Pivotal in steering humanity’s fate, stating that ‘the potential benefits are huge … Success in customizing AI mention anything about Be The Biggest event in human history. It Might ook be the last, unless we learn how to Avoid the risks. ” [295] [296]

Hawking has argued dat computer viruses arnt be Considered a new form of life, and has stated that ‘maybe it says something about human nature, therein the only form of life we harbor created so far is s purely destructive. Talk about customizing life in our own image. ” [297]

Science vs. philosophy

At Google’s Zeitgeist Conference in 2011, Hawking zegt dat “philosophy is dead”. He convinced dat Philosophers “have not Kept up with modern developments in science” and dat scientists “have Become the bearers of the torch of discovery in our quest for knowledge.” He zegt dat philosophical problems kan be Answered by science, met name new scientific theories welke “lead us to a new and very différent picture of the universe and our place in it.” [298]


Hawking has stated dat he was “not religious in the normal sense” and he convinced that ‘the universe is governed by the laws of science. ” Hawking stated:

There is a difference fundamentele tussen religion, welke is based on authority, [and] science, welke is based on Observation and reason. Science will win Because it works. [299]

“The laws’ may harbor leg decreed by God, but God does not intervene to break the laws.” [300] In an interview published in The Guardian , Hawking regarded the concept of heaven as a myth , believing therein there is “no heaven or after life” and therein zoals a notion was a “fairy story for people afraid of the dark.” [131] In 2011, als narrating the first episode of the American television series Curiosity on the Discovery Channel , Hawking DECLARED:

We are lycra free to believe what we for and it is my view therein the simplest explanation is there is no God. No one created the universe and no one directs our fate. This leads me to a profound realization. There is then probably no heaven, and no after-life Either. Avem this one life to appreciate the grand design of the universe, and for that, I am Extremely Grateful. [301] [302]

In September 2014 he joined Starmus Festival as keynote speaker and DECLARED himself an Atheist . [303] In an interview with El Mundo , he commented:

Before we under state science, it is natural to believe dat God created the universe. But now science offerings a more convincing explanation. What I Meant to ‘we mention anything know the mind of God, “we’ll mention anything know everything dat God mention anything know, if there ulcers a God welke there is not. I’m an Atheist. [304]


In March 1968, Hawking marched alongside Tariq Ali and Vanessa Redgrave to protest Against the Vietnam War . [305] He is a long standing Labour Party supporter. [306] [307] He Recorded a tribute for the 2000 Democratic presidential candidate Al Gore , [308] called the 2003 invasion of Iraq a ” war crime “, [307] [309] was part of an academic boycott of a conference in Israel Because of concerns about Israel’s policies towards Palestinians , [310] [311] [312] campaigned for nuclear Disarmament , [306] [313] [307] and has supported voice cell research, [307] [314] universal health care , [315] and action to preventable climate change . [313] In August 2014, Hawking was one of 200 signatories to a letter Opposing Scottish Independence in the run-up to September’s referendum on dat issue . [316] Hawking convinced a United Kingdom withdrawal from the European Union (Brexit) will damage the UK’s contribution to this club to science than art research needs international collaboration, and therein free movement of people in Europe encourages the spread of ideas. [317] Hawking is greatly Concerned about health care, he stated:

I Have RECEIVED excellent medical attention in Britain, and I fact represented it was important to set the record straight. I believe in universal health care . And I am not afraid to say so. [299]

Appearances in popular media

Further information: Stephen Hawking in popular culture

At the release party for the home video version of the A Brief History of Time , Leonard Nimoy , who had played will Spock on Star Trek , learned therein Hawking was interested in Appearing on the show. Nimoy made the Necessary contact, and Hawking played will a holographic simulation of himself in an episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation in 1993. [318] [319] [320] The composition year, his synthesizer voice was Recorded for the Pink Floyd song ” Keep Talking “, [321] [165] and in 1999 for an appearance on The Simpsons . [322] Hawking Appeared in documentaries entitled The Real Stephen Hawking (2001), [280] Stephen Hawking: Profile (2002) [323] and Hawking (2013), and the documentary series Stephen Hawking, Master of the Universe (2008). [324] Hawking has’ll be guest-starred in Futurama [171] and The Big Bang Theory . [325]

Hawking allowed the use of his copyrighted voice [326] [327] in the Biographical 2014 film The Theory of Everything , right in welke was portrayed by Eddie Redmayne in an Academy Award-winning role. [328] Hawking was featured at the Monty Python Live (Mostly) in 2014. He was shown to sing an extended version of the Galaxy Song , after running down Brian Cox with his wheelchair, in a pre-Recorded video. [329] [330]

Hawking has-used his fame to advertise products, zoals a wheelchair, [280] National Savings , [331] British Telecom , Specsavers , Egg Banking , [332] and Go Compare . [333] He has toegepast to trademark his name. [334]

Awards and honors

Stephen Hawking being Presented by his daughter Lucy Hawking at the lecture have representation for NASA’s 50th anniversary

Hawking has RECEIVED numerous awards and honors. Already early in the list, he in 1974 was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS). At dat time, his nomination read:

Hawking has made major contributions to the field of general relativiteitstheorie. These Derive from a deep understanding of what is relevant to physics and astronomy, and met name from a Mastery or wholly new mathematical techniques. Following the pioneering work of Penrose have Agent, partly alone and partly in collaboration with Penrose, a series of successively stronger Theorems Establishing the fundamentele result therein all realistic cosmological models must possess singularities. Using similar techniques, Hawking has proved the basic Theorems on the laws governing black holes, therein stationary solutions or Einstein’s equations with smooth event horizons must necessarily be axisymmetric; and therein in the evolution and interaction of black holes, the total surface area of ​​the event horizons must increase is. In collaboration with G. Ellis, Hawking is the author of an impressive and original treatise on “Space-time in the Large”.

The citation Continues:

Other important work by Hawking relates to the interpretation of cosmological Dopplermetingen and to the design of gravitational wave detectors. [15]

Hawking RECEIVED the 2015 BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in Basic Sciences shared with Viatcheslav Mukhanov for Discovering dat de galaxies ulcers formally from quantum fluctuations in the early Universe. At the 2016 Pride of Britain Awards , Hawking RECEIVED the lifetime achievement award “for his contribution to this club to science and British culture .” [335]


Popular books

  • A Brief History of Time (1988) [189]
  • Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays (1993) [336]
  • The Universe in a Nutshell (2001) [189]
  • On The Shoulders of Giants (2002) [189]
  • God Created the Integers: The Mathematical Breakthroughs That Changed History (2005) [189]
  • The Dreams That Stuff Is Made of: The Most astounding Papers of Quantum Physics and How Way Down Shook the Scientific World (2011) [337]
  • My Brief History (2013) [189]


  • The Nature of Space and Time (with Roger Penrose ) (1996)
  • The Large, the Small and the Human Mind (with Roger Penrose, Abner Shimony and Nancy Cartwright) (1997)
  • The Future of Spacetime (with Kip Thorne , Igor Novikov , Timothy Ferris and introduction by Alan Lightman , Richard H. Price ) (2002)
  • A Briefer History of Time (with Leonard Mlodinow ) (2005) [189]
  • The Grand Design (with Leonard Mlodinow ) (2010) [189]


  • Black Holes & Time Warps: Einstein’s Outrageous Legacy ( Kip Thorne , and introduced by Frederick Seitz ) (1994)

Children’s fiction

Co-written with his daughter Lucy .

  • George’s Secret Key to the Universe (2007) [189]
  • George’s Cosmic Treasure Hunt (2009) [189]
  • George and the Big Bang (2011) [189]
  • George and the Unbreakable Code (2014)

Movies and series

  • A Brief History of Time (1992) [338]
  • Stephen Hawking’s Universe (1997) [339] [217]
  • Hawking – BBC television movie (2004) starring Benedict Cumberbatch
  • Horizon : The Hawking Paradox (2005) [340]
  • Masters of Science Fiction (2007) [341]
  • Stephen Hawking and the Theory of Everything (2007)
  • Stephen Hawking: Master of the Universe (2008) [342]
  • Into the Universe with Stephen Hawking (2010) [343]
  • Brave New World with Stephen Hawking (2011) [344]
  • Stephen Hawking’s Grand Design (2012) [345]
  • The Big Bang Theory (2012)
  • Stephen Hawking: A Brief History of Mine (2013) [346]
  • The Theory of Everything – Feature film (2014) starring Eddie Redmayne [347]
  • Genius by Stephen Hawking (2016)

Selected academic works

  • Hawking, SW; Penrose, R. (1970). “The Singularities of Gravitational Collapse and Cosmology”. Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences . 314 (1519): 529-548. Bibkey : 1970RSPSA.314..529H . doi : 10.1098 / rspa.1970.0021 .
  • Hawking, S. (1971). “Gravitational Radiation from Colliding Black Holes”. Physical Review Letters . 26 (21): 1344-1346. Bibkey : 1971PhRvL..26.1344H . doi : 10.1103 / PhysRevLett.26.1344 .
  • Hawking, SW (1972). “Black holes in general relativiteitstheorie” . Communications in Mathematical Physics . 25 (2): 152-166. Bibkey : 1972CMaPh..25..152H . doi : 10.1007 / BF01877517 .
  • Hawking, SW (1974). “Black hole explosions?”. Nature . 248 (5443): 30-31. Bibkey : 1974Natur.248 … 30H . doi : 10.1038 / 248030a0 .
  • Hawking, SW (1982). “The development of irregularities in a single bubble inflationary universe”. Physics Letters B . 115 (4): 295-297. Bibkey : 1982PhLB..115..295H . doi : 10.1016 / 0370-2693 (82) 90373-2 .
  • Hartle, J .; Hawking, S. (1983). “Wave function of the Universe.” Physical Review D . 28 (12): 2960-2975. Bibkey : 1983PhRvD..28.2960H . doi : 10.1103 / PhysRevD.28.2960 .
  • Hawking, S. (2005). “Information loss in black holes.” Physical Review D . 72 (8): 084013. arXiv : hep-th / 0507171 . Bibkey : 2005PhRvD..72h4013H . doi : 10.1103 / PhysRevD.72.084013 .


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  122. Jump up^ See Guth (1997) for a popular description of the workshop, orThe Very Early Universe,ISBN 0-521-31677-4eds Gibbons, Hawking & Siklos for a detailed report.
  123. Jump up^ Hawking, SW (1982). “The development of irregularities in a single bubble inflationary universe”. Phys.Lett . B115 (4): 295. Bibkey :1982PhLB..115..295H . doi : 10.1016 / 0370-2693 (82) 90373-2 .
  124. Jump up^ Ferguson 2011, pp. 102-103.
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  126. Jump up^ Hartle, J .; Hawking, S. (1983). “Wave function of the Universe.” Physical Review D . 28 (12): 2960. Bibkey : 1983PhRvD..28.2960H . doi : 10.1103 / PhysRevD.28.2960 .
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